Xenophyophores (Rhizaria, Foraminifera) from the Russian license area of the Clarion-Clipperton Zone (eastern equatorial Pacific), with the description of three new species
- 233 Downloads
We present new data on xenophyophores from the Russian license area of the Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) in the abyssal eastern equatorial Pacific based on samples collected in box cores during cruises of the R/V “Yuzhmorgeologia” in 2009–2012. The new material yielded five species of these giant foraminifera: Psammina multiloculata Kamenskaya, Gooday, Tendal 2015, Spiculammina delicata Kamenskaya 2005, and three new species that we describe here. Aschemonella tubulosa sp. nov. is characterized by rounded stercomare masses attached to the inner organic layer of the tubular test. Cerelasma implicata sp. nov. lacks a distinct agglutinated test and consists largely of a mass of branching and closely intertwined granellare and stercomare strings, with a scattering of sponge spicule fragments and mineral grains on the outer surface. Stannophyllum paucilinellatum sp. nov. has weakly developed linellae distributed uniformly throughout the test without forming distinct surface or internal layers. All xenophyophore specimens, except for A. tubulosa, were attached to nodules. Xenophyophores are among the dominant megafaunal taxa within the CCZ. Our new material suggests that this region also houses many more novel species belonging to this group of protists.
KeywordsProtista Xenophyophores Polymetallic nodules Eastern equatorial Pacific Benthos Abyssal megafauna CCZ New species
We thank three anonymous Reviewers whose helpful comments helped to improve the manuscript. The study of xenophyophores is supported by the following: OEK partly by the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/207-20130 under the MIDAS project, grant agreement no 603418) and partly by the Russian Science Foundation Grant 14-50-00095 (taxonomic analysis).
- Amon DJ, Ziegler AF, Dahlgren TG, Glover AG, Goineau A, Gooday AJ, Wiklund H, Smith CR (2016) First insights into the abundance and diversity of abyssal megafauna in a polymetallic-nodule region in the eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone. Sci. Rep. 6, doi: 10.1038/srep30492.
- Brady HB (1879) Notes on some of the Reticularian Rhizopoda of the “Challenger” Expedition. Part 1. On new and little known arenaceous types. Q J Micros Sci 19:20–63Google Scholar
- Brady HB (1884) Report on the foraminifera dredged by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873–1876. Rep Sci Res Voyage of H.M.S. “Challenger” during years 1873–76. 9: 1–814Google Scholar
- Costello MJ, Emblow CS, White R (2001) European Register of Marine Species. A check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Patrim Nat 50:1–463Google Scholar
- Haeckel E (1889) Report on the deep-sea Keratosa collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873–76. Report of the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873–76. Zoology 32:1–92Google Scholar
- Kamenskaya O (1997) Synopsis of the system of the class Xenophyophorea (Protozoa). Benthos of the northern Euro-Asian Seas. M VNIRO Publ. House: 43–56Google Scholar
- Kamenskaya OE (2005) Spiculammina delicata gen. et sp. n., a new xenophyophore from the eastern Pacific (Psamminidae). Invertebr Zool 2(1):23–27Google Scholar
- Kamenskaya OE (2014) Deep-sea fauna of European seas: An annotated species check-list of benthic invertebrates living deeper than 2000 m in the seas bordering Europe. Xenophyophores. Invertebr Zool 11(1):254–258Google Scholar
- Kaminski MA (2014) The year 2010 classification of the agglutinated foraminifera. Micropaleontol 60:89–108Google Scholar
- Laubenfels MV (1936) Sponge fauna of the Dry Tortugas. Papers from the Tortugas Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. 30: 1–225Google Scholar
- Laubenfels MV (1948) The order Keratozoa of the phylum Porifera- a monographic study. Occ Pap Allan Hancock Fdn 3:1–217Google Scholar
- Loeblich AR, Tappan H (1964) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part C. Univ Kansas Press: 1–900Google Scholar
- Schepotieff A (1912) Untersuchungen über neidere Organismen II. Die Xenophyophoren des Indischen Oceans. Zool Anat Ontog Tiere 32:245–286Google Scholar
- Schulze FE (1907a) Die Xenophyophoren, eine besondere Gruppe der Rhizopoden. -Wiss. Ergebn. dt. Tiefsee-Exped. Valdivia 11:1–55Google Scholar
- Schulze FE (1907b) Die Xenophyophoren. Bull Mus Comp Zool Harv 51:143–162Google Scholar
- Tendal OS (1972) A monograph of the Xenophyophoria (Rhizopoda, Protozoa). Galathea Rep 12:7–99Google Scholar
- Tendal OS (1980) Xenophyophores from the French expedition “INCAL” and “BIOVEMA” in the Atlantic Ocean. Cah Biol Mar 21:Cah Biol Mar 21:03–306Google Scholar
- Tendal OS (1980b) Stannophyllum setosum sp.n., a remarkable xenophyophore (Rhizopodea, Protozoa) from the Eastern Pacific. Cah Biol Mar 21:383–385Google Scholar
- Tendal OS (1996) Synoptic checklist and bibliography of the Xenophyophorea (Protista), with a zoogeographical survey of the group. Galathea Rep 17:79–101Google Scholar