International Journal of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 25, Issue 4, pp 473–478 | Cite as

Comfort Eating and All-Cause Mortality in the US Health and Retirement Study

  • Jenna R. Cummings
  • Ashley E. Mason
  • Eli Puterman
  • A. Janet TomiyamaEmail author



Comfort eating is a prevalent behavior. Prior research shows that comfort eating is associated with reduced stress responses and increased metabolic risk across adolescence, young adulthood, and middle adulthood. The purpose of the current research was to test if comfort eating prospectively predicted all-cause mortality in older adulthood.


The US Health and Retirement Study is an ongoing, nationally representative, longitudinal study of older adults. The final sample for the present study (N = 1445) included participants randomly selected to report how often they comfort ate. Comfort eating data were collected in 2008 and all-cause mortality data were collected in 2014. Participants also reported how often they consumed high-fat/sugar food as well as their height and weight in 2008.


For each 1-unit increase in comfort eating, the expected odds of all-cause mortality (n = 255 deceased) decreased by 14%, OR = 0.86, p = 0.048, 95% CI [0.74, 0.99]. This analysis statistically accounted for other predictors of mortality in the sample including age, biological sex, race, highest educational degree attained, moderate and vigorous exercise, smoking, and cumulative illness. High-fat/sugar intake did not mediate (or diminish) the association but body mass index did.


Comfort eating—irrespective of consuming high-fat/sugar food—may be associated with reduced mortality in older adults because it may promote greater body mass, and greater body mass is associated with lower risk of mortality in nationally representative samples. Interventionists might consider both beneficial and detrimental aspects of comfort eating across the lifespan.


Body mass index High-fat/sugar food Older adults Stress 


Funding Information

Jenna R. Cummings was supported by a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship (DGE-1144087). Ashley E. Mason was supported by a K23 Award (1K23HL133442) from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© International Society of Behavioral Medicine 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jenna R. Cummings
    • 1
  • Ashley E. Mason
    • 2
  • Eli Puterman
    • 3
  • A. Janet Tomiyama
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.UCSF Osher Center for Integrative MedicineSan FranciscoUSA
  3. 3.School of KinesiologyUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

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