Advertisement

Personality Traits and the Subjective and Objective Experience of Sleep

  • Angelina R. SutinEmail author
  • Alyssa A. Gamaldo
  • Yannick Stephan
  • Jason E. Strickhouser
  • Antonio Terracciano
Brief Report
  • 40 Downloads

Abstract

Background

There is growing evidence that five-factor model personality traits are associated with self-reported sleep. We test whether these associations extend to objective sleep measures in older adulthood and whether measures of objective sleep mediate the relation between personality and subjective sleep.

Methods

A random subsample of participants in the National Social Life and Aging Project (NSHAP) wore an accelerometer for up to three nights and had information on FFM personality traits (N = 620). Participants also reported on their feelings of being rested.

Results

Higher neuroticism and lower extraversion and conscientiousness were associated with more frequent wake after sleep onset, greater fragmentation, and feeling less rested. Concurrent body mass index, disease burden, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms accounted for these associations. Personality was unrelated to total time spent asleep but conscientiousness was associated with earlier and more consistent bedtimes. None of the objective sleep metrics mediated the relation between personality and subjective sleep.

Conclusions

The present research indicates that the associations typically found for personality and subjective sleep extend to objective sleep fragmentation. These objective measures, however, do not account for the relation between personality and feeling rested.

Keywords

Personality traits Conscientiousness Sleep Fragmentation Accelerometer 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the National Social Life, Health, & Aging Project (NSHAP) and its participants for the study and making the data available for analysis.

Funding Information

Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute on Aging of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R01AG053297 and R21AG057917.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research Involving Human Participants

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants as part of the NSHAP assessment. The authors only had access to deidentified public data.

Disclaimer

The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

Supplementary material

12529_2019_9828_MOESM1_ESM.docx (45 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 45 kb).

References

  1. 1.
    McCrae RR, John OP. An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications. J Pers. 1992;60:175–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Stephan Y, Sutin AR, Bayard S, Križan Z, Terracciano A. Personality and sleep quality: evidence from four prospective studies. Health Psychol. 2018;37:271–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kim HN, Cho J, Chang Y, Ryu S, Shin H, Kim HL. Association between personality traits and sleep quality in young Korean women. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0129599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Allen MS, Magee CA, Vella SA. Personality, hedonic balance and the quality and quantity of sleep in adulthood. Psychol Health. 2016;31:1091–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gamaldo AA, Sardina AL, Sutin AR, Cruz TE, Salas RME, Gamaldo CE et al. Personality as it relates to sleep habits in Black adults. Article submitted for publication 2019.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hintsanen M, Puttonen S, Smith K, Törnroos M, Jokela M, Pulkki-Råback L, et al. Five-factor personality traits and sleep: evidence from two population-based cohort studies. Health Psychol. 2014;33:1214–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Duggan KA, Friedman HS, McDevitt EA, Mednick SC. Personality and healthy sleep: the importance of conscientiousness and neuroticism. PLoS One. 2014;9:e90628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Križan Z, Hisler G. Personality and sleep: neuroticism and conscientiousness predict behaviorally recorded sleep years later. Euro J Pers. 2019;33:133–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jaszczak A, O’Doherty K, Colicchia M, Satorius J, McPhillips J, Czaplewski M, et al. Continuity and innovation in the data collection protocols of the second Wave of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2014;69:S4–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lauderdale DS, Philip Schumm L, Kurina LM, McClintock M, Thisted RA, Chen JH, et al. Assessment of sleep in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2014;69:S125–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lachman ME, Weaver SL. Midlife Development Inventory (MIDI) personality scales: scale construction and scoring. Unpublished Technical Report. In. Brandeis University; 1997.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    van Hooff ML, Geurts SA, Kompier MA, Taris TW. “How fatigued do you currently feel?” Convergent and discriminant validity of a single-item fatigue measure. J Occup Health. 2007;49:224–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chen JH, Waite LJ, Lauderdale DS. Marriage, relationship quality, and sleep among U.S. older adults. J Health Soc Behav. 2015;56:356–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cohen S, Kamarck T, Mermelstein R. A global measure of perceived stress. J Health Soc Behav. 1983;24:385–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Radloff LS. The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Appl Psychol Meas. 1977;1:385–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hayes AF. Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: a regression-based approach. New York: Guilford Press; 2018.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sutin AR, Stephan Y, Terracciano A. Facets of conscientiousness and objective markers of health status. Psychol Health. 2018;33:1100–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gamaldo CE, Gamaldo A, Creighton J, Salas RE, Selnes OA, David PM, et al. Evaluating sleep and cognition in HIV. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013;63:609–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pillai V, Steenburg LA, Ciesla JA, Roth T, Drake CL. A seven day actigraphy-based study of rumination and sleep disturbance among young adults with depressive symptoms. J Psychosom Res. 2014;77:70–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Watson D, Stasik SM, Ellickson-Larew S, Stanton K. Extraversion and psychopathology: a facet-level analysis. J Abnorm Psychol. 2015;124:432–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sutin AR, Stephan Y, Luchetti M, Artese A, Oshio A, Terracciano A. The five factor model of personality and physical inactivity: a meta-analysis of 16 samples. J Res Pers. 2016;63:22–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kotov R, Gamez W, Schmidt F, Watson D. Linking “big” personality traits to anxiety, depressive, and substance use disorders: a meta-analysis. Psychol Bull. 2010;136:768–821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Artese A, Ehley D, Sutin AR, Terracciano A. Personality and actigraphy-measured physical activity in older adults. Psychol Aging. 2017;32(2):131–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Suls J, Martin R. The daily life of the garden-variety neurotic: reactivity, stressor exposure, mood spillover, and maladaptive coping. J Pers. 2005;73(6):1485–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Armon G, Shirom A. The across-time associations of the five-factor model of personality with vigor and its facets using the bifactor model. J Pers Assess. 2011;93(6):618–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hakulinen C, Elovainio M, Pulkki-Råback L, Virtanen M, Kivimäki M, Jokela M. Personality and depressive symptoms: individual participant meta-analysis of 10 cohort studies. Depress Anxiety. 2015;32(7):461–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Friedman HS, Kern ML, Hampson SE, Duckworth AL. A new life-span approach to conscientiousness and health: combining the pieces of the causal puzzle. Dev Psychol. 2014;50(5):1377–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Irwin MR, Olmstead R, Carroll JE. Sleep disturbance, sleep duration, and inflammation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies and experimental sleep deprivation. Biol Psychiatry. 2016;80(1):40–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Strine TW, Chapman DP. Associations of frequent sleep insufficiency with health-related quality of life and health behaviors. Sleep Med. 2005;6(1):23–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Society of Behavioral Medicine 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Florida State University College of MedicineTallahasseeUSA
  2. 2.Human Development and Family StudiesThe Pennsylvania State UniversityState CollegeUSA
  3. 3.University of MontpellierMontpellierFrance

Personalised recommendations