Advertisement

The hydroid of the medusa Lizzia blondina Forbes, 1848

  • Peter SchuchertEmail author
Original Paper
  • 23 Downloads

Abstract

A tiny, filiferan hydroid living within the sponge Haliclona simulans (Johnston, 1842) could be identified as the so far unknown polyp stage of the hydromedusa Lizzia blondina Forbes, 1848. This finding is based on two lines of evidence: (i) the direct observation that sponge pieces with the hydroid release young Lizzia blondina medusae, and (ii) 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from DNA samples extracted from mixed sponge–hydroid samples were identifiable as either Lizzia blondina or sponge-related. Histological examination of the hydroid showed that it is colonial, and the individual polyps are connected through stolons which penetrate deeply into the sponge tissue. The polyps only protrude temporarily and partially for the purpose of feeding. The hydroid can retract its tentacles and the hypostome in an introvert-like pouch, becoming thus almost invisible on the sponge surface. The association of the Lizzia blondina hydroid with the sponges of the genus Haliclona Grant, 1841 is likely a rather specific relationship.

Keywords

Cnidaria Hydrozoa Life cycle Sponges 16S rRNA gene barcodes 

Notes

Acknowledgements

I owe thanks to Janik Pralong (Muséum de Genève) for the histological preparations of the sponge samples as well as some of the sequences. I also wish to thank the ‘Service Marine’ and the ‘Service d’accueil’ of the Roscoff Marine Station for all their help and hospitality provided during the nine pleasant stays I had there over the last 20 years.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed by the author.

Sampling

All the sampling for this study was done by the Marine station of Roscoff and is covered by the necessary permits granted to the station.

References

  1. Agassiz A (1865) North American Acalephae. Illustrated Catalogue of the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy at Harvard College 2: 1–234.  https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.1837
  2. Boissin E, Hoareau TB, Postaire B, Gravier-Bonnet N, Bourmaud CA-F (2018) Cryptic diversity, low connectivity and suspected human-mediated dispersal among 17 widespread Indo-Pacific hydroid species of the south-western Indian Ocean. J Biogeogr 45(9):2104–2117.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.13388 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bouillon J (1965) Diagnoses préliminaires de trois hydroïdes de Roscoff. Trav stn biol Roscoff 16:54Google Scholar
  4. Bouillon J (1971) Sur quelques hydroides de Roscoff. Cah Biol Mar 12(3):323–364Google Scholar
  5. Bouillon J, Werner B (1965) Production of medusae buds by the polyps of Rathkea octopunctata (M. Sars)(Hydroida, Athecata). Helgoländer Meeresun 12:137–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bouillon J, Gravili C, Pages F, Gili JM, Boero F (2006) An introduction to Hydrozoa. Memoir Mus Natl Hist 194:1–591Google Scholar
  7. Brandt JF (1837) Remarques sur quelques modifications dans l'arrangement de l'ordre des Acalèphes discophores ou Ombellifères. Bulletin scientifique publié par l'Académie impériale des sciences de St-Pétersbourg 1:185–119Google Scholar
  8. Browne ET (1897) Revised list of hydromedusae of the L.M.B.C. district. Proc Transact Liverpool Biol Soc 11:147–150Google Scholar
  9. Cunningham CW, Buss LW (1993) Molecular evidence for multiple episodes of paedomorphosis in the family Hydractiniidae. Biochem Syst Ecol 21:57–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Edwards C (1973) The hydroid Trichydra pudica and its medusa Pochella polynema. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 53(1):87–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Forbes E (1846) On the pulmograde medusae of the British seas. Ann Mag Nat Hist (ser 1) 18:284–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Forbes E (1848) A monograph of the British naked-eyed medusae: with figures of all the species. Ray Society, London, p 104 13 plates.  https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.10032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Grant RE (1841). Porifera. Pp 5–9, 310–313, pls II-IV. In: H. Bailliere (Ed.), Outlines of comparative anatomy. 1. London. pp 656Google Scholar
  14. Haeckel E (1879) Das System der Medusen. Erster Teil einer Monographie der Medusen. Denkschriften der Medicinisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft zu Jena 1:XX+1–X360, 20 plates.  https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.46856 Google Scholar
  15. Hartlaub C (1911) Craspedote Medusen. Teil 1, Lieferung 2. Margelidae Nordisches Plankton 6(12):137–235.  https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.47048 Google Scholar
  16. Hartlaub C (1917) Craspedote Medusen. Teil 1, Lief. 4, Williadae. Nordisches Plankton 6:365–479Google Scholar
  17. Johnson M, Zaretskaya I, Raytselis Y, Merezhuk Y, Mcginnis S, Madden TL (2008) NCBI BLAST: a better web interface. Nucleic Acids Res 36(suppl. 2):W5–W9.  https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkn201 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Johnston G (1836) A catalogue of the zoophytes of Berwickshire history of the Berwickshire Naturalists' Club 1: 107–108Google Scholar
  19. Johnston G (1842) A history of British sponges and lithophytes. W.H. Lizars, Edinburgh, i-xii, 1–264, pls I–XXVGoogle Scholar
  20. Kramp PL (1926) Medusae. Part II. Anthomedusae. Danish Ingolf Expedition 5(10): 1–102, plates 1–2Google Scholar
  21. Kramp PL (1959) The hydromedusae of the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters. Dana-Report 46:1–283Google Scholar
  22. Kramp PL (1961) Synopsis of the medusae of the world. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 40:1–469Google Scholar
  23. Kramp PL, Damas D (1925) Les méduses de la Norvège. Introduction et partie spéciale Vidensk Medd fra Dansk naturh Foren 80:217–323Google Scholar
  24. Kühn A (1913) Entwicklungsgeschichte und Verwandschaftsbeziehungen der Hydrozoen. I Teil: Die Hydroiden Erg Fortschr Zool 4(1–2):1–284Google Scholar
  25. Lütken C (1850) Nogle Bemaerkninger om Medusernes systematiske Inddeling, navnlig med Hensyn til Forbes's history of british naked-eyed medusae. Vidensk Meddr dansk naturh Foren 1850:15–35Google Scholar
  26. Maggioni D, Montano S, Arrigoni R, Galli P, Puce S, Pica D, Berumen ML (2017) Genetic diversity of the Acropora-associated hydrozoans: new insight from the Red Sea. Mar Biodivers 47:1045–1055.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12526-017-0632-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mayer AG (1900) Some medusae from the Tortugas, Florida. Bull Mus comp Zool 37(2):13–82 pls 1-44Google Scholar
  28. Mayer AG (1910) Medusae of the world. Hydromedusae, Vols. I & II. Scyphomedusae, Vol III. Carnegie Institution, Washington, pp 735, plates 1–76. doi:  https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.5996
  29. McIntosh WC (1893) The pelagic fauna of the bay of St Andrews. Report of the Fishery Board for Scotland 11:284–389Google Scholar
  30. Miglietta MP, Maggioni D, Matsumoto Y (2018) Phylogenetics and species delimitation of two hydrozoa (phylum Cnidaria): Turritopsis (McCrady, 1857) and Pennaria (Goldfuss, 1820). Mar Biodivers, in press doi:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12526-018-0891-8
  31. Montano S, Maggioni D, Galli P, Hoeksema BW (2017) A cryptic species in the Pteroclava krempfi species complex (Hydrozoa, Cladocorynidae) revealed in the Caribbean. Mar Biodivers 47:83–89.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12526-016-0555-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Motz-Kossowska S (1905) Contribution à la connaissance des hydraires de la Méditerranée occidentale. I Hydraires gymnoblastiques Arch zool exp gen 3:39–98Google Scholar
  33. Nawrocki AM, Schuchert P, Cartwright P (2010) Phylogenetics and evolution of Capitata (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa), and the systematics of Corynidae. Zool Scr 39:290–304.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-6409.2009.00419.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Postaire B, Gelin P, Bruggemann JH, Magalon H (2017) One species for one island? Unexpected diversity and weak connectivity in a widely distributed tropical hydrozoan. Heredity 118:385–394.  https://doi.org/10.1038/hdy.2016.126 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Puce S, Calcinai B, Bavestrello G, Cerrano C, Gravili C, Boero F (2005) Hydrozoa (Cnidaria) symbiotic with Porifera: a review. Mar Ecol 26(2):73–81.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0485.2005.00050.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rees WJ (1941) Notes on British and Norwegian hydroids and Medusae. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 25:129–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Russell FS (1938) On the nematocysts of hydromedusae. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 23(1):145–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Russell FS (1953) The medusae of the British Isles. Cambridge University press, London, p 530 35 plsGoogle Scholar
  39. Sars M (1835) Beskrivelser og Iagttagelser over nogle moerkelige eller nye i Havet ved den Bergenske Kyst levende Dyr af Polypernes, Acalephernes, Radiaternes, Annelidernes og Molluskernes classer, med en kort Oversigt over de hidtil af Forfatteren sammesteds fundne Arter og deres Forekommen. Bergen, Thorstein Hallagers Forlag hos Chr. Dahl, R.S., pp xii + 81, 15 platesGoogle Scholar
  40. Schuchert P (1996) The marine fauna of New Zealand: athecate hydroids and their medusae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa). NZ Oceanogr Inst Mem 106:1–159Google Scholar
  41. Schuchert P (2001) Survey of the family Corynidae (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa). Rev Suisse Zool 108(4):739–878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Schuchert P (2005) Species boundaries in the hydrozoan genus Coryne. Mol Phylogenet Evol 36:194–199.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2005.03.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Schuchert P (2007) The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): filifera part 2. Rev Suisse Zool 114(2):195–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Schuchert P (2009) The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): filifera part 5. Rev Suisse Zool 116(3–4):441–507.  https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.117779 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Schuchert P (2010) The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): capitata part 2. Rev Suisse Zool 117(3):337–555Google Scholar
  46. Schuchert P (2012) North-West European athecate hydroids and their medusae. Synopses of the British Fauna (new series) 59. The Linnean Society of London, London, viii, 364Google Scholar
  47. Schuchert P (2014) High genetic diversity in the hydroid Plumularia setacea: a multitude of cryptic species or extensive population subdivision? Mol Phylogenet Evol 76:1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2014.02.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tardent P (1978) Coelenterata, Cnidaria. In: Seidel F (ed) Morphogenese der Tiere, vol 1:A-I. Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart, pp 71–415Google Scholar
  49. Teissier G (1965) Inventaire de la faune marine de Roscoff. Cnidaires-Cténaires. Trav stn biol Roscoff 16:1–53Google Scholar
  50. Trinci G (1903) Di una nuova specie di Cytaeis gemmante del Golfo di Napoli. Mitteilungen aus der Zoologischen Station zu Neapel 16: 1–34, pl. 31Google Scholar
  51. Van Soest RWM et al. (2018) World Porifera database. Haliclona Grant, 1841. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/porifera/porifera.php?p=taxdetails&id=131834. Accessed 6 Jul 2018
  52. Wang C, Xu Z, Huang J, Guo D, Lin M, Xia Z (2016) Taxonomic notes on Hydroidomedusae (Cnidaria) from South China Sea ill: family Rathkeidae and Zancleopsidae. Zoological Systematics 41(4):392–403.  https://doi.org/10.11865/zs.201644 Google Scholar
  53. de Weerdt WH (1986) A systematic revision of the north-eastern Atlantic shallow-water Haplosclerida (Porifera, Demospongiae): 2. Chalinidae Beaufortia 36(6):81–165Google Scholar
  54. Wright TS (1857) Observations on British Zoophytology. Edinb new Phil J (new series) 6:168–169Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Muséum d’histoire naturelleGenevaSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations