Linking serious game narratives with pedagogical theories and pedagogical design strategies

  • Olga De Troyer
  • Frederik Van Broeckhoven
  • Joachim Vlieghe
Article

Abstract

Narrative-based serious games present pedagogical content and interventions through an interactive narrative. To ensure effective learning in such kind of serious games, designers are not only faced with the challenge of creating a compelling narrative, but also with the additional challenge of incorporating suitable pedagogical strategies. Therefore, development teams must consist of a multidisciplinary group including storytellers, technical staff and pedagogical experts to make sure that suitable pedagogical strategies are incorporated into the narrative. In this paper, the authors show how the Domain Specific Modeling Language ATTAC-L, for modeling the narrative of a serious game, allows creating the link between the processes of pedagogical design and narrative modeling by means of an elaborate annotation system. As such, this modeling language enables different experts to concentrate on the aspects related to their field of expertise without losing oversight of the serious game as a whole. More in particular, we will show how the annotation system can be used to document and integrate the use of a well-grounded pedagogical theory, Social Cognitive Theory, for achieving the goals of a serious game, as well as when the serious game is part of a program developed by means of a well-grounded design strategy, Intervention Mapping Protocol.

Keywords

Serious games Narratives Pedagogical design strategy Pedagogical theory Intervention Mapping Protocol Social Cognitive Theory ATTAC-L Domain Specific Modeling Language Annotations 

References

  1. Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. R. (Eds.). (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  2. Arnab, S., Brown, K., Clarke, S., Dunwell, I., Lim, T., Suttie, N., et al. (2013). The development approach of a pedagogically-driven serious game to support Relationship and Sex Education (RSE) within a classroom setting. Computers & Education, 69, 15–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnab, S., & Clarke, S. (2016). Towards a trans-disciplinary methodology for a game-based intervention development process. British Journal of Educational Technology, 48(2), 279–312.Google Scholar
  4. Arnab, S., Lim, T., Carvalho, M. B., Bellotti, F., Freitas, S., Louchart, S., et al. (2015). Mapping learning and game mechanics for serious games analysis. British Journal of Educational Technology, 46(2), 391–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baalsrud-Hauge, J. M., Stanescu, I. A., Arnab, S., Ger, P. M., Lim, T., Serrano-Laguna, A., et al. (2015). Learning through analytics architecture to scaffold learning experience through technology-based methods. International Journal of Serious Games, 2(1), 29–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  7. Bandura, A. (1989). Social cognitive theory. In R. Vasta (Ed.), Annals of child development. Volume 6 six theories of child development (pp. 1–60). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bandura, A. (1991). Social cognitive theory of self-regulation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 248–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52(1), 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barab, S. A., Gresalfi, M. S., & Arici, A. (2009). Transformational play: Why educators should care about games. Educational Leadership, 67(1), 76–80.Google Scholar
  11. Barab, S. A., Gresalfi, M., & Ingram-Goble, A. (2010). Transformational play using games to position person, content, and context. Educational Researcher, 39(7), 525–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bartholomew, L. K., Parcel, G. S., Kok, G., Gottlieb, N. H., & Fernandez, M. E. (2011). Planning health promotion program: An intervention mapping approach (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  13. Beatty, I. D. (2014). Gaming the system: Video games as a theoretical framework for instructional design. ArXiv preprint arXiv:1401.6716.
  14. Bloom, B. S., Engelhart, M. D., Furst, E. J., Hill, W. H., & Krathwohl, D. R. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: Book 1: Cognitive domain. New York: David McKay Company.Google Scholar
  15. Burns, J. M., Webb, M., Durkin, L. A., & Hickie, I. B. (2010). Reach Out Central: A serious game designed to engage young men to improve mental health and wellbeing. Medical Journal of Australia, 192(11), S27.Google Scholar
  16. Carroll, W. R., & Bandura, A. (1985). Role of timing of visual monitoring and motor rehearsal in observational learning of action patterns. Journal of Motor Behavior, 17(3), 269–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carroll, W. R., & Bandura, A. (1987). Translating cognition into action: The role of visual guidance in observational learning. Journal of Motor Behavior, 19(3), 385–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carvalho, M. B., Bellotti, F., Berta, R., De Gloria, A., Sedano, C. I., Hauge, J. B., et al. (2015). An activity theory-based model for serious games analysis and conceptual design. Computers & Education, 87, 166–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Catalano, C. E., Luccini, A. M., & Mortara, M. (2014). Guidelines for an effective design of serious games. International Journal of Serious Games, 1(1). doi:10.17083/ijsg.v1i1.8.
  20. Connolly, T. M., Boyle, E. A., MacArthur, E., Hainey, T., & Boyle, J. M. (2012). A systematic literature review of empirical evidence on computer games and serious games. Computers & Education, 59(2), 661–686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. de Freitas, S., & Oliver, M. (2006). How can exploratory learning with games and simulations within the curriculum be most effectively evaluated? Computers & Education, 46(3), 249–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. De Troyer, O., & Janssens, E. (2014). Supporting the requirement analysis phase for the development of serious games for children. International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction, 2(2), 76–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. DeSmet, A., Van Cleemput, K., Bastiaensens, S., Poels, K., Vandebosch, H., Malliet, S., et al. (2016). Bridging behavior science and gaming theory: Using the Intervention Mapping Protocol to design a serious game against cyberbullying. Computers in Human Behavior, 56, 337–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dondlinger, M. J. (2007). Educational video game design: A review of the literature. Journal of Applied Educational Technology, 4(1), 21–31.Google Scholar
  25. Engeström, Y. (2001). Expansive learning at work: Toward an activity theoretical reconceptualization. Journal of Education and Work, 14(1), 133–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fink, L. D. (2003). Creating significant learning experiences: An integrated approach to designing college courses. Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  27. Friendly ATTAC (2012). Friendly ATTAC. Retrieved from: http://www.friendlyattac.be/en/.
  28. Gage, N. L., & Berliner, D. C. (1975). Educational psychology. Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  29. Gagne, R. (1985). The conditions of learning and theory of instruction Robert Gagné. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  30. Gee, J. P. (2003). What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy. Computers in Entertainment (CIE), 1(1), 20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Göbel, S., Mehm, F., Radke, S., & Steinmetz, R. (2009). 80 days: Adaptive digital storytelling for digital educational games. In Proceedings of the 2nd international workshop on Story-Telling and Educational Games (STEG’09) (Vol. 498, No. 498).Google Scholar
  32. Göbel, S., Salvatore, L., & Konrad, R. (2008). StoryTec: A digital storytelling platform for the authoring and experiencing of interactive and non-linear stories. In Automated solutions for cross media content and multi-channel distribution, 2008. AXMEDIS’08. International Conference on (pp. 103–110). IEEE.Google Scholar
  33. Göransson, B., Gulliksen, J., & Boivie, I. (2003). The usability design process: Integrating user-centered systems design in the software development process. Software Process Improvement and Practice: Special Issue on Bridging the Process and Practice Gaps Between Software Engineering and Human Computer Interaction, 8(2), 111–131.Google Scholar
  34. Gunter, G., Kenny, R. F., & Vick, E. H. (2006). A case for a formal design paradigm for serious games. The Journal of the International Digital Media and Arts Association, 3(1), 93–105.Google Scholar
  35. Hergenhahn, B. R. (1988). Introduction to the theories of learning (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  36. Hirdes, E. M., Thillainathan, N., & Leimeister, J. M. (2012). Towards modeling educational objectives in serious games. In Pedagogically-driven Serious Games 2012 Saarbrücken, Germany (Vol. 898, pp. 11–14). CEUR Workshop Proceedings.Google Scholar
  37. Ke, F. (2016). Designing and integrating purposeful learning in game play: A systematic review. Educational Technology Research and Development, 64(2), 219–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Keller, J. M. (1983). Motivational design of instruction. Instructional Design Theories and Models: An Overview of Their Current Status, 1, 383–434.Google Scholar
  39. Kelly, S., & Tolvanen, J. P. (2008). Domain-specific modeling: enabling full code generation. Hoboken: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kickmeier-Rust, M. D., Schwarz, D., Albert, D., Verpoorten, D., Castaigne, J. L., & Bopp, M. (2006). The elektra project: Towards a new learning experience. In USAB (pp. 19–48).Google Scholar
  41. Kiili, K. (2005). Digital game-based learning: Towards an experiential gaming model. The Internet and Higher Education, 8(1), 13–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kirkley, S. E., Tomblin, S., & Kirkley, J. (2005). Instructional design authoring support for the development of serious games and mixed reality training. In Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation and Education Conference (I/ITSEC).Google Scholar
  43. Kok, G., Harterink, P., Vriens, P., De Zwart, O., & Hospers, H. J. (2006). The gay cruise: Developing a theory-and evidence-based internet HIV-prevention intervention. Sexuality Research & Social Policy, 3(2), 52–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  45. Koper, R., & Olivier, B. (2004). Representing the learning design of units of learning. Educational Technology & Society, 7(3), 97–111.Google Scholar
  46. Lindley, C. A. (2005). Story and narrative structures in computer games. In B. Bushoff (Ed.), Developing Interactive Narrative Content. sagas_sagasnet_reader. Munich: High Text Verlag.Google Scholar
  47. Marchiori, E. J., Del Blanco, Á., Torrente, J., Martinez-Ortiz, I., & Fernández-Manjón, B. (2011). A visual language for the creation of narrative educational games. Journal of Visual Languages & Computing, 22(6), 443–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mikolajczak, J., Kok, G., & Hospers, H. J. (2008). Queermasters: Developing a theory-and evidence-based internet HIV-prevention intervention to promote HIV-testing among men who have sex with men (MSM). Applied Psychology, 57(4), 681–697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rosenthal, T. L., & Zimmerman, B. J. (1978). Social learning and cognition. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  50. Sallis, J. F., Owen, N., & Fisher, E. B. (2008). Ecological models of health behavior. Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice, 4, 465–486.Google Scholar
  51. Slavin, R. E. (1994). Educational psychology: Theory and practice. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  52. Steinkuehler, C., Squire, K., & Barab, S. (Eds.). (2012). Games, learning, and society: Learning and meaning in the digital age. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Thompson, D., Baranowski, T., Buday, R., Baranowski, J., Thompson, V., Jago, R., et al. (2010). Serious video games for health how behavioral science guided the development of a serious video game. Simulation & Gaming, 41(4), 587–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Torrente, J., Del Blanco, Á., Marchiori, E. J., Moreno-Ger, P., & Fernández-Manjón, B. (2010). < e-Adventure > : Introducing educational games in the learning process. In IEEE EDUCON 2010 Conference (pp. 1121–1126). IEEE.Google Scholar
  55. Tran, C., George, S., & Marfisi-Schottman, I. (2010). EDoS: An authoring environment for serious games. Design based on three models. In Proceedings of ECGBL 2010 the 4th European conference on games based learning. 4th ECGBL (pp. 393–402).Google Scholar
  56. Valcke, M. (2005). Onderwijskunde als ontwerpwetenschap (3rd ed.). Gent: Academia Press.Google Scholar
  57. Van Broeckhoven, F., & De Troyer, O. (2013). ATTAC-L: A modeling language for educational virtual scenarios in the context of preventing cyber bullying. In Serious Games and Applications for Health (SeGAH), 2013 IEEE 2nd International Conference on (pp. 1–8). IEEE.Google Scholar
  58. Van Broeckhoven, F., & De Troyer, O. (2014). Specifying the pedagogical aspects of narrative-based digital learning games using annotations. In Proceedings of the 9th international conference on the foundations of digital games. Society for the advancement of the science of digital games.Google Scholar
  59. Van Broeckhoven, F., Vlieghe, J., & De Troyer, O. (2015). Using a controlled natural language for specifying the narratives of serious games. In International conference on interactive digital storytelling (pp. 142–153). Springer International Publishing.Google Scholar
  60. Weiss, S., Müller, W., Spierling, U., & Steimle, F. (2005). Scenejo–an interactive storytelling platform. In International Conference on Virtual Storytelling (pp. 77–80). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Olga De Troyer
    • 1
  • Frederik Van Broeckhoven
    • 1
  • Joachim Vlieghe
    • 1
  1. 1.Research Group WISE, Department of Computer Science, WISE - 10F703Vrije Universiteit BrusselBrusselsBelgium

Personalised recommendations