Investigation of grinding characteristic using nanofluid minimum quantity lubrication

  • Cong MaoEmail author
  • Xiaojun Tang
  • Hongfu Zou
  • Xiangming Huang
  • Zhixiong Zhou


Conventional grinding fluid is widely used in grinding process, which results in high consumption and impacting the environment. The promising alternative to conventional dry and fluid coolant application is minimum quantity lubrication (MQL). It is known that the cooling and lubrication performance of the grinding fluid is the key technical area for the success application of MQL grinding process. In this study, Water based Al2O3 nanofluid was applied to grinding process with MQL approach for its excellent convection heat transfer and thermal conductivity properties. The grinding characteristics of hardened AISI 52100 steel were investigated and compared with those of wet, dry and pure water MQL grinding. Experimental results show that water based Al2O3 nanofluid MQL grinding can significantly reduce the grinding temperature, decrease the grinding forces, improve the ground surface morphology and reduce the surface roughness in comparison to pure water MQL grinding. Furthermore, the cooling and lubricating mechanism for nanofluid MQL grinding was discussed in detail.


Grinding Nanofluid Minimum quantity lubrication Cooling 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Malkin, S. and Guo, C., “Grinding technology: theory and application of machining with abrasives, 2nd Ed.,” Industrial Press, pp. 169–179, 2008.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Oliveira, J. F. G. and Alves, S. M., “Development of Environmentally Friendly Fluid for CBN Grinding,” Annals of the CIRP, Vol. 55, No. 1, pp. 343–346, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mao, C., Zhou, Z. X., Ren, Y. H., and Zhang, B., “Analysis and FEM simulation of temperature field in wet surface grinding,” Materials and Manufacturing Processes, Vol. 25, No. 6, pp. 399–406, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mao, C., Zhou, Z. X., Zhang, J., Huang, X. M., and Gu, D. Y., “An experimental investigation of affected layers formed in grinding of AISI 52100 steel,” The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 54, No. 5–8, pp. 515–523, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Da Silva, L. R., Bianchi, E. C., Fusse, R. Y., Catai, R. E., França, T. V., and Aguiar, P. R., “Analysis of surface integrity for minimum quantity lubricant-MQL in grinding,” International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture, Vol. 47, No. 2, pp. 412–418, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Barczak, L. M., Batako, A. D. L., and Morgan, M. N., “A study of plane surface grinding under minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) conditions,” International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture, Vol. 50, No. 11, pp. 977–985, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kamata, Y., Obikawa, T., and Shinozuka, J., “Analysis of mist flow in MQL cutting,” Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 257–258, pp. 339–344, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sreejith, P. S., “Machining of 6061 aluminium alloy with MQL, dry and flooded lubricant conditions,” Materials Letters, Vol. 62, No. 2, pp. 276–278, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tasdelen, B., Wikblom, T., and Ekered, S., “Studies on minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) and air cooling at drilling,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 200, No. 1–3, pp. 339–346, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Iqbal, A., Ning, H., Khan, I., Liang, L., and Dar, N. U., “Modeling the effects of cutting parameters in MQL-employed finish hard-milling process using D-optimal method,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 199, No. 1–3, pp. 379–390, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hafenbraedl, D. and Malkin, S., “Environmentally-conscious minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) for internal cylindrical grinding,” Trans. of NAMRI/SME, Vol. 28, pp. 149–154, 2000.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Silva, L. R., Bianchi, E. C., Catai, R. E., Fusse, R. Y., França, T. V., and Aguiar, P. R., “Study on the behavior of the minimum quantity lubricant — MQL technique under different lubricating and cooling conditions when grinding ABNT 4340 steel,” Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences & Engineering, Vol. 27, pp. 192–199, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Li, C. H. and Peterson, G. P., “Mixing effect on the enhancement of the effective thermal conductivity of nanoparticle suspensions (nanofluids),” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 50, No. 23–24, pp. 4668–4677, 2007.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tawakoli, T., Hadad, M. J., and Sadeghi, M. H., “Investigation on minimum quantity lubricant-MQL grinding of 100Cr6 hardened steel using different abrasive and coolant-lubricant types,” International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture, Vol. 50, No. 8, pp. 698–708, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ding, Y. L. and Wen, D. S., “Particle migration in a flow of nanoparticle suspensions,” Powder Technology, Vol. 149, No. 2–3, pp. 84–92, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sankar, N., Mathew, N., and Sobhan, C. B., “Molecular dynamics modeling of thermal conductivity enhancement in metal nanoparticle suspensions,” International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 35, No. 7, pp. 867–872, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wu, J. H., Phillips, B. S., Jiang, W., Sanders, J. H., Zabinski, J. S., and Malshe, A. P., “Bio-inspired surface engineering and tribology of MoS2 overcoated cBN-TiN composite coating,” Wear, Vol. 261, No. 5–6, pp. 592–599, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shen, B., Shih, A. J., and Tung, S. C., “Application of nanofluids in minimum quantity lubrication grinding,” Tribology Transactions, Vol. 51, No. 6, pp. 730–737, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sridharan, U. and Malkin, S., “Effect of minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) with nanofluid on grinding behavior and thermal distortion,” Transactions of NAMRI/SME, Vol. 37, pp. 629–636, 2009.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nee, A. Y. C. and Tay, A. O., “On the measurement of surface grinding temperature,” International Journal of Machine Tool Design and Research, Vol. 21, No. 3–4, pp. 279–291, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Howes, T. D., Neailey, K., Harrison, A. J., and Mckeown, P. A., “Fluid Film Boiling in Shallow Cut Grinding,” Annals of the CIRP, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 223–226, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kalita, P., Malshe, A. P., Jiang, W., and Shih, A. J., “Tribological study of nanolubricant integrated soybean oil for minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) grinding,” Transactions of NAMRI/SME, Vol. 38, pp. 137–144, 2010.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Brinksmeier, E., Heinzel, C., and Wittmann, M., “Friction, Cooling and Lubrication in Grinding,” Annals of the CIRP, Vol. 48, No. 2, pp. 581–598, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lu, C. F. and Cui, Z. B., “Technology of proof dust and poisons,” Chemical Industry Press, Beijing, pp. 487–489, 2004.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society for Precision Engineering and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cong Mao
    • 1
    Email author
  • Xiaojun Tang
    • 2
  • Hongfu Zou
    • 1
  • Xiangming Huang
    • 3
  • Zhixiong Zhou
    • 3
  1. 1.College of Automotive and Mechanical EngineeringChangsha University of Science and TechnologyChangshaChina
  2. 2.Department of Crawler craneChangsha Zoomlion Heavy Industry Science & Development Co. LTDChangshaChina
  3. 3.College of Mechanical and Vehicle EngineeringHunan UniversityChangshaChina

Personalised recommendations