Who Looks Forward to Better Health? Personality Factors and Future Self-Rated Health in the Context of Chronic Illness
- 398 Downloads
Self-rated health (SRH) is an important predictor of objective health-related outcomes that, according to the Cognitive Process Model of SRH, is influenced by contextual factors (symptoms and personality). Although research indicates that personality contours SRH, less attention has been given to understanding the contributions of personality to future self-rated health (FSRH) or the contextual factors that play a role in shaping these effects.
The aim of the present study was to extend the theory and research on FSRH by exploring the contributions of personality, current SRH, and fatigue to FSRH in the context of chronic illness, and to test the potential mediating role of optimism for explaining these effects.
Two chronic illness samples (arthritis, N = 365, and inflammatory bowel disease, IBD; N = 290) completed identical surveys. A hierarchical regression model with age, education, and current health, and fatigue entered in the first two steps and traits entered in the last step, tested the effects of personality on FSRH. Mediation analyses controlling for contextual variables tested the explanatory role of optimism.
Fatigue was a significant contributor to FSRH accounting for 11 % of the variance in the arthritis sample and 17 % in the IBD sample over the demographic variables. Both Agreeableness and Neuroticism accounted for additional significant but modest variance in FSRH (4 %); Agreeableness was associated with higher FSRH, whereas Neuroticism was associated with lower FSRH. For both traits, optimism fully explained the associations with FSRH.
After accounting for the influence of fatigue and other variables, the contributions of high Agreeableness and low Neuroticism to FSRH are modest in the context of chronic illness, and these associations may be explained by optimism.
KeywordsSelf-rated health Personality Future orientation Optimism Chronic illness Fatigue
The data collection was supported by a Doctoral Fellowship from the Social Sciences and Research Council (Canada). Preparation of this paper was supported by the Canada Research Chairs Program.
Conflict of Interest
I, Fuschia Sirois, declare that I have no conflicts of interest.
I, Fuschia Sirois, declare that I conformed to the Helsinki Declaration concerning human rights and informed consent in conducting this research, and that I followed correct procedures concerning treatment of humans in research.
- 5.Ferraro KF, Wilkinson LR. Alternative measures of self-rated health for predicting mortality among older people: is past or future orientation more important? Gerontologist. 2013Google Scholar
- 8.Ree E, Odeen M, Eriksen H, Indahl A, Ihlebæk C, Hetland J et al. Subjective health complaints and self-rated health: are expectancies more important than socioeconomic status and workload? IntJ Behav Med. 2013:1-10. doi: 10.1007/s12529-013-9329-7.
- 10.Digman JM. Personality structure: Emergence of the five-factor model. 1990;41(1):417-40.Google Scholar
- 11.John OP, Srivastava S. The Big Five trait taxonomy: history, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. In: Pervin LA, John OP, editors. Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research. 2nd ed. New York: The Guilford Press; 1999.Google Scholar
- 35.Nyqvist F, Nygård M, Steenbeek W. Social capital and self-rated health amongst older people in Western Finland and Northern Sweden: a multi-level analysis. IntJ Behav Med. 2013:1-11Google Scholar
- 41.Rosenthal R, Rosnow RL. Essentials of behavioral research: methods and data analysis. 2nd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 1991.Google Scholar