Metals and Materials International

, Volume 24, Issue 4, pp 681–692 | Cite as

Effect of Cooling Rates on γ → α Transformation and Metastable States in Fe–Cu Alloys with Addition of Ni

  • C. Crozet
  • M. Verdier
  • S. Lay
  • A. Antoni-ZdziobekEmail author


α/γ phase transformations occurring in Fe–10Cu–xNi alloys (0 ≤ x ≤ 15 in mass%) were studied using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, electron back scattered diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and chemical analysis, combining X-ray microanalysis with energy dispersive spectrometry in the scanning electron microscope and electron microprobe analysis with wavelength dispersive spectrometry. The influence of cooling rate on the microstructure was investigated using ice-brine quenching and 2 °C/min slow cooling rate performed with dilatometry. Ni addition induces metastable transformations on cooling: massive and bainitic ferrite are formed depending on the alloy composition and cooling rate. Moreover, most of the Cu phase precipitates on cooling giving rise to a fine distribution of Cu particles in the ferrite grains. For both cooling conditions, the hardness increases with increasing Ni content and a higher hardness is obtained in the quenched alloy for each composition. The change in hardness is correlated to the effect of Ni solid solution, transformation structure and size of Cu particles.


Fe–Ni–Cu alloys α/γ phase transformations Metastable phases Phase diagram Hardness 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© The Korean Institute of Metals and Materials 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.SIMAP, Grenoble INP (Institute of Engineering Univ. Grenoble Alpes), CNRSUniv. Grenoble AlpesGrenobleFrance

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