Metals and Materials International

, Volume 25, Issue 5, pp 1151–1160 | Cite as

Effects of Ni and Cr on Cryogenic Impact Toughness of Bainite/Martensite Multiphase Steels

  • Zishan Yao
  • Guang XuEmail author
  • Zhengyi Jiang
  • Junyu Tian
  • Qing Yuan
  • Hongwei Ma


In the present research, the effects of Nickel (Ni) and Chromium (Cr) on cryogenic impact toughness (CIT) of low-carbon bainite/martensite multiphase steels [processed by two different cooling processes: isothermal transformation process (ITP) and continuous cooling process (CCP)] were investigated. It was found that due to the formation of carbides during isothermal treatment, the addition of Ni and Cr yielded no significant improvements in CIT. However, during CCP treatment, the addition of Ni manifested a considerable enhancement in CIT, whereas the addition of both Ni and Cr caused a decrease in CIT. Further, after ITP treatment, the microstructure of all steels consisted of bainite and martenite, while Ni + Cr steel contained the largest amount of bainite. The microstructures of the CCP-treated steels mainly also consisted of bainite and martensite, but no retained austenite and carbides were observed, thus resulting in a superior CIT.


Cryogenic impact toughness Bainite/martensite multiphase steels Nickel Chromium Microstructure 



Cryogenic impact toughness


Isothermal transformation process


Continuous cooling process






Starting temperature of bainitic transformation


Starting temperature of martensitic transformation


Scanning electron microscope


Transmission electron microscope


X-ray diffraction


Retained austenite




Bainitic ferrite


Tempered martensite


Tempered carbide


Martensite and austenite


Granular bainite


Lath martensite


Prior martensite


Fresh martensite





The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial supports from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (Nos. 51874216 and 51704217), The Major Projects of Technology Innovation of Hubei Province (No. 2017AAA116), The project of Science and Technology Plan of Wuhan (No. 2018010402011187) and Hebei Joint Research Fund for Iron and Steel (No.E2018318013).


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Copyright information

© The Korean Institute of Metals and Materials 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and MetallurgyWuhan University of Science and TechnologyWuhanChina
  2. 2.School of Mechanical, Materials, Mechatronic and Biomedical EngineeringUniversity of WollongongWollongongAustralia

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