Study of drop-on-demand printing through multi-step pulse voltage

  • Khalid Rahman
  • Arshad Khan
  • Nguyen Minh Nam
  • Kyung Hyun ChoiEmail author
  • Dong-Soo Kim


This paper presents study of the Electrohydrodynamic Drop-on-Demand (DOD) phenomena by applying the multi-step pulse voltage. The multi-step voltage was generated through the high voltage power source connected with pulse generator. A DOD phenomenon was observed with the help of high speed camera. For study purpose the experiments were performed on ethanol by changing the operating parameters such as multi-step pulsed voltage, frequency of applied pulsed voltage and flow-rate. For DOD printing purpose conductive ink is used and patterns were made on the glass substrate and analyzed on different operating conditions. The minimum droplet diameter of approximately 40μm at 325Hz frequency was achieved on the glass substrate. The printed pattern exhibited the linear ohmic behavior and pattern material is characterized through XRD. This study will help in better understanding of the Electrohydrodynamic DOD phenomena for the printing purpose.


Electrohydrodynamic Drop-on Demand Multi-step voltage 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Le, H. P., “Progress and Trends in Ink-jet Printing Technology,” The Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, Vol. 42, No. 1, pp. 49–62, 1998.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Choi, J. H. and Kim, G. M., “Micro-Patterning on Non-Planar Surface using Flexible Microstencil,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf., Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 165–168, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kim, C. H. and Lee, Y. S., “Fabrication and Measurement of the Performance of a Printed EMI Shielding Mesh Filter on PET Film,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf., Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 161–164, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Park, J. U., Hardy, M., Kang, S. U., Barton, K., Adair, K., Mukhopadhyay, D. K., Lee, C. Y., Strano, M. S., Alleyne, A. G., Georgiadis, J. G., Ferreira, P. M. and Rogers, J. A., “High-Resolution Electrohydrodynamic Jet Printing,” Nature Mater., Vol. 6, pp. 782–789, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jaworek, A., “Micro- and Nanoparticle Production by Electrospraying,” Powder Technology, Vol. 176, No. 1, pp. 18–35, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Vela’squez-Garcı’a, L. F., Akinwande, A. I. and Sanchez, M. M., “A planar array of Micro-Fabricated Electrospray Nozzles for Device Applications,” Journal of Microelectromechnical System, Vol. 15, pp. 1272–1280, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Griss, P., Melin, J., Sjodahl, J., Roeraade, J. and Stemme, G., “Development of Micromachine Hollow Tips for Protein Analysis Based on Nanoelectrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry,” J. Micromechanics and Microengineering, Vol. 12, No. 5, pp. 682–687, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Li, X., Huang, J. and Edirisinghe, M. J., “Novel Patterning of Nano-Bioceramics: Template-Assisted Electrohydrodynamics Atomization Spraying,” Journal of Royal Society Interface, Vol. 5, No. 19, pp. 253–257, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Choi, J. Y., Kim, Y. J., Lee, S., Son, S. U., Ko, H. S., Nguyen, V. D. and Byun, D. Y., “Drop-on-Demand Printing of Conductive Ink by Electrostatic Field Induced Inkjet Head,” Applied Physics Letter, Vol. 93, No. 19, Paper No. 193508, 2008.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kawamoto, H., “Electronic Circuit Printing, 3D Printing and Film Formation Utilizing Electrostatic Inkjet Technology,” Proc. of International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies and Digital Fabrication, pp. 961–964, 2007.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wang, K. and Stark, J. P. W., “Deposition of Colloidal Gold Nanoparticles by Fully Pulsed-Voltage-Controlled Electrohydrodynamic Atomisation,” Journal of Nanoparticle Research, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 707–711, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kuil, M. E., Abrahams, J. P. and Marijnissen, J. C. M., “Nanodispensing by Electrospray for Biotechnology,” Jouornal of Biotechnology, Vol. 1, No. 9, pp. 969–975, 2006.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kim, K. T., Lee, B. U., Hwang, G. B., Lee, J. H. and Kim, S. S., “Drop-on-Demand Patterning of Bacterial Cells Using Pulsed Jet Electrospraying,” Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 82, No. 5, pp. 2109–2112, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ishida, Y., Sogabe, K., Kai, S. and Asano, T., “Droplet Ejection Behavior in Electrostatic Inkjet Driving,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 47, No. 6, pp. 5281–5286, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Stachewicz, U., Dijksman, J. F. and Marijnissen, J. C. M., “Single Event AC-DC Electrospraying,” Journal of Physcis: Conference Series, Vol. 142, No. 1, pp. 012043–012046, 2007.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Li, J., “On the Stability of Electrohydrodynamic Spraying in the Cone-Jet Mode,” Journal of Electrostatic, Vol. 65, No. 4, pp. 251–255, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Li, J. and Zhang, P., “Formation and Droplet Size of EHD Drippings Induced by Superimposing an Electric Pulse to Background Voltage,” Journal of Electrostatic, Vol. 67, No. 4, pp. 562–567, 2009.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Balachandran, W., Machowski, W. and Ahmad, C. N., “Electrostatic Atomisation of Conducting Liquids Using AC Superimposed on DC Fields,” Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, Vol. 2, pp. 1369–1373, 1992.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Li, J. L., “EHD Sprayings Induced by the Pulsed Voltage Superimposed to a Bias Voltage,” Journal of Electrostatic, Vol. 65, No. 12, pp. 750–757, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kim, J. H., Oh, H. C. and Kim, S. S., “Electrohydrodynamic Drop-on-Demand Patterning in Pulsed Cone-Jet Mode at Various Frequencies,” Journal of Aerosol Science, Vol. 39, No. 9, pp. 819–825, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Stachewicz, U., Yurteri, C. U., Marijnissen, J. C. M. and Dijksman, J. F., “Stability Regime of Pulse Frequency for Single Event Electrospraying,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, No. 22, Paper No. 224105, 2009.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society for Precision Engineering and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Khalid Rahman
    • 1
  • Arshad Khan
    • 1
  • Nguyen Minh Nam
    • 1
  • Kyung Hyun Choi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Dong-Soo Kim
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Mechatronics EngineeringJeju National UniversityJeju Special Self-Governing ProvinceKorea
  2. 2.Nano-Mechatronics DivisionKorean Institute of Machinery and MaterialsDaejeonKorea

Personalised recommendations