Advertisement

A review on the preload technology of the rolling bearing for the spindle of machine tools

  • Young-Kug Hwang
  • Choon-Man Lee
Article

Abstract

The performance of the spindle system and bearings in a machine tool is largely influenced by the preload applied to bearings. Therefore, it is a very important issue to determine a proper preload in bearings and apply it to bearings for satisfying the performance required in bearings according to its operation conditions. This study performed a review on the preload technologies through classifying these technologies into three categories; a preload configuration technology that properly determines the preload for optimizing the performance of bearings, a preload application technology that applies the determined preload to bearings during the operation of a spindle system as a reliable way, and a preload measurement technology that verifies the preload applied to an actual spindle system.

Keywords

Preload technology of rolling bearing Fixed position preload Constant pressure preload Variable preload Machine tool spindle 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Marsh, E. R., “Precision Spindle Metrology,” DEStech Publications, Lancaster, 2008.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Harris, T. A., “Rolling Bearing Analysis,” Taylor & Francis, 2007.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Harnoy, A., “Bearing Design in Machinery,” Marcel Dekker, pp. 418–436, 2003.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dornfeld, D. and Lee, D. E., “Precision Manufacturing,” Springer, pp. 1–48, 121–166, 2008.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lacey, S., Kawamura, H. and Ohura, Y., “Bearings for aircraft gas turbine engines-part 1,” Motion & Control of NSK, No. 5, pp. 1–8, 1998.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Takii, H., “Trends of rolling bearing performance and recent results,” Koyo Engineering Journal, No. 163E, pp. 10–16, 2003.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hagiu, G. D., “Reliable high speed spindles by optimum bearings preload,” Internal Journal of Applied Mechanics and Engineering, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 57–70, 2003.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hagiu, G. D. and Gafitanu, M. D., “Preload optimization: a high efficiency design solution for grinding machines main spindles,” ASTM Special Technical Publication, No. 1247, pp. 74–84, 1995.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hagiu, G. D. and Gafitanu, M. D., “Preload-service life correlation for ball bearings on machine tool main spindles,” Wear, Vol. 172, No. 1, pp. 79–83, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hagiu, G. D. and Gafitanu, M. D., “Dynamic characteristics of high speed angular contact ball bearings,” Wear, Vol. 211, No. 1, pp. 22–29, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hagiu, G. D. and Dragan, B., “Feed-back preload systems for high speed rolling bearings assemblies,” The Analysis of University Dunarea de Jos of Galati Fascicle VIII, pp. 43–47, 2004.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zverev, I. A., Eun, I. U., Hwang, Y. K., Chung, W. J. and Lee, C. M., “An elastic deformation model of high speed spindle units,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf., Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 39–46, 2006.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tu, J. F. and Stein, J. L., “Active thermal preload regulation for machine tool spindles with rolling element bearings,” Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Vol. 118, No. 4, pp. 499–505, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lin, C. W., Tu, J. F. and Kamman, J., “An integrated thermo mechanical dynamic model to characterize motorized machine tool spindles during very high speed rotation,” International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Vol. 43, No. 10, pp. 1035–1050, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jiang, S. and Mao, H., “Investigation of variable optimum preload for a machine tool spindle,” International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture, Vol. 50, No. 1, pp. 19–28, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kim, C. H. and Choi, D. H., “A study on the determination of the optimal preload about the miniature ball bearing for the VHS VTR head drum assembly,” Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 703–710, 1991.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Song, C. K. and Shin, Y. J., “Effect of preload on running accuracy of high speed spindle,” Transactions of the Korean Society of Machine Tool Engineers, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 65–70, 2002.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Khonsari, M. M. and Booser, E. R., “Bearing Design and Lubrication,” John Wiley and Sons, 2001.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Asano, K., “Recent development in numerical analysis of rolling bearings basic technology series of bearings,” Koyo Engineering Journal, No. 160E, pp. 65–70, 2002.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yoon, K. C., “Design methods of application-based exclusive ball bearings using genetic algorithms,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Mechanical Design Engineering, Hanyang University, 2000.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    SKF, “Catalogue-high precision bearings,” 2005.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    NSK, “Catalogue-super precision bearing,” 2006.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Momono, T. and Noda, B., “Sound and vibration in rolling bearings,” Motion & Control of NSK, No. 6, pp. 29–37, 1999.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Juvinall, R. C. and Marshek, K. M., “Fundamentals of Machine Component Design,” John Wiley & Sons, Chapter 14, 2000.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yu, W. K., “A new stress-based fatigue life model for rolling bearings,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Mechanical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, 1999.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kim, T. W. and Cho, Y. J., “Stress based fatigue life prediction for ball bearing,” Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, Vol. 24, No. 5, pp. 44–55, 2007.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Filiz, I. H. and Gorur, G., “Analysis of preloaded bearings under combined axial and radial loading,” Internal Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacturer, Vol. 34, No. 1, pp. 1–11, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kim, W. D. and Han, D. C., “Prediction of the fatigue life of deep groove ball bearing under radial and moment loads-fatigue life tests and proposal of the life adjustment factors,” Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers, Vol. 18, No. 12, pp. 3149–3158, 1994.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kim, T. W., Yoon, K. C. and Cho, Y. J., “Design of shoulder height for ball bearing using contact analysis,” Journal of the KSTLE, Vol. 24, No. 5, pp. 228–233, 2008.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Takemura, H., Matsumoto, Y. and Murakami, Y., “Development of new life equation for ball and roller bearings,” Motion & Control of NSK, No. 11, pp. 1–10, 2001.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Urakami, S. and Takemura, H., “Development of NSK ABLE forecaster,” Motion & Control of NSK, No. 15, pp. 5–9, 2003.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zaretsky, E. V., Poplawski, J. V. and Miller, C. R., “Rolling bearing life prediction-past, present, and future,” NASA/TM 2000-210529, 2000.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Vlcek, B. L., Hendricks, R. C. and Zaretsky, E. V., “Determination of rolling-element fatigue life from computer generated bearing tests,” NASA/TM 2003-212186, 2003.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zaretsky, E. V., Vlcek, B. L. and Hendricks, R. C., “Effect of silicon nitride balls and rollers on rolling bearing life,” NASA/TM 2005-213061, 2005.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Harris, T. A. and Barnsby, R. M., “Life ratings for ball and roller bearings,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part J, Vol. 215, pp. 577–595, 2001.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zaretsky, E. V., “Comparison of life theories for rolling element bearings,” NASA Technical Memorandum 106585, 1995.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hong, J. P., “Mechanical Design,” Bookshill, pp. 428–508, 2005.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Research Report of the Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, “Study of the clearance control for high speed spindle bearing and optimization of spindle cooling system,” M1-0105-00-0049, pp. 15–17, 2004.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    IBAG Switzerland AG, http://www.ibag.ch
  40. 40.
    Kim, J. H., “Development of piezoactuator using three dimensional bridge type hinge mechanism,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 2003.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Park, G., Bement, M. T., Hartman, D. A., Smith, R. E. and Farrar, C. R., “The use of active materials for machining processes: a review,” International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture, Vol. 47, No. 15, pp. 2189–2206, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lee, H. J., “Application of controllers with time delay estimation to an SMA actuator,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 2003.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Tsutsui, S., Aoyama, T. and Inasaki, I., “Development of a spindle system with an adjustable preload mechanism using a piezoelectric actuator,” The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, Vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 593–597, 1988.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Chen, J. S. and Chen, K. W., “Bearing load analysis and control of a motorized high speed spindle,” International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture, Vol. 45, No. 12–13, pp. 1487–1493, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Nye, T. W., “Active control of bearing preload using piezoelectric translators,” NASA Technical Report N90-22098, pp. 259–271, 1990.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kitamura, K. and Taniguchi, K., “Preload control apparatus for bearings with shape memory alloy springs,” United States Patent, No. 5094551, 1992.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    GMN Paul Müller Industrie GmbH & Co. KG, http://www.gmn.de
  48. 48.
    Hwang, Y. K. and Lee, C. M., “Development of automatic variable preload device for spindle bearing by using centrifugal force,” International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture, Vol. 49, No. 10, pp. 781–787, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hwang, Y. K. and Lee, C. M., “Development of a newly structured variable preload control device for a spindle rolling bearing by using an electromagnet,” Internal Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture, Vol. 50, No. 3, pp. 253–259, 2010.CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Tsuneyoshi, T., “Spindle preload measurement and analysis,” Proc. of 2007 ASPE Summer Topical Meeting, 2007.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society for Precision Engineering and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dept. of Mechanical Design & Manufacturing EngineeringChangwon National UniversityChangwon-siSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations