Relationship Between Forgiveness and Psychological and Physiological Indices in Cardiac Patients
Research suggests that forgiveness is associated with better psychological and physical health and in particular cardiovascular functioning. Despite these findings, most forgiveness studies involve healthy participants.
The current study assessed the psychological and physiological correlates of forgiveness in individuals with coronary artery disease (CAD).
Self-reported forgiveness, perceived stress, anxiety, and depression, and physiological data, including triglycerides, total cholesterol, high- (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, were obtained from 85 hospitalized CAD patients.
Higher levels of forgiveness were associated with lower levels of anxiety (p < 0.05), depression (p < 0.01), and perceived stress (p < 0.005) as well as lower total cholesterol to HDL and LDL to HDL ratios (both at p < 0.05) after controlling for age and gender. The psychological indices did not mediate the relationship between forgiveness and cholesterol ratios.
Results suggest that the psychological correlates of forgiveness are similar in cardiac patients and healthy individuals. Further, among cardiac patients, forgiveness may be associated with reduced risk for future cardiovascular events.
KeywordsForgiveness Coronary artery disease Cholesterol Depression Anxiety Stress
- 1.Worthington EL, Wade NG. The social psychology of unforgiveness and forgiveness and implications for clinical practice. J Soc Clin Psychol. 1999;18:385–418.Google Scholar
- 3.Seybold KS, Hill PC, Neumann JK, Chi DS. Physiological and psychological correlates of forgiveness. J Psychol Christ. 2001;20:250–9.Google Scholar
- 18.Thoresen CE, Harris AHS, Luskin F. Forgiveness and health: an unanswered question. In: McCullough ME, Pargament KI, Thoresen CE, editors. Forgiveness: theory, research, and practice. New York: Guilford; 2000. p. 254–80.Google Scholar
- 21.Tibbits D, Ellis G, Piramelli C, Luskin F, Lukman R. Hypertension reduction through forgiveness training. J Pastor Care Couns. 2006;60(1–2):27–34.Google Scholar
- 22.Mauger PA, Perry JE, Freeman T, Grove DC, McBride AG, McKinney KE. The measurement of forgiveness: preliminary research. J Psychol Christ. 1992;11:170–80.Google Scholar