Expressions of critical thinking in role-playing simulations: comparisons across roles
- 591 Downloads
The development of critical thinking is crucial in professional education to augment the capabilities of pre-professional students. One method for enhancing critical thinking is participation in role-playing simulation-based scenarios where students work together to resolve a potentially real situation. In this study, undergraduate nursing students were divided into small groups (2–3) to role-play a medical emergency (stroke) within a high fidelity simulation environment. The research team utilized a cross-case comparison design; cases were defined by the different roles played by the nursing students (e.g., primary nurse, secondary nurse, and family member). Results indicated that although students in all three roles displayed instances of reflection, contextual perspective, and logical reasoning, these were not distributed evenly across roles, with family members demonstrating fewer instances of reflection and logical reasoning and secondary nurses demonstrating fewer instances of contextual perspective. However, evidence of students’ abilities to apply clinical standards was observed fairly equally across all three roles. Implications for the use of role-plays within high-fidelity simulations are discussed.
KeywordsCritical thinking Simulation Role playing Nursing education
The researchers express their sincere gratitude to Dr. Maria Young and Ms. Lyn Nuti for their guidance in designing and implementing the study, and to the 17 nursing students who willingly participated. We dedicate this work to our dear friend, Xi. We continue to be inspired by memories of her great dedication and passion.
- Astedt-Kurki, P., Paavilianen, E., Tammentie, T., & Paunonen-Ilmonen, M. (2001). Interaction between adult patients’ family members and nursing staff on a hospital ward. Nordic College of Caring Sciences, 15, 142–150.Google Scholar
- Bambini, D., Washburn, J., & Perkins, R. (2009). Outcomes of clinical simulation for novice nursing students: Communication, confidence, clinical judgment. Nursing Education Perspectives, 30(2), 79–82.Google Scholar
- Bransford, J. D. (1993). Who ya gonna call? Thoughts about teaching problem solving. In P. Hallinger, K. Leithwood, & J. Murphy (Eds.), Cognitive perspective on educational leadership (pp. 171–191). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
- Cato, M., Lacaster, K., & Peeples, A. (2009). Nursing students’ self-assessment of their simulation experiences. Nursing Education Perspectives, 30(2), 105–108.Google Scholar
- Childs, J. C., & Sepples, S. (2006). Clinical teaching by simulation: Lessons learned from a complex patient care scenario. Nursing Education Perspectives, 27, 154–158.Google Scholar
- Comer, S. K. (2005). Patient care simulations: Role playing to enhance clinical understanding. Nursing Education Perspectives, 26, 357–361.Google Scholar
- del Bueno, D. (2005). A crisis in critical thinking. Nursing Education Perspectives, 26, 278–282.Google Scholar
- Dreifuerst, K. T. (2009). The essentials of debriefing in simulation learning: A concept analysis. Nursing Education Perspectives, 30, 109–114.Google Scholar
- Facione, P. A. (1990). Critical thinking: A statement for expert consensus for purpose of educational assessment and instruction. Columbus, OH: Center on Education and Training for Employment.Google Scholar
- Fanning, R., & Gaba, D. (2008). Simulation-based learning as an educational tool. In J. Stonemetz & K. Ruskin (Eds.), Anesthesia informatics (pp. 459–479). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Haffer, A. G., & Raingruber, B. (1998). Discovering confidence in clinical reasoning and critical thinking development in baccalaureate nursing students. Journal of Nursing Education, 37(2), 61–70.Google Scholar
- Hyslop-Marginson, E. J., & Armstrong, J. L. (2004). Critical thinking in career education: The democratic importance of foundational rationality. Journal of Career and Technical Education, 21(1), 39–49.Google Scholar
- Jeffries, P. R. (2005). A framework for designing, implementing, and evaluating simulations used as teaching strategies in nursing. Nursing Education Perspectives, 26(2), 96–103.Google Scholar
- Jeffries, P. R. (2007). Simulation in nursing education: From conceptualization to evaluation (pp. xvi, 168 p.). New York, NY: National League for Nursing.Google Scholar
- Jones, S. (2007). Adding value to online role plays: Virtual situated learning environment. Retrieved November 23, 2009, from http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/singapore07/procs/jones-s.pdf.
- Julian, M., Kinzie, M. B., & Larsen, V. A. (2000). Compelling case experiences: Performance, practice, and application for emerging instructional designers. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 13(3), 164–201.Google Scholar
- Lan, C. H., Tseng, C. C., & Lai, K. R. (2008, July). Developing a negotiation-based intelligent tutoring system to support problem solving: A case study in role-play learning. Paper presented at the Eighth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies. Cantabria, France.Google Scholar
- Leininger, M. (1994). Teaching and learning in transcultural nursing. In T. G. Mashaba & H. I. Brink (Eds.), Nursing education: An international perspective (pp. 207–226). Kenwyn, South Africa: Juta.Google Scholar
- Lincoln, Y., & Guba, E. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. New York: Sage.Google Scholar
- McNaughton, N., Ravitz, P., Wadell, A., & Hodges, B. D. (2008). Psychiatric education and simulation: A review of the literature. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 53(2), 85–93.Google Scholar
- Medley, C. F., & Horne, C. (2004). Using simulation technology for undergraduate nursing education. Journal of Nursing Education, 44(1), 31–34.Google Scholar
- Nelson, D. L., & Blenkin, C. (2007). The power of online role-play simulations: Technology in nursing education. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 4(1). Retreived November 23, 2009, from http://www.bepress.com/ijnes/vol4/iss1/art1/.
- Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation research methods. London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Platt, J. (2007). Case study. In W. Outhwaite & S. P. Turner (Eds.), The Sage handbook of social science methodology (pp. 100–118). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Rubenfeld, M. G., & Scheffer, B. K. (2006). Critical thinking tactics for nurses. Boston: Jones & Bartlett.Google Scholar
- Ruggenberg, S. (2008). The effect of simulated clinical experience on knowledge, near transfer, and far transfer in nursing education. Unpublished Dissertation, University of San Francisco.Google Scholar
- Scheffer, B. K., & Rubenfeld, M. G. (2000). A consensus statement on critical thinking in nursing. Journal of Nursing Education, 39, 352–359.Google Scholar
- Schon, D. A. (1983). The reflective practitioner. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
- Schon, D. A. (1987). Educating the reflective practicioner. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.Google Scholar
- Simpson, E., & Courtney, M. D. (2002) Critical thinking in nursing education: A literature review. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 8(April), 89–98.Google Scholar
- Soderstrom, I.-M., Benzein, E., & Saveman, B.-I. (2003). Nurses’ experiences of interactions with family members in intensive care units. Nordic College of Caring Sciences, 17, 185–192.Google Scholar
- Switky, R. (2006). Simulating the free trade area of the Americas. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, San Diego, California. Retrieved November 23, 2009, from http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p98758_index.html.
- Tanner, C. (2006). Thinking like a nurse: A research-based model of clinical judgement in nursing. Journal of Nursing Education, 45, 204–211.Google Scholar
- Whitehead, A. N. (1929). The aims of education: And other essays. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar