Advertisement

Relations of Subjective Social Status and Brooding with Blood Pressure

  • Brooks R. HarbisonEmail author
  • Patrick Pössel
  • Sarah J. Roane
Article
  • 51 Downloads

Abstract

Background

Brooding, a type of rumination, and subjective social status (SSS) may be two interacting factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our goal was to examine the relations of brooding and SSS with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), two measures of CVD. We predicted that [1] brooding and SSS are each related to SBP and DBP and [2] the interaction of brooding and SSS is linked to SBP and DBP.

Method

In this cross-sectional study, college student participants (n = 240; 58.6% female, age: M = 23.95 years, SD = 8.62) completed demographics questionnaires, the Ruminative Response Scale, and MacArthur Subjective Social Status scale, and gave blood pressure samples.

Results

Linear models suggested that, for participants low in SSS, high brooding and DBP were positively related. For participants high in SSS, high brooding and low DBP were negatively related. There were no relations between SSS, brooding, and SBP.

Conclusions

As predicted, for individuals with low SSS, more brooding was associated with higher DBP. Yet, in individuals with high SSS, more brooding was associated with lower DBP. There was no relation between SSS, brooding, and SBP. Our results suggest that brooding may serve as diathesis for some symptoms of CVD (i.e., high DBP but not high SBP) in individuals with low SSS. We discuss how other factors, like burnout or defensive pessimism, may contribute to the relation between high SSS, high brooding, and low DBP.

Keywords

Brooding Rumination Cardiovascular disease Blood pressure 

Acronyms

DBP

Diastolic blood pressure

SBP

Systolic blood pressure

SSS

Subjective social status

SES

Socioeconomic status

BMI

Body mass index

CVD

Cardiovascular disease

Notes

Funding

This study did not receive outside funding.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all participants in this study.

References

  1. 1.
    Heidenreich P, Trogdon J, Khavjou O, Butler J, Dracup K, Ezekowitz M, et al. Forecasting the future of cardiovascular disease in the United States: a policy statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2011;123:933–44.  https://doi.org/10.1161/cir.0b013e31820a55f5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lloyd-Jones DHY, Labarthe D, Mozaffarian D, Appel L, van Horn L, Greenlund K, et al. Defining and setting national goals for cardiovascular health promotion and disease reduction: The American Heart Association's strategic impact goal through 2020 and beyond. Circulation. 2010;121:586–613.  https://doi.org/10.1161/circulationaha.109.192703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zhang Z, Hayward MD. Gender, the marital life course, and cardiovascular disease in late midlife. J Marriage Fam. 2006;68:639–57.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2006.00280.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Centers for Disease Control. Health, United States, 2015: With special features on racial and ethnic disparities. Hyattsville, MD 2015.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Futterman L, Lemberg L. Fifty percent of patients with coronary artery disease do not have any of the conventional risk factors. Am J Crit Care. 1998;7:240–4.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Busch LY, Pössel P, Valentine JC. Meta-analyses of cardiovascular reactivity to rumination: a possible mechanism linking depression and hostility to cardiovascular disease. Psychol Bull. 2017;143(Supplemental):1378–94.  https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000119.supp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Beevers CG. Cognitive vulnerability to depression: a dual process model. Clin Psychol Rev. 2005;25:975–1002.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2005.03.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nolen-Hoeksema S. Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of depressive episodes. J Abnorm Psychol. 1991;100:569–82.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.100.4.569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sapolsky RM. Stress, stress-related disease, and emotional regulation. In: Gross JJ, editor. Handbook of emotion regulation. New York: Guilford Press; 2007. p. 606–15.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Adler NE, Epel ES, Castellazzo G, Ickovics JR. Relationship of subjective and objective social status with psychological and physiological functioning: preliminary data in healthy, White women. Health Psychol. 2000;19:586–92.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.19.6.586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Adler N, Singh-Manoux A, Schwartz J, Stewart J, Matthews K, Marmot MG. Social status and health: a comparison of British civil servants in Whitehall-II with European- and African-Americans in CARDIA. Soc Sci Med. 2008;66:1034–45.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.11.031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Singh-Manoux A, Marmot MG, Adler NE. Does subjective social status predict health and change in health status better than objective status? Psychosom Med. 2005;67:855–61.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.psy.0000188434.52941.a0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Salomon K, Jin A. Diathesis-stress model. In: Gellman M, Turner JR, editors. Encyclopedia of behavioral medicine. New York: Springer-Verlag; 2013.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cohen S, Janicki-Deverts D, Miller GE. Psychological stress and disease. JAMA. 2007;298:1685–7.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.298.14.1685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Goldstein DS, Kopin I. Evolution of concepts of stress. Stress. 2007;10:109–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dearing E, Hamilton LC. Best practices in quantitative methods for developmentalists: V contemporary advances and classic advice for analyzing mediating and moderating variables. Monogr Soc Res Child Dev. 2006;71:88–104.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Eberhart NK, Auerbach RP, Bigda-Peyton J, Abela JRZ. Maladaptive schemas and depression: tests of stress generation and diathesis-stress models. J Soc Clin Psychol. 2011;30:75–104.  https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2011.30.1.75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Vanderhasselt M-A, De Raedt R. How ruminative thinking styles lead to dysfunctional cognitions: evidence from a mediation model. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2012;43:910–4.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbtep.2011.09.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rozanski A, Blumenthal JA, Kaplan J. Impact of psychological factors on the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and implications for therapy. Circulation. 1999;99:2192–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sansone RA, Sansone LA. Rumination: relationships with physical health. Innov Clin Neurosci. 2012;9:29–34.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nolen-Hoeksema S, Morrow J. A prospective study of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster: the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1991;61:115–21.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.61.1.115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zoccola PM, Dickerson SS. Extending the recovery window: effects of trait rumination on subsequent evening cortisol following a laboratory performance stressor. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2015;58:67–78.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.04.014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Amar J, Perez L, Rm B, Chamontin B. Arteries, inflammation and insulin resistance. J Hypertens. 2006;24(Suppl 5):S18–20.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.hjh.0000240042.50838.61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Treynor W, Gonzalez R, Nolen-Hoeksema S. Rumination reconsidered: a psychometric analysis. Cogn Ther Res. 2003;27:247–59.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023910315561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nolen-Hoeksema S, Wisco BE, Lyubomirsky S. Rethinking rumination. Perspect Psychol Sci. 2008;3:400–24.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6924.2008.00088.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rude SS, Maestas KL, Neff K. Paying attention to distress: What's wrong with rumination? Cognit Emot. 2007;21:843–64.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02699930601056732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Woody ML, Burkhouse KL, Birk SL, Gibb BE. Brooding rumination and cardiovascular reactivity to a laboratory-based interpersonal stressor. Psychophysiology. 2015;52(5):722–5.  https://doi.org/10.1111/psyp.12397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mattews KA, Salomon K, Brady SS, Allen MT. Cardiovascular reactivity to stress predicts future blood pressure in adolescence. Psychosom Med. 2003;65:410–5.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.PSY.0000057612.94797.5F.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Baum A, Garofalo JP, Yali AM. Socioeconomic status and chronic stress: does stress account for SES effects on health? Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999;896:131–44.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1999.tb08111.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Siegrist J, Marmot M. Health inequalities and the psychosocial environment--two scientific challenges. Soc Sci Med. 2004;58:1463–73.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(03)00349-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dalstra JA, Kunst AE, Borrell C, Breeze E, Cambois E, Costa G, et al. Socioeconomic differences in the prevalence of common chronic diseases: an overview of eight European countries. Int J Epidemiol. 2005;34:216–326.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyh386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Demakakos P, Nazroo J, Breeze E, Marmot M. Socioeconomic status and health: the role of subjective social status. Soc Sci Med. 2008;67:330–40.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.03.038.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Samples T. Ecological Theories of Stress. In: Wadwa S, editor. Stress in The Modern World: Understanding Science and Society. Santa Barbara: Greenwood; 2017.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Jackman MR, Jackman RW. An interpretation of the relation between objective and subjective social status. Am Sociol Rev. 1973;38:569–82.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2094408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Anderson C, Kraus MW, Galinsky AD, Keltner D. The local-ladder effect: social status and subjective well-being. Psychol Sci. 2012;23:764–71.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797611434537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rohleder N, Beulen SE, Chen E, Wolf JM, Kirschbaum C. Stress on the dance floor: the cortisol stress response to social-evaluative threat in competitive ballroom dancers. Personal Soc Psychol Bull. 2007;33:69–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cundiff JM, Smith TW, Baron CE, Uchino BN. Hierarchy and health: physiological effects of interpersonal experiences associated with socioeconomic position. Health Psychol. 2016;35:356–65.  https://doi.org/10.1037/hea0000227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Roisman GI, Newman DA, Fraley RC, Haltigan JD, Groh AM, Haydon KC. Distinguishing differential susceptibility from diathesis–stress: recommendations for evaluating interaction effects. J Dev Psychopathol. 2012;24:389–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Rugulies R. Depression as a predictor for coronary heart disease: A review and meta-analysis. Am J Prev Med. 2002;23:51–61.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-3797(02)00439-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Everson SA, Kaplan GA, Goldberg DE, Salonen JT. Hypertension incidence is predicted by high levels of hopelessness in Finnish men. Hypertension. 2000;35:561–7.  https://doi.org/10.1161/01.hyp.35.2.561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hildrum B, Mykletun A, Holmen J, Dahl AA. Effect of anxiety and depression on blood pressure: 11-year longitudinal population study. Br J Psychiatry. 2008;193:108–13.  https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.107.045013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Adler N, Stewart J. MacArthur SES & Health Network. 2018. http://www.macses.ucsf.edu/Research/Psychosocial/subjective.php. Accessed March 1, 2018. 
  43. 43.
    Goodman E, Adler NE, Daniels SR, Morrison JA, Slap GB, Dolan LM. Impact of objective and subjective social status on obesity in a biracial cohort of adolescents. Obes Res. 2003;11:1018–26.  https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2003.140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Jason WO. Best practices in data cleaning: a complete guide to everything you need to do before and after collecting your data. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, Inc.; 2013.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lewis TT, Barnes LL, Bienias JL, Lackland DT, Evans DA, Mendes de Leon CF. Perceived discrimination and blood pressure in older African American and white adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2009;64:1002–8.  https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glp062.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Smart Richman L, Pek J, Pascoe E, Bauer DJ. The effects of perceived discrimination on ambulatory blood pressure and affective responses to interpersonal stress modeled over 24 hours. Health Psychol. 2010;29:403–11.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0019045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Steffen PR, McNeilly M, Anderson N, Sherwood A. Effects of perceived racism and anger inhibition on ambulatory blood pressure in African Americans. Psychosom Med. 2003;65:746–50.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.PSY.0000079380.95903.78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    White K, Borrell LN, Wong DW, Galea S, Ogedegbe G, Glymour MM. Racial/ethnic residential segregation and self-reported hypertension among US- and foreign-born blacks in new York City. Am J Hypertens. 2011;24:904–10.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ajh.2011.69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Nolen-Hoeksema S, Jackson B. Mediators of the gender difference in rumination. Psychol Women Q. 2001;25:37–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Norem JK. Defensive pessimism, optimism, and pessimism. In: Chang EC, editor. Optimism & pessimism: implications for theory, research, and practice. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2001. p. 77–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Norem JK, Illingworth KSS. Strategy-dependent effects of reflecting on self and tasks: some implications of optimism and defensive pessimism. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1993;65:822–35.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.65.4.822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Trapnell PD, Campbell JD. Private self-consciousness and the five-factor model of personality: distinguishing rumination from reflection. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1999;76:284–304.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.76.2.284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Manuck SB, Phillips JE, Gianaros PJ, Flory JD, Muldoon MF. Subjective socioeconomic status and presence of the metabolic syndrome in midlife community volunteers. Psychosom Med. 2010;72:35–45.  https://doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181c484dc.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Gruber J, Eidelman P, Johnson SL, Smith B, Harvey AG. Hooked on a feeling: rumination about positive and negative emotion in inter-episode bipolar disorder. J Abnorm Psychol. 2011;120:956–61.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Key BL, Campbell TS, Bacon SL, Gerin W. The influence of trait and state rumination on cardiovascular recovery from a negative emotional stressor. J Behav Med. 2008;31:237–48.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-008-9152-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bermúdez J, Pérez-García AM. Cardiovascular reactivity, affective responses and performance related to the risk dimensions of coronary-prone behaviour. Personal Individ Differ. 1996;21:919–27.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(96)00122-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Cook NR, Cohen J, Herbert PR, Taylor JO, Hennekens, CH. Implications of small reductions in diastolic blood pressure for primary prevention. Arch Intern Med. 1995;155;701–709. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.155.7.701.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL Jr, et al. The seventh report of the joint National Committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure: the JNC 7 report. JAMA. 2003;289:2560–72.  https://doi.org/10.1161/01.hyp.0000107251.49515.c2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Levin KA. Study design III: cross-sectional studies. Evid Based Dent. 2006;7:24–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Parati G, Saul JP, Di Rienzo M, Mancia G. Spectral analysis of blood pressure and heart rate variability in evaluating cardiovascular regulation: a critical appraisal. Hypertension. 1995;25:1276–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Society of Behavioral Medicine 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Counseling and Human DevelopmentUniversity of LouisvilleLouisvilleUSA
  2. 2.Emory University School of MedicineAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations