Advertisement

Young Thai People’s Exposure to Alcohol Portrayals in Society and the Media: A Qualitative Study for Policy Implications

  • Ratchakorn KaewpramkusolEmail author
  • Kate Senior
  • Richard Chenhall
  • Sutham Nanthamongkolchai
Article

Abstract

Background

Although previous quantitative studies have documented the association between exposure to alcohol portrayals and drinking attitudes in Western countries, few qualitative studies have explored this matter in Thailand. A better understanding of the association in young Thais is required for a more efficient alcohol policy development. This study aims to explore the information young Thais have learnt from exposure to alcohol portrayals in society and the media, examine how this exposure shapes their drinking attitudes, and investigate the alignment of policy-makers’ views on drinking with those of young people.

Methods

Two qualitative research methods were employed. Seventy-two university students (38 men, 34 women) aged 20–24 participated in focus groups conducted on campus. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with academia, civil society and representatives from government who were involved in alcohol policy. Recorded data were transcribed verbatim, systematically coded and analysed using content analysis.

Results

Young Thais were regularly exposed to alcohol portrayals, particularly on social media and in their social environment. Being increasingly exposed to alcohol portrayals, particularly on social media, and the role of the alcohol industry emerged as concerning matters to the academia and civil society sectors. In response to the concerns, the government social media monitoring and alcohol censorship had become more challenging.

Conclusions

This study reflects the growing concerns from academia and civil society sectors of the impacts of increased alcohol exposure and the role that the industry may have on young people’s drinking attitudes. It highlights the need for response to significant policy challenges to reduce these impacts.

Keywords

Alcohol Alcohol policy Censorship Media Qualitative Thailand 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research has been conducted with the support of the Australian Government Research Training Program Scholarship. We are very grateful to the respondents and participants who kindly contributed to the study. This work was carried out with funding from University of Wollongong School of Health and Society, and Thailand’s Center for Alcohol Studies, and with general support from Mahidol University and the Global Health Division, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand. The funding bodies had no role in the study design, analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript.

Funding

This study was funded by University of Wollongong School of Health and Society, and Center for Alcohol Studies, Thai Health Promotion Foundation.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants/respondents included in the study.

References

  1. 1.
    World Health Organization. Global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Smith LA, Foxcroft DR. The effect of alcohol advertising, marketing and portrayal on drinking behaviour in young people: systematic review of prospective cohort studies. BMC Public Health. 2009;9:51.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-9-51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hoffman EW, Pinkleton BE, Weintraub Austin E, Reyes-Velázquez W. Exploring college students’ use of general and alcohol-related social media and their associations with alcohol-related behaviors. J Am Coll Heal. 2014;62(5):328–35.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2014.902837.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Grube JW. Alcohol in the media: drinking portrayals, alcohol advertising, and alcohol consumption among youth. In: Bonnie RJ, OCME, editors. Reducing underage drinking: a collective responsibility: National; 2004.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bergamini E, Demidenko E, Sargent JD. Trends in tobacco and alcohol brand placements in popular US movies, 1996 through 2009. JAMA Pediatr. 2013;167(7):634–9.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hanewinkel R, Sargent JD, Poelen EAP, Scholte R, Florek E, Sweeting H, et al. Alcohol consumption in movies and adolescent binge drinking in 6 European countries. Pediatrics. 2012;129(4):709–20.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2011-2809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kollath-Cattano C, Abad-Vivero EN, Mejia R, Perez-Hernandez R, Sargent JD, Thrasher JF. Portrayals of character smoking and drinking in argentine-, Mexican- and US-produced films. Prev Med. 2016;90:143–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.07.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kittiwarakul N. Interpreting of scene related to alcohol beverage and alcohol beverage product placement process in Thai films after proclaiming of alcohol beverage control act B.E.2008: Center for Alcohol Studies, Thai Health Promotion Foundation. 2012.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Siegel M, Johnson RM, Tyagi K, Power K, Lohsen MC, Ayers AJ, et al. Alcohol brand references in U.S. popular music, 2009–2011. Subst Use Misuse. 2013;48(14):1475–84.  https://doi.org/10.3109/10826084.2013.793716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lindsay J, Kelly P, Harrison L, Hickey C, Advocat J, Cormack S. What a great night: the cultural drivers of drinking practices among 14–24 year-old Australians. [Australia] 2009.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Primack BA, Colditz JB, Pang KC, Jackson KM. Portrayal of alcohol intoxication on YouTube. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2015;39(3):496–503.  https://doi.org/10.1111/acer.12640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cranwell J, Britton J, Bains M. "F*ck it! Let's get to drinking—poison our livers!": a thematic analysis of alcohol content in contemporary YouTube MusicVideos. Int J Behav Med. 2017;24(1):66–76.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12529-016-9578-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ross CS, Henehan ER, Jernigan DH. Youth exposure to alcohol advertising in National Magazines in the United States, 2001–2011. Am J Public Health. 2017;107(1):136–42.  https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2016.303514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jernigan D, Noel J, Landon J, Thornton N, Lobstein T. Alcohol marketing and youth alcohol consumption: a systematic review of longitudinal studies published since 2008. Addiction. 2017;112(Suppl 1):7–20.  https://doi.org/10.1111/add.13591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Noel JK, Babor TF, Robaina K, Feulner M, Vendrame A, Monteiro M. Alcohol marketing in the Americas and Spain during the 2014 FIFA World Cup tournament. Addiction. 2017;112:64–73.  https://doi.org/10.1111/add.13487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Siegel M, Ross CS, Albers AB, DeJong W, King C III, Naimi TS, et al. The relationship between exposure to brand-specific alcohol advertising and brand-specific consumption among underage drinkers—United States, 2011–2012. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2016;42(1):4–14.  https://doi.org/10.3109/00952990.2015.1085542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Barry AE. Alcohol advertising influences underage brand-specific drinking: evidence of a linear dose–response relationship. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2016;42(1):1–3.  https://doi.org/10.3109/00952990.2015.1104319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ross CS, Maple E, Siegel M, DeJong W, Naimi TS, Ostroff J, et al. The relationship between brand-specific alcohol advertising on television and brand-specific consumption among underage youth. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2014;38(8):2234–42.  https://doi.org/10.1111/acer.12488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Morgenstern M, Li Z, Sargent JD. The party effect: prediction of future alcohol use based on exposure to specific alcohol advertising content. Addiction. 2017;112(1):63–70.  https://doi.org/10.1111/add.13509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    White V, Faulkner A, Coomber K, Azar D, Room R, Livingston M, et al. How has alcohol advertising in traditional and online media in Australia changed? Trends in advertising expenditure 1997–2011. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2015;34:521–30.  https://doi.org/10.1111/dar.12286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Moreno MA, Whitehill JM. Influence of social media on alcohol use in adolescents and young adults. Alcohol Res. 2014;36(1):91–100.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jernigan DH, Padon A, Ross C, Borzekowski D. Self-reported youth and adult exposure to alcohol marketing in traditional and digital media: results of a pilot survey. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2017;41(3):618–25.  https://doi.org/10.1111/acer.13331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Carrotte ER, Dietze PM, Wright CJ, Lim MS. Who 'likes' alcohol? Young Australians' engagement with alcohol marketing via social media and related alcohol consumption patterns. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2016;40(5):474–9.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1753-6405.12572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Anderson P, de Bruijn A, Angus K, Gordon R, Hastings G. Impact of alcohol advertising and media exposure on adolescent alcohol use: a systematic review of longitudinal studies. Alcohol Alcohol. 2009;44(3):229–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Monteiro MG, Babor TF, Jernigan D, Brookes C. Alcohol marketing regulation: from research to public policy. Addiction. 2017;112 Suppl 1:3–6.  https://doi.org/10.1111/add.13660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Royal Thai Government Gazette. Alcoholic Beverage Control Act B.E. 2551. 13 February 2008 ed: The Secretariat of The Cabinet; 2008. p. 34–49.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Alcoholic Beverages Control Commission. In: Ministry of Public Health, editor. Alcohol Beverage Control Commission Announcement: The format and method of displaying warning messages to accompany logos of alcoholic beverages or the logo of the alcohol manufacturers. Bangkok: Royal Thai Gazette; 2014. p. 18–9.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Social cohesion policy review of Viet Nam. Paris: OECD Publishing; 2014.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Engaging youth in policy-making processes (module 6). Evidence-based policy making for youth well-being: a toolkit. Paris: OECD Publishing; 2017. p. 147–60.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Scott S, Muirhead C, Shucksmith J, Tyrrell R, Kaner E. Does industry-driven alcohol marketing influence adolescent drinking behaviour? A systematic review. Alcohol Alcohol (Oxford, Oxfordshire). 2017;52(1):84–94.  https://doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agw085.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kheokao JK, Kirkgulthorn T, Yingrengreung S, Singhprapai P. Effects of school, family and alcohol marketing communication on alcohol use and intentions to drink among Thai students. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2013;44(4):718–26.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kittipichai W, Sataporn H, Sirichotiratana N, Charupoonphol P. Alcoholic beverages drinking among female students in a Tourist Province, Thailand. Global J Health Sci. 2012;4(1):57–64.  https://doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v4n1p57.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    National Statistical Office. The Smoking and Drinking Behaviour Survey 2014 Report. Bangkok: National Statistical Office, Ministry of Information and Communication technology, Thailand, Social Statistics Bureau;2015.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Norris AE. Aroian Kj Fau - Warren S, Warren S Fau - Wirth J, Wirth J. Interactive performance and focus groups with adolescents: the power of play. Res Nurs Health. 2012;35(6):671–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Onwuegbuzie AJ, Dickinson WB, Leech NL, Zoran AG. A qualitative framework for collecting and analyzing data in focus group research. Int J Qual Methods. 2009;8(3):1–21.  https://doi.org/10.1177/160940690900800301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Thamarangsi T. The “triangle that moves the mountain” and Thai alcohol policy development: four case studies. Contemp Drug Probl. 2009;36(1–2):245–81.  https://doi.org/10.1177/009145090903600112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    National Statistical Office. The Smoking and Drinking Behaviour Survey 2011 Report. Bangkok: National Statistical Office, Ministry of Information and Communication technology, Thailand, Social Statistics Bureau;2012.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lobstein T, Landon J, Thornton N, Jernigan D. The commercial use of digital media to market alcohol products: a narrative review. Addiction. 2017;112(Suppl 1):21–7.  https://doi.org/10.1111/add.13493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Vichienwanitchkul M. Online marketing Thailand: the state of social media. Syndacast. 2015; http://syndacast.com/infographic-online-marketing-thailand-the-state-of-social-media/. Accessed 23 Nov 2015.
  40. 40.
    Jernigan DH, Rushman AE. Measuring youth exposure to alcohol marketing on social networking sites: challenges and prospects. J Public Health Policy. 2014;35(1):91–104.  https://doi.org/10.1057/jphp.2013.45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Nicholls J. Everyday, everywhere: alcohol marketing and social media—current trends. Alcohol Alcohol. 2012;47(4):486–93.  https://doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/ags043.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Nhean S, Nyborn J, Hinchey D, Valerio H, Kinzel K, Siegel M, et al. The frequency of company-sponsored alcohol brand-related sites on Facebook—2012. Subst Use Misuse. 2014;49(7):779–82.  https://doi.org/10.3109/10826084.2014.880177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mackellar J. Event Audiences. In: Event audiences and expectations. New York: Routledge; 2017. p. 1–19.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Brown K. Association between alcohol sports sponsorship and consumption: a systematic review. Alcohol Alcohol. 2016;51(6):747–55.  https://doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agw006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Giles EL, Brennan M. Trading between healthy food, alcohol and physical activity behaviours. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:1231.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-1231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    The Nation Newspaper. Teens are ‘Thailand’s toughest ad audience’. 2017. http://www.nationmultimedia.com/detail/Corporate/30303934. Accessed 10 Dec 2017.
  47. 47.
    Loysmut S. Impact and problems of television alcohol advertisements on Thai adolescents: Center for Alcohol Studies, Thai Health Promotion Foundation 2012.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Moolasart J, Chirawatkul S. Drinking culture in the Thai-Isaan context of Northeast Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2012;43(3):795–807.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Paynter J, Chapman S. Is censorship of films a useful solution to the problem of covert tobacco advertising? (with response by Maubach et al). N Z Med J. 2013 May 31;126(1375):106–10. N Z Med J; 2013. p. 99–104.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bangkok Biz Newspaper. Thai FDA to crack down on illegal health-related products. Bangkok Biz Newspaper, Bangkok. 2018. http://www.bangkokbiznews.com/news/detail/799935. Accessed 30 May 2018.
  51. 51.
    Mercille J. Media coverage of alcohol issues: a critical political economy framework—a case study from Ireland. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017;14(6).  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14060650.
  52. 52.
    Robinson OC. Sampling in interview-based qualitative research: a theoretical and practical guide. Qual Res Psychol. 2014;11(1):25–41.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14780887.2013.801543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Society of Behavioral Medicine 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Health and Society, Faculty of Social SciencesUniversity of WollongongWollongongAustralia
  2. 2.Global Health Division, Office of the Permanent SecretaryMinistry of Public HealthNonthaburiThailand
  3. 3.Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health SciencesThe University of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia
  4. 4.Department of Family Health, Faculty of Public HealthMahidol UniversityBangkokThailand

Personalised recommendations