Advertisement

International Journal of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 22, Issue 2, pp 233–238 | Cite as

Internet-Based Survey of Factors Associated with Subjective Feeling of Insomnia, Depression, and Low Health-Related Quality of Life Among Japanese Adults with Sleep Difficulty

  • Sayaka Aritake
  • Shoichi Asaoka
  • Tatsuo Kagimura
  • Akiyoshi Shimura
  • Kunihiro Futenma
  • Yoko Komada
  • Yuichi InoueEmail author
Article

Abstract

Background

This study was conducted to determine what symptom components or conditions of insomnia are related to subjective feelings of insomnia, low health-related quality of life (HRQOL), or depression.

Method

Data from 7,027 Japanese adults obtained using an Internet-based questionnaire survey was analyzed to examine associations between demographic variables and each sleep difficulty symptom item on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) with the presence/absence of subjective insomnia and scores on the Short Form-8 (SF-8) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D).

Results

Prevalence of subjective insomnia was 12.2 % (n = 860). Discriminant function analysis revealed that item scores for sleep quality, sleep latency, and sleep medication use on the PSQI and CES-D showed relatively high discriminant function coefficients for identifying positivity for the subjective feeling of insomnia. Among respondents with subjective insomnia, a low SF-8 physical component summary score was associated with higher age, depressive state, and PSQI items for sleep difficulty and daytime dysfunction, whereas a low SF-8 mental component summary score was associated with depressive state, PSQI sleep latency, sleeping medication use, and daytime dysfunction. Depressive state was significantly associated with sleep latency, sleeping medication use, and daytime dysfunction.

Conclusion

Among insomnia symptom components, disturbed sleep quality and sleep onset insomnia may be specifically associated with subjective feelings of the disorder. The existence of a depressive state could be significantly associated with not only subjective insomnia but also mental and physical QOL. Our results also suggest that different components of sleep difficulty, as measured by the PSQI, might be associated with mental and physical QOL and depressive status.

Keywords

Insomnia Health-related quality of life Sleep difficulty Daytime function Sleep latency Internet survey 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported in part by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. This study (work) was supported by the Health and Labour Sciences Research Grants for Comprehensive Research on Disability Health and Welfare.

Disclosure Statement

Yuichi Inoue has received a speaker honorarium from Hisamitsu Pharmaceutical Co., Inc.; Nippon Boehringer Ingelheim Co., Ltd.; Philips Respironics GK; Alfresa Pharma Corporation; Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited; MSD K.K.; Pacific Medico Co., Ltd.; Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.; Eisai Co., Ltd.; Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation; GlaxoSmithKline K.K.; Astellas Pharma Inc.; Sanofi-Aventis K.K.; and Yoshitomiyakuhin Corporation. Sayaka Aritake, Shoichi Asaoka, Tatsuo Kagimura, Akiyoshi Shimura, Kunihiro Futenma, and Yoko Komada declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Moul DE, Nofzinger EA, Pilkonis PA, Houck PR, Miewald JM, Buysse DJ. Symptom reports in severe chronic insomnia. Sleep. 2002;25:553–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Varkevisser M, Van Dongen HP, Van Amsterdam JG, Kerkhof GA. Chronic insomnia and daytime functioning: an ambulatory assessment. Behav Sleep Med. 2007;5:279–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ustinov Y, Lichstein KL, Wal GS, Taylor DJ, Riedel BW, Bush AJ. Association between report of insomnia and daytime functioning. Sleep Med. 2010;11:65–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fortier-Brochu E, Beaulieu-Bonneau S, Ivers H, Morin CM. Insomnia and daytime cognitive performance: a meta-analysis. Sleep Med Rev. 2012;16:83–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sasai T, Inoue Y, Komada Y, Nomura T, Matsuura M, Matsushima E. Effects of insomnia and sleep medication on health-related quality of life. Sleep Med. 2010;11:452–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Okajima I, Komada Y, Nomura T, Nakashima K, Inoue Y. Insomnia as a risk for depression: a longitudinal epidemiologic study on a Japanese rural cohort. J Clin Psychiatry. 2012;73:377–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    AASM AAoSM. International classification of sleep disorders, 2nd ed.: Diagnostic and coding manual. 2005.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Buysse DJ, Ancoli-Israel S, Edinger JD, Lichstein KL, Morin CM. Recommendations for a standard research assessment of insomnia. Sleep. 2006;29:1155–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cho HJ, Lavretsky H, Olmstead R, Levin MJ, Oxman MN, Irwin MR. Sleep disturbance and depression recurrence in community-dwelling older adults: a prospective study. Am J Psychiatry. 2008;165:1543–50.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    LeBlanc M, Merette C, Savard J, Ivers H, Baillargeon L, Morin CM. Incidence and risk factors of insomnia in a population-based sample. Sleep. 2009;32:1027–37.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    De Zambotti M, Covassin N, De Min Tona G, Sarlo M, Stegagno L. Sleep onset and cardiovascular activity in primary insomnia. J Sleep Res. 2011;20:318–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Aritake-Okada S, Nakao T, Komada Y, Asaoka S, Sakuta K, Esaki S, et al. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of restless legs syndrome in chronic kidney disease patients. Sleep Med. 2011;12:1031–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Okawa M. Sleep medicine in Asia at present and prospects. J Natl Inst Public Health. 2012;61:29–34.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    SLEep epidemiological survey. 2002.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Komada Y, Nomura T, Kusumi M, Nakashima K, Okajima I, Sasai T, et al. Correlations among insomnia symptoms, sleep medication use and depressive symptoms. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2011;65:20–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nomura TIY, Kusumi M, Oka Y, Nakashima K. Email-based epidemiological surveys on restless legs syndrome in Japan. Sleep Biol Rhythm. 2008;6:139–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Enomoto M, Li L, Aritake S, Nagase Y, Kaji T, Tagaya H, et al. Restless legs syndrome and its correlation with other sleep problems in the general adult population of Japan. Sleep Biol Rhythm. 2006;4:153–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Doi Y, Minowa M, Uchiyama M, Okawa M, Kim K, Shibui K, et al. Psychometric assessment of subjective sleep quality using the Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-J) in psychiatric disordered and control subjects. Psychiatry Res. 2000;97:165–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ware JE KM, Dewey JE, Gandek B. How to score and interpret single-item health status measures: a manual for users of the SF-8 Health Survey. 2001.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fukuhara S, Ware JE, Kosinski M, Wada S. B G. Psychometric and clinical tests of validity of the Japanese SF-36 Health Survey. J Clin. Epidemiology. 1998;51:1045–53.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fukuhara S, Bito S, Green J, Hsiao A, Kurokawa K. Translation, adaptation, and validation of the SF-36 Health Survey for use in Japan. J Clin. Epidemiology. 1998;51:1037–44.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fukuhara S, Suzukamo Y. Japanese version of SF-8: health related QOL: SF-36 and SF-8. J Clin Exp Med. 2005;213:133–6.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Radloff LS. The CES-D scale: a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Appl Psychol Meas. 1977;1:385–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yokoyama E, Kaneita Y, Saito Y, Uchiyama M, Matsuzaki Y, Tamaki T, et al. Association between depression and insomnia subtypes: a longitudinal study on the elderly in Japan. Sleep. 2010;33:1693–702.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Poulin C, Hand D, Boudreau B. Validity of a 12-item version of the CES-D used in the National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth. Chronic Dis Can. 2005;26:65–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Carroll A, Gordon K, Haynes M, Houghton S. Goal setting and self-efficacy among delinquent, at-risk and not at-risk adolescents. J Youth Adolesc. 2013;42:431–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Linzer M, Hahn SR, Williams JB, deGruy 3rd FV, et al. Health-related quality of life in primary care patients with mental disorders. Results from the PRIME-MD 1000 Study. JAMA J Am Med Assoc. 1995;274:1511–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Alonso J, Angermeyer MC, Bernert S, Bruffaerts R, Brugha TS, Bryson H, et al. Disability and quality of life impact of mental disorders in Europe: results from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD) project. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 2004;109:38–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fortner BV, Stepanski EJ, Wang SC, Kasprowicz S, Durrence HH. Sleep and quality of life in breast cancer patients. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2002;24:471–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Edinger JD, Fins AI, Glenn DM, Sullivan Jr RJ, Bastian LA, Marsh GR, et al. Insomnia and the eye of the beholder: are there clinical markers of objective sleep disturbances among adults with and without insomnia complaints? J Consult Clin Psychol. 2000;68:586–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Morphy H, Dunn KM, Lewis M, Boardman HF, Croft PR. Epidemiology of insomnia: a longitudinal study in a UK population. Sleep. 2007;30:274–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Society of Behavioral Medicine 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sayaka Aritake
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Shoichi Asaoka
    • 1
    • 3
  • Tatsuo Kagimura
    • 4
  • Akiyoshi Shimura
    • 1
    • 4
  • Kunihiro Futenma
    • 1
    • 4
  • Yoko Komada
    • 1
    • 3
  • Yuichi Inoue
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of SomnologyTokyo Medical UniversityShinjukuJapan
  2. 2.Japan Society for the Promotion of ScienceTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Japan Somnology CenterNeuropsychiatric Research InstituteTokyoJapan
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryTokyo Medical UniversityTokyoJapan
  5. 5.Faculty of Sport SciencesWaseda UniversityTokorozawaJapan

Personalised recommendations