Organizational Justice and Psychological Distress Among Permanent and Non-permanent Employees in Japan: A Prospective Cohort Study
- 410 Downloads
Organizational justice has recently been introduced as a new concept as psychosocial determinants of employee health, and an increase in precarious employment is a challenging issue in occupational health. However, no study investigated the association of organizational justice with mental health among employees while taking into account employment contract.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prospective association of organizational justice (procedural justice and interactional justice) with psychological distress by employment contract among Japanese employees.
A total of 373 males and 644 females from five branches of a manufacturing company in Japan were surveyed. At baseline (August 2009), self-administered questionnaires, including the Organizational Justice Questionnaire (OJQ), the K6 scale (psychological distress scale), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R), and other covariates, were used. After one-year follow-up (August 2010), the K6 scale was used again to assess psychological distress. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted by sex and employment contract.
After adjusting for demographic characteristics, psychological distress, and neuroticism at baseline, low procedural justice was significantly associated with a higher risk of psychological distress at follow-up among non-permanent female employees, while no significant association of procedural justice or interactional justice with psychological distress at follow-up was observed among permanent male or female employees. The results of non-permanent male employees could not be calculated because of small sample size.
Low procedural justice may be an important predictor of psychological distress among non-permanent female employees.
KeywordsProcedural justice Interactional justice Mental health Precarious employment Longitudinal study
The present study was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) 2009 and 2010 (No. 20240062) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. The preparation of the manuscript was partially supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (Research in a Proposed Research Area) 2011 (No. 4102-21119001) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.
- 5.Adams JS. Inequity in social exchange. In: Berkowits L, editor. Advances in experimental social psychology, vol. 2. New York: Academic Press; 1965. p. 267–99.Google Scholar
- 6.Thibaut J, Walker L. Procedural justice: a psychological analysis. Hillsdale: Erlbaum; 1975.Google Scholar
- 8.Bies RJ, Moag JS. Interactional justice: communication criteria of fairness. In: Lewicki RJ, Sheppard BH, Bazerman MH, editors. Research on negotiation in organizations, vol. 1. Greenwich: JAI Press; 1986. p. 43–55.Google Scholar
- 24.van den Bos K, Lind EA. Uncertainty management by means of fairness judgments. In: Zanna MP, editor. Advances in experimental social psychology, vol. 34. San Diego: Academic Press; 2002. p. 1–60.Google Scholar
- 27.Elovainio M, van den Bos K, Linna A, Kivimäki M, Ala-Mursula L, Pentti J, et al. Combined effects of uncertainty and organizational justice on employee health: testing the uncertainty management model of fairness judgments among Finnish public sector employees. Soc Sci Med. 2005;61(12):2501–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 29.Aizzat MN, Ramayah T, Kumaresan S. Organizational stressors and job stress among managers: the moderating role of neuroticism. Singapore Manage Rev. 2005;27(2):63–79.Google Scholar
- 34.Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan. Survey on fixed-term employment contract 2009. Tokyo: Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan; 2009. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
- 38.Karasek R. Job Content Questionnaire and user's guide. Lowell: University of Massachusetts at Lowell; 1985.Google Scholar
- 39.Kawakami N, Kobayashi F, Araki S, Haratani T, Furui H. Assessment of job stress dimensions based on the job demands-control model of employees of telecommunication and electric power companies in Japan: reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Job Content Questionnaire. Int J Behav Med. 1995;2(4):358–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 41.Tsutsumi A, Ishitake T, Peter R, Siegrist J, Matoba T. The Japanese version of the Effort–Reward Imbalance Questionnaire: a study in dental technicians. Work Stress. 2001;15(1):86–96.Google Scholar
- 42.Fisher S. Stress, control, worry prescriptions and the implications for health at work: a psychological model. In: Sauter SL, Hurrell JA, Cooper CL, editors. Job control and worker health. Chichester: Wiley; 1989. p. 205–36.Google Scholar
- 43.Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan. White paper on the labour economy 2003. Tokyo: The Japan Institute of Labour; 2003. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
- 50.Tyler TR, Lind EA. A relational model of authority in groups. In: Zanna MP, editor. Advances in experimental social psychology, vol. 25. New York: Academic Press; 1992. p. 115–91.Google Scholar