This study aims to investigate postgraduate students’ academic achievement, the metacognitive strategies they use and their infographic design scores while studying with infographics. The relationships between these variables and students’ views about this process are also examined. A total of 15 postgraduate students were studied from the Computer Education and Instructional Technology Department of a large east Anatolian university in Turkey. Four different data collection instruments were employed. Results showed that students’ metacognitive strategy scores tended to increase as time progressed over a four-week period. However, there was found to be no regular increase in infographic scores. A relationship between all variables was revealed in this study. While each variable had a relationship with academic achievement, there was no relationship between students’ infographic scores and metacognitive strategies. Also, there were significant differences between students’ academic achievements in terms of metacognitive strategies. Students who were above the average in their use of metacognitive strategies showed better academic achievement than the others. Consequently, we conclude from this study that an infographic creation-based training process has a significant effect on academic achievement and metacognitive skills, especially on facilitating the management of the learning process.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Allen, K. D., & Hancock, T. E. (2008). Reading comprehension improvement with individualized cognitive profiles and metacognition. Literacy Research and Instruction, 47(2), 124–139.
Amzil, A. (2014). The effect of a metacognitive intervention on college students’ reading performance and metacognitive skills. Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology, 4(1), 27–45.
Aydemir, M. (2014). An investigation of metacognitive activities in distance education in terms of the students’ study process and metacognitive skills. Unpublished doctoral thesis, Atatürk University, Erzurum. [Online]. http://tez2.yok.gov.tr.
Babakhani, N. (2011). The effect of teaching the cognitive and meta-cognitive strategies (self-instruction procedure) on verbal math problem-solving performance of primary school students with verbal problem-solving difficulties. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15, 563–570.
Baldwin, M., & Wade, S. M. (2012). Improving family and community engagement through sharing data. Briefing paper.
Birjandi, P., Mirhassani, A., & Abbasian, G. (2006). Setting-based metacognitive strategy use. Journal of Faculty of Letters and Humanities, 49(198), 39–87.
Bleed, R. (2005). Visual literacy in higher education. Educause Learning Initiative, 1, 1–11.
Borkin, M. A., Vo, A. A., Bylinskii, Z., Isola, P., Sunkavalli, S., Oliva, A., et al. (2013). What makes a visualization memorable? IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 19(12), 2306–2315.
Broadbent, J., & Poon, W. L. (2015). Self-regulated learning strategies and academic achievement in online higher education learning environments: A systematic review. The Internet and Higher Education, 27, 1–13.
Brown, A. L. (1978). Knowing when, where and how to remember: A problem of metacognition. In R. Glaser (Ed.), Advances in instructional psychology (pp. 77–165). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Brown, A. L. (1980). Metacognitive development and reading. In R. J. Spiro, B. Bruce, & W. Brewer (Eds.), Theoretical issues in reading comprehension. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erbaum.
Brown, A. L. (1987). Metacognition executive control, self-regulation, and other more mysterious mechanisms. In F. E. Weinert & R. H. Kluwe (Eds.), Metacognition, motivation, and understanding (p. 65e116). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Çifçi, T. (2016). Effects of infographics on students achievement and attitude towards geography lessons. Journal of Education and Learning, 5(1), 154.
Coutinho, A. S. (2007). The relationship between goals, metacognition and academic success. The Journal of Doctoral Research in Education, 1(7), 39–47.
Cubukcu, F. (2008). Enhancing vocabulary development and reading comprehension through metacognitive strategies. Issues in Educational Research, 18(1), 1–11.
Derry, S. J., & Murphy, D. A. (1986). Designing systems that train learning ability: From theory to practice. Review of Educational Research, 56(1), 1–39.
Desoete, A., Roeyers, H., & Buysse, A. (2001). Metacognition and mathematical problem solving in grade 3. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 34(5), 435–447.
Dignath, C., & Büttner, G. (2008). Components of fostering self-regulated learning among students. A meta-analysis on intervention studies at primary and secondary school level. Metacognition and Learning, 3(3), 231–264.
Donker, A. S., de Boer, H., Kostons, D., Dignath van Ewijk, C. C., & van der Werf, M. P. C. (2014). Effectiveness of learning strategy instruction on academic performance: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 11(2014), 1–26.
Dur, B. I. U. (2014). Data visualization and infographics in visual communication design education at the age of information. Journal of Arts and Humanities, 3(5), 39.
Erskine, D. L. (2009). Effect of prompted reflection and metacognitive skill instruction on university freshmen’s use of metacognition. Published doctoral dissertation, Brigham Young University, USA.
Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive–developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34(10), 906.
Flynt, E. S., & Brozo, W. (2010). Visual literacy and the content classroom: A question of now, not when. The Reading Teacher, 63(6), 526–528.
Ghode, R. (2012). Infographics in news presentation: A study of its effective use in Times of India and Indian Express the two leading newspapers in India. Journal of Business Management and Social Sciences Research, 1(1), 35, 43.
Harvard Business School. (2003). Business communication. Brighton, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Heinich, R., Molenda, M., & Russell, J. D. (1989). Instructional media and the new technologies of instruction. London: Macmillan.
Isaacson, R. M., & Fujita, F. (2006). Metacognitive knowledge monitoring and self-regulated learning: Academic success and reflections on learning. Journal of Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 6(1), 39–55.
Kaya, S. (2012). The effects of cognitive and metacognitive strategy activities on pre-service teachers’ achievements in “instructional design” course and their levels of cognitive and metacognitive strategy usage. Unpublished doctoral thesis, Gazi University, Ankara. [Online]. Retrieved May, 2017 from http://tez2.yok.gov.tr.
Krauss, J. (2012). Infographics: More than words can say. Learning and Leading with Technology, 39(5), 10–14.
Krum, R. (2013). Cool infographics: Effective communication with data visualization and design. London: Wiley.
Lei, P. L., Sun, C. T., Lin, S. S., & Huang, T. K. (2015). Effect of metacognitive strategies and verbal-imagery cognitive style on biology-based video search and learning performance. Computers and Education, 87, 326–339.
Mehrdad, A. G., Ahghar, M. R., & Ahghar, M. (2012). The effect of teaching cognitive and metacognitive strategies on EFL students’ reading comprehension across proficiency levels. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 3757–3763.
Meshkatie, H., Allahvirdiyani, K., Kahnamouei, S. B., & Lohrasbi, A. (2011). An assessment of the effect of training in cognitive and metacognitive strategies on academic achievement of the first-year high school students with academic weakness in Southern Khorasan province. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15, 3032–3034.
Mishra, P., & Kereluik, K. (2011). What 21st century learning? A review and a synthesis. In SITE conference (pp. 5–236).
Movahed, R. (2014). The effect of metacognitive strategy instruction on listening performance, metacognitive awareness and listening anxiety of beginner Iranian EFL students. International Journal of English Linguistics, 4(2), 88.
Nosratinia, M., & Adibifar, S. (2014). The effect of teaching metacognitive strategies on field-dependent and independent learners’ writing. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98, 1390–1399.
Novak, J. D., & Cañas, A. J. (2006). The theory underlying concept maps and how to construct them. Technical report IHMC Cmap Tools 2006-01. Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition. Retrieved June 21, 2007 from http://cmap.ihmcus/Publications/ResearchPapers/TheoryUnderlyingConceptMaps.pdf.
Oblinger, D., Oblinger, J. L., & Lippincott, J. K. (2005). Educating the net generation. Boulder, CO: EDUCAUSE, c2005. 1 v. (various pagings): illustrations.
Ott, C., Robins, A., Haden, P., & Shephard, K. (2015). Illustrating performance indicators and course characteristics to support students’ self-regulated learning in CS1. Computer Science Education, 25(2), 174–198.
Papert, S., & Harel, I. (1991). Situating constructionism. Constructionism, 36(2), 1–11.
Pintrich, P. R. (1999). The role of motivation in promoting and sustaining self-regulated learning. International Journal of Educational Research, 31, 459–470.
Pintrich, P. R. (2000). Multiple goals, multiple pathways: The role of goal orientation in learning and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92, 544–555.
Pintrich, P. R., & Groot, E. V. D. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(1), 33–40.
Poitras, E., Lajoie, S., & Hong, Y. J. (2012). The design of technology-rich learning environments as metacognitive tools in history education. Instructional Science, 40(6), 1033–1061.
Puustinen, M., & Pulkkinen, L. (2001). Models of self-regulated learning: A review. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 45(3), 269–286.
Rahimi, M., & Abedi, S. (2014). The relationship between listening self-efficacy and metacognitive awareness of listening strategies. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98, 1454–1460.
Rahimi, M., & Katal, M. (2012). The role of metacognitive listening strategies awareness and podcast-use readiness in using podcasting for learning English as a foreign language. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(4), 1153–1161.
Rahimirad, M. (2014). The impact of metacognitive strategy instruction on the listening performance of university students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98, 1485–1491.
Sandall, L., Mamo, M., Speth, C., Lee, D., & Kettler, T. (2014). Student perception of metacognitive activities in entry-level science courses. Natural Sciences Education, 43, 25–32.
Schraw, G. (2009). A conceptual analysis of five measures of metacognitive monitoring. Metacognition Learning, 4, 33–45.
Schraw, G., & Dennison, R. S. (1994). Assessing metacognitive awareness. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 19, 460–475.
Schraw, G., & Moshman, D. (1995). Metacognitive theories. Educational Psychology Review, 7(4), 351–371.
Senemoğlu, N. (2005). Gelişim öğrenme ve öğretim: Kuramdan uygulamaya. Ankara: Gazi Kitabevi.
Smiciklas, M. (2012). The power of infographics: Using pictures to communicate and connect with your audiences. Carmel: Que Publishing.
Spalter, A. M., & Van Dam, A. (2008). Digital visual literacy. Theory Into Practice, 47(2), 93–101.
Thompson, R. (2007). Metacognition: An intervention for academically unprepared college students. Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.
Vandergrift, L., Goh, C., Mareschal, C. J., & Tafaghodtari, M. H. (2006). The metacognitive awareness listening questionnaire: Development and validation. Language Learning, 56(3), 431–462.
Vanichvasin, P. (2013). Enhancing the quality of learning through the use of infographics as visual communication tool and learning tool. In Proceedings ICQA 2013 international conference on QA culture: Cooperation or competition (p. 135).
Weaver, S. O. (2012). The effects of metacognitive strategies on academic achievement, metacognitive awareness, and satisfaction in an undergraduate online education course. Published doctoral thesis, University of South Alabama.
Weinstein, C. E., & Mayer, R. E. (1983). The teaching of learning strategies. In Innovation abstracts (Vol. 5, No. 32, p. 32).
Yang, C. (2009). A study of metacognitive strategies employed by English listeners in an EFL setting. International Education Studies, 2(4), 134–139.
Zhussupova, R., & Kazbekova, M. (2016). Metacognitive strategies as points in teaching reading comprehension. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 228, 593–600.
Zimmerman, B. J. (1989). A social cognitive view of self-regulated academic learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(3), 329–339.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
About this article
Cite this article
Yuruk, S.E., Yilmaz, R.M. & Bilici, S. An examination of postgraduate students’ use of infographic design, metacognitive strategies and academic achievement. J Comput High Educ 31, 495–513 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12528-018-9201-5
- Improving classroom teaching
- Media in education
- Teaching/learning strategies