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Deep-sea seven-arm octopus hijacks jellyfish in shallow waters

  • Rui Rosa
  • Jesse T. Kelly
  • Vanessa M. Lopes
  • José R. Paula
  • João Gonçalves
  • Ricardo Calado
  • Mark D. Norman
  • João P. Barreiros
Short Communication

Abstract

Pelagic octopods have secondarily left the seafloor and evolved a holopelagic existence. One of the most striking adaptations among a suite of related pelagic octopod families (superfamily Argonautoidea) is their associations with gelatinous zooplankton (jellyfishes and salps). Here, we report a unique interaction between a male octopod (Haliphron atlanticus) and a jellyfish (Pelagia noctiluca) at the sea surface. The oral-to-oral surface orientation of this encounter and sizes of the animals seem not to fit the explanations of camouflage, shelter, and/or transportation for the octopod or “weapons stealing” strategies observed to date in other pelagic octopods. While maneuvering the jelly, H. atlanticus appears to use the jelly’s marginal nematocystic tentacles for protection. This constitutes further evidence that all four octopod families of the Argonautoidea display various interactions with gelatinous zooplankton.

Keywords

Pelagic octopods Gelatinous zooplankton Argonautoidea Haliphron atlanticus 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Bart Van Litsenborg and Arraia Divers Center (namely Devin Leary) for providing the Haliphron video footage and locality data, respectively. We also thank Mark Strickland, Kaoru Osuga, Chuck Babbit, Joe Weston, and Joshua Lambus for some of the exquisite photographs shown in this manuscript. The Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) supported this study through Programa Investigador FCT 2013 – Development Grant to RR.

Supplementary material

Specimen of Haliphron atlanticus around “Abismo” and “Cathedral” divespots, Biscoitos (38°47′ N, 27°15′ W), Terceira Island, Azores. (MOV 69710 kb)

12526_2017_767_MOESM2_ESM.docx (152 kb)
Fig. S1 (DOCX 151 kb)

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Copyright information

© Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.MARE—Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Laboratório Marítimo da GuiaFaculdade de Ciências da Universidade de LisboaCascaisPortugal
  2. 2.Institute for Applied Ecology New ZealandAuckland University of TechnologyAucklandNew Zealand
  3. 3.MARE—Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Department of Oceanography and FisheriesUniversity of the AzoresHortaPortugal
  4. 4.Departamento de Biologia & CESAMUniversidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de SantiagoAveiroPortugal
  5. 5.Museum VictoriaMelbourneAustralia
  6. 6.CE3C—Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes/Azorean Biodiversity Group and Universidade dos Açores—Departamento de Ciências AgráriasAngra do HeroísmoPortugal

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