Pilot Study for the Development of a Self-Care System for Type 2 Diabetes Patients Using a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)

  • Shuji Inada
  • Kazuhiro YoshiuchiEmail author
  • Yoko Iizuka
  • Ken Ohashi
  • Hiroe Kikuchi
  • Yoshiharu Yamamoto
  • Takashi Kadowaki
  • Akira Akabayashi



The primary objective of the present pilot study was to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of the newly developed self-care system using personal digital assistance in patients with type 2 diabetes. The secondary objective was to investigate changes in daily calorie intake, body weight, and hemoglobin A1c after using the system for 6 months.


The participants were nine outpatients with type 2 diabetes, aged 34–72 and living in Tokyo or surrounding prefectures. They were instructed to use the electronic food diary and to review the graphs of the total energy intake to control food intake under their own target value for 6 months. After they completed the study, the feasibility indicated by adherence rate for food recording and acceptability of the system rated with 6-point Likert scale from 1 (worst) to 6 (best) by the participants were investigated.


Seven participants out of nine completed the study protocol. The median adherence rate for food recording was 80.6 %. Regarding the acceptability, six patients rated 6 for desire to use the system while one rated 5. In addition, regarding improvement in self-care for diabetes, the median score was 5. Daily calorie intake, body weight, and HbA1c, however, did not change significantly over the 6-month period.


The newly developed self-care system might be feasible and acceptable in diabetes patients, which could be applied as an ecological momentary intervention tool, although there was some room to refine it to raise adherence.


Ecological momentary assessment Ecological momentary intervention Electronic food diary Self-care system Type 2 diabetes 



The authors thank all of the study participants. The University of Tokyo (person in charge: Dr. Yoshiuchi) conducted cooperative research with Sharp Cooperation. Gratitude is also expressed to Dr. Kojima from Sharp Corporation for his technical help in developing the software in Windows Mobile.

Compliance with Ethical Standards


This study was financially supported by Sharp Cooperation.

Conflict of Interest

Author Yoshiuchi K. received research grants from Sharp Cooperation for the submitted work. Any authors did not have relationships with companies or other competing interests in the past 3 years that could be perceived to constitute a conflict of interest. Spouses, partners, or children of authors did not have financial relationships that may be relevant to the submitted work. And any authors did not have non-financial interests that may be relevant to the submitted work.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© International Society of Behavioral Medicine 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shuji Inada
    • 1
  • Kazuhiro Yoshiuchi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yoko Iizuka
    • 2
  • Ken Ohashi
    • 3
  • Hiroe Kikuchi
    • 4
  • Yoshiharu Yamamoto
    • 5
  • Takashi Kadowaki
    • 2
  • Akira Akabayashi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Stress Sciences and Psychosomatic Medicine, Graduate School of MedicineThe University of TokyoBunkyo-kuJapan
  2. 2.Department of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Graduate School of MedicineThe University of TokyoBunkyo-kuJapan
  3. 3.Department of Internal MedicineNational Cancer Center HospitalChuo-kuJapan
  4. 4.Department of Psychosomatic Research, National Institute of Mental HealthNational Center of Neurology and PsychiatryKodairaJapan
  5. 5.Educational Physiology Laboratory, Graduate School of EducationThe University of TokyoBunkyo-kuJapan

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