Marine Biodiversity

, Volume 47, Issue 2, pp 469–480 | Cite as

An updated overview of the marine alien and cryptogenic species from the Egadi Islands Marine Protected Area (Italy)

  • Anna Maria Mannino
  • Manfredi Parasporo
  • Fabio Crocetta
  • Paolo Balistreri
Original Paper


An updated overview of the marine alien and cryptogenic species recorded in the Egadi Islands Marine Protected Area (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy), based on relevant publications, grey literature and unpublished data, is presented and discussed. Altogether, 17 species (14 aliens and 3 cryptogenic) belonging to five taxa are present in the area: Rhodophyta (Antithamnionella elegans, Asparagopsis armata, Asparagopsis taxiformis, Bonnemaisonia hamifera, Botryocladia madagascariensis, Ceramium strobiliforme, Laurencia caduciramulosa, Lophocladia lallemandii, Neosiphonia harveyi, Womersleyella setacea), Chlorophyta (Caulerpa cylindracea and Caulerpa taxifolia), Mollusca (Aplysia dactylomela), Arthropoda (Percnon gibbesi) and Cordata (Fistularia commersonii, Kyphosus vaigiensis and Stephanolepis diaspros). The overall Mediterranean presence of one further taxon recorded from the area, Zygochlamys patagonica (Mollusca), is here confuted since recent findings of living specimens with certain data are missing. One loose valve of “Pinctada imbricata radiata (Mollusca)” was found in 2010 at Favignana, but we did not include it in the list of alien species, pending further finding of living or dead specimens. Unpublished distributional data are reported for some of these species, and their known distribution in the Aegadian Archipelago is mapped. Records of P. gibbesi (a conspicuous number of specimens) constitute the first for the archipelago. All the species included in the present paper were recorded after the Egadi Islands Marine Protected Area was established, with the first record dating back to 2000. This is presumably due to the recent increase in research programs on marine reserves. Finally, we provide the establishment status of all the recorded species updated to 2015, and discuss why unaided spread (whether alien or native) and/or transport-stowaway constitute the more plausible vectors of introduction.


Egadi Islands Marine Protected Area Italy Mediterranean Sea Review Marine alien and cryptogenic species 



The authors thank Ernesto Azzurro, Luca Castriota, Stefano Melchioni, Gabriele Sercia, Vito Vaccaro and Bruno Zava for providing photos, information and records. They also thank Dr. Elisabetta Oddo for improving the English text. The study of the alien species from Italy was partially funded by the East and South European Network for Invasive Alien Species—a tool to support the management of alien species in Bulgaria (ESENIAS-TOOLS) (EEA funded: Contract No. Д-33-51/30.06.2015) (FC).


  1. Abelló P, Visauta E, Bucci A, Demestre M (2003) Noves dades sobre l’expansió del cranc Percnon gibbesi (Brachyura: Grapsidae: Plagusiinae) a la Mediterrània occidental. Boll Soc Hist Nat Balears 46:73–77Google Scholar
  2. Andreakis N, Procaccini G, Kooistra W (2004) Asparagopsis taxiformis and Asparagopsis armata (Bonnemaisoniales, Rhodophyta): genetic and morphological identification of Mediterranean populations. Eur J Phycol 39:273–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andreakis N, Procaccini G, Maggs C, Kooistra WHCF (2007) Phylogeography of the invasive seaweed Asparagopsis (Bonnemaisoniales, Rhodophyta) reveals cryptic diversity. Mol Ecol 16:2285–2299CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Andreakis N, Kooistra WHCF, Procaccini G (2009) High genetic diversity and connectivity in the polyploid invasive seaweed Asparagopsis taxiformis (Bonnemaisoniales) in the Mediterranean, explored with microsatellite alleles and multilocus genotypes. Mol Ecol 18:212–226CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Azzurro E, Soto S, Garofalo G, Maynou F (2013) Fistularia commersonii in the Mediterranean Sea: invasion history and distribution modeling based on presence-only records. Biol Invasions 15(5):977–990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barone R, Di Martino V, Mannino AM (2003a) Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan in Sicily: distribution and reproductive strategies. Third European Phycological Congress (EPC3, Belfast, Ireland)Google Scholar
  7. Barone R, Mannino AM, Marino M (2003b) Asparagopsis taxiformis (Bonnemaisoniales, Rhodophyta): first record of gametophytes on the Italian coast. Bocconea 16(2):1021–1025Google Scholar
  8. Bax N, Williamson A, Aguero M, Gonzales E, Geeves W (2003) Marine invasive alien species: a threat to global biodiversity. Mar Policy 27:313–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Belton GS, Prud’homme van Reine WF, Huisman JM, Draisma SGA, Gurgel CFD (2014) Resolving phenotypic plasticity and species designation in the morphologically challenging Caulerpa racemosa–peltata complex (Chlorophyta, Caulerpaceae). J Phycol 50:32–54CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Benedetti-Cecchi L, Cinelli F (1989) Note on a Polysiphonia sp. (Rhodohyta, Ceramiales) collected at Rosignano Solvay (Western Mediterranean). Giorn Bot Ital 123:49–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Berthold G (1882) Die Bangiaceen des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. Fauna Flora Golfes Neapel, Monographie 8. Englemann, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  12. Bianchi CN (2007) Biodiversity issues for the forthcoming tropical Mediterranean Sea. Hydrobiology 580:7–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bouchet P (2015) Pinctada imbricata radiata (Leach, 1814). In: MolluscaBase (2015) World register of marine species.
  14. Boudouresque CF, Verlaque M (2002) Biological pollution in the Mediterranean Sea: invasive versus introduced macrophytes. Mar Pollut Bull 44:32–38CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Britton-Simmons KH, Abbott KC (2008) Short- and long-term effects of disturbance and propagule pressure on a biological invasion. J Ecol 96:68–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Burfeind DD, Pitt KA, Connolly RM, Byers JE (2013) Performance of invasive species within marine reserves. Biol Invasions 15:17–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Byers JE (2005) Marine reserves enhance abundance but not competitive impacts of a harvested nonindigenous species. Ecology 86:487–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carefoot TH (1987) Aplysia: its biology & ecology. Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev 25:167–284Google Scholar
  19. Carlton JT (1996) Biological invasions and cryptogenic species. Ecology 77(6):1653–1655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Carlton JT (2009) Deep invasion ecology and the assembly of communities in historical time. In: Rilov G, Crooks J (eds) Biological invasions in marine ecosystems. Springer, Berlin, pp 13–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Castriota L, Falautano M, Battaglia P, Oddo A, Andaloro F (2014) New biological data on Fistularia commersonii in the central Mediterranean Sea. Cybium 38(1):15–21Google Scholar
  22. Catra M, Alongi G, Serio D, Cormaci M, Furnari G (2006) The benthic algal flora on rocky substrata of the Egadi Islands, a marine protected archipelago off the western coast of Sicily (Italy, Mediterranean Sea). Nova Hedwigia 82:489–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [CBD] Convention on Biological Diversity (2014) Pathways of Introduction of Invasive Species, Their Prioritization, and Management. CBD (5 May 2014;
  24. Coll M, Piroddi C, Steenbeek J, Kaschner K, Ben Rais Lasram F, Aguzzi J, Ballesteros E, Bianchi CN, Corbera J, Dailianis T, Danovaro R, Estrada M, Froglia C, Galil BS, Gasol JM, Gertwagen R, Gil J, Guilhaumon F, Kesner-Reyes K, Kitsos MS, Koukouras A, Lampadariou N, Laxamana E, López-Fé de la Cuadra CM, Lotze HK, Martin D, Mouillot D, Oro D, Raicevich S, Rius-Barile J, Saiz-Salinas JI, San Vicente C, Somot S, Templado J, Turon X, Vafidis D, Villanueva R, Voultsiadou E (2010) The biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: estimates, patterns and threats. PLoS ONE 5(8):e11842. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0011842 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Cormaci M, Furnari G, Alongi G, Dinaro R, Pizzuto F (1992) On the occurrence in Sicily of three Florideophyceae new to the Mediterranean Sea. Bot Mar 35:447–450Google Scholar
  26. Cormaci M, Furnari G, Giaccone G, Serio D (2004) Alien macrophytes in the Mediterranean Sea: a review. Recent Res Devel Environ Biol 1:153–202Google Scholar
  27. Crocetta F, Renda W (2008) Further record of Chlamys lischkei (Bivalvia: Pectinoidea) in the Mediterranean Sea. Mar Biodiv Rec 1:e57. doi: 10.1017/S1755267207006045 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Deidun A, Castriota L, Falautano M, Maraventano G, Prazzi E, Andaloro F (2015) Documenting the occurrence of the Lessepsian fish Stephanolepis diaspros within the Strait of Sicily, central Mediterranean. J Black Sea/Medit Environ 21(1):1–11Google Scholar
  29. Delile AR (1813) Florae Aegyptiacae illustratio. In: Anon (ed) Description de l’Egypte ou recueil des observations et des recherches qui ont été faites en Egypte pendant l’expédition de l’armée française (1798–1801), Histoire naturelle, Vol. 2, Paris: France (Commission d’Egypte), pp 49–82Google Scholar
  30. Dijoux L, Viard F, Payri C (2014) The more we search, the more we find: discovery of a new lineage and a new species complex in the genus Asparagopsis. PLoS ONE 9(7):e103826. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0103826 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Dixon PS, Irvine LM (1977) Seaweeds of the British Isles. Volume 1 Rhodophyta. Part 1 Introduction, Nemaliales, Gigartinales. The Natural History Museum, LondonGoogle Scholar
  32. EC (European Commission) (2008) Developing an EU framework for invasive alien species discussion paper (Final).
  33. Evans J, Barbara J, Schembri PJ (2015) Updated review of marine alien species and other ‘newcomers’ recorded from the Maltese Islands (Central Mediterranean). Mediterr Mar Sci 16(1):225–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Feldman J, Feldman G (1942) Récherches sur les Bonnemaisoniacées et leur alternance de génération. Ann Sci Nat Bot Ser 11(3):75–175Google Scholar
  35. Furnari G, Cormaci M, Serio D (2001) The Laurencia complex (Rhodophyta, Rhodomelaceae) in the Mediterranean Sea: on overview. Cryptogamie, Algol 22:331–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Galil BS (2007) Loss or gain? Invasive aliens and biodiversity in the Mediterranean Sea. Mar Pollut Bull 55:314–322CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Galil BS, Goren M (2014) Metamorphoses: bioinvasions in the Mediterranean Sea. In: Goffredo S, Dubinsky Z (eds) The Mediterranean Sea. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 463–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Galil B, Boero F, Fraschetti S, Piraino S, Campbell M, Hewitt C, Carlton J, Cook E, Jelmert A, Macpherson E, Marchini A, Occhipinti-Ambrogi A, Mckenzie C, Minchin D, Ojaveer H, Olenin S, Ruiz G (2015) The enlargement of the Suez Canal and introduction of non-indigenous species to the Mediterranean Sea. Bull Limnol Oceanog 24(2):25–64Google Scholar
  39. Galil BS, Marchini A, Occhipinti-Ambrogi A (2016) East is east and West is west? Management of marine bioinvasions in the Mediterranean Sea. Estuar Coast Shelf S. doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2015.12.021
  40. Gianguzza P, Zava B, Bonaviri C, Monteverde G, Palmeri A, Riggio S (2006) First record of Caulerpa taxifolia (Caulerpales, Ulvophyceae) in the western Sicilian waters (Italy). Biol Mar Medit 13(1):591–592Google Scholar
  41. Golani D (2000) First record of the bluespotted cornetfish from the Mediterranean Sea. J Fish Biol 56:1545–1547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Golani D, Orsi-Relini L, Massutí E, Quignard JP, Dulčić J, Azzurro E (2015) CIESM atlas of exotic fishes in the Mediterranean.
  43. Gubbioli F, Nofroni I (1985) Note malacologiche dal mare di Alboran (Mediterraneo occidentale). Contributo 1. La Conchiglia 17(200–201):20–21Google Scholar
  44. ISPE (2007) Monitoraggio dei popolamenti ittici presenti nei caulerpeti alloctoni siciliani. ISPE ed., PalermoGoogle Scholar
  45. Jongma DN, Campo D, Dattolo E, D’Esposito D, Duchi A, Grewe P, Huisman J, Verlaque M, Yokes MB, Procaccini G (2013) Identity and origin of a slender Caulerpa taxifolia strain introduced into the Mediterranean Sea. Bot Mar 56:27–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jousson O, Pawlowski J, Zaninetti L, Meinesz A, Boudouresque CF (1998) Molecular evidence for the aquarium origin of the green alga Caulerpa taxifolia introduced to the Mediterranean Sea. Mar Ecol Progr Ser 172:275–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Katsanevakis S, Poursanidis D, Yokes MB, Mačić V, Beqiraj S, Kashta L, Sghaier YR, Zakhama-Sraieb R, Benamer I, Bitar G, Bouzaza Z, Magni P, Nike Bianchi C, Tsiakkiros L, Zenetos A (2011) Twelve years after the first report of the crab Percnon gibbesi (H. Milne Edwards, 1853) in the Mediterranean: current distribution and invasion rates. J Biol Res-Thessalon 16:224–236Google Scholar
  48. Katsanevakis S, Bogucarskis K, Gatto F, Vandekerkhove J, Deriu I, Cardoso AC (2012) Building the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN): a novel approach for the exploration of distributed alien species data. BioInvasions Rec 1(4):235–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Katsanevakis S, Zenetos A, Belchior C, Cardoso AC (2013) Invading European Seas: assessing pathway of introduction of marine aliens. Ocean Coast Manag 76:64–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Katsanevakis S, Coll M, Piroddi C, Steenbeek J, Ben Rais Lasram F, Zenetos A, Cardoso AC (2014) Invading the Mediterranean Sea: biodiversity patterns shaped by human activities. Front Mar Sci 1:32. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2014.00032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Klinger T, Padilla DK, Britton-Simmons K (2006) Two invaders achieve higher densities in reserves. Aquat Conserv-Mar Freshw Eco 16:30–311Google Scholar
  52. Lauret M (1967) Morphologie, Phenologie, repartition des Polysiphonia marins du littoral languedocien. I. Section Oligosiphonia. Nat Monspel ser Bot 18:347–373Google Scholar
  53. Lejeusne C, Chevaldonne P, Pergent-Martini C, Boudouresque CF, Perez T (2010) Climate change effects on a miniature ocean: the highly diverse, highly impacted Mediterranean Sea. Trends Ecol Evol 25:250–260CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Lipej L, Mavrič B, Dulčić J (2014) Northernmost record of the reticulated leatherjacket Stephanolepis diaspros Fraser-Brunner, 1940 in the Mediterranean Sea. Mediterr Mar Sci 15(1):198–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mannino AM, Balistreri P, Yokeş MB (2014) First record of Aplysia dactylomela (Opisthobranchia, Aplysiidae) from the Egadi Islands (western Sicily). Mar Biodiv Rec 7:e22. doi: 10.1017/S1755267214000190 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mannino AM, Balistreri P, Iaciofano D, Galil BS, Lo Brutto S (2015) An additional record of Kyphosus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825) (Osteichthyes, Kyphosidae) from Sicily clarifies the confused situation of the Mediterranean kyphosids. Zootaxa 3963(1):045–054CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Marchini A, Galil BS, Occhipinti-Ambrogi A (2015) Recommendations on standardizing lists of marine alien species: lessons from the Mediterranean Sea. Mar Poll Bull 101:267–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Meinesz A, Hesse B (1991) Introduction et invasion de l’algue tropicale Caulerpa taxifolia en Méditerranée Nord occidentale. Oceanol Acta 14(4):415–426Google Scholar
  59. Meinesz A, Belsher T, Thibaut T, Antolic B, Mustapha KB, Boudouresque CF, Chiaverini D, Cinelli F, Cottalorda JM, Djellouli A, El Abed A, Orestano C, Grau AM, Ivesa L, Jaklin A, Langar H, Massuti-Pascual E, Peirano A, Tunesi L, De Vaugelas J, Zavodnik N, Zuljevic A (2001) The introduced green alga Caulerpa taxifolia continues to spread in the Mediterranean. Biol Invasions 3:201–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Meusnier I, Valero M, Olsen JL, Stam WT (2004) Analysis of rDNA ITS1 indels in Caulerpa taxifolia (Chlorophyta) supports a derived, incipient species status for the invasive strain. Eur J Phycol 39:83–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Minchinton TE, Bertness MD (2003) Disturbance-mediated competition and the spread of Phragmites australis in a coastal marsh. Ecol Appl 13:1400–1416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Nizamuddin M (1991) The green marine algae of Libya. Elga, BernGoogle Scholar
  63. Occhipinti-Ambrogi A, Marchini A, Cantone G, Castelli A, Chimenz C, Cormaci M, Froglia C, Furnari G, Gambi MC, Giaccone G, Giangrande A, Gravili C, Mastrototaro F, Mazziotti C, Orsi-Relini L, Piraino S (2011a) Alien species along the Italian coasts: an overview. Biol Invasions 13:215–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Occhipinti-Ambrogi A, Marchini A, Cantone G, Castelli A, Chimenz C, Cormaci M, Froglia C, Furnari G, Gambi MC, Giaccone G, Giangrande A, Gravili C, Mastrototaro F, Mazziotti C, Orsi-Relini L, Piraino S (2011b) Erratum to: alien species along the Italian coasts: an overview. Biol Invasions 13:531–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Otero M, Cebrian E, Francour P, Galil B, Savini D (2013) Monitoring marine invasive species in Mediterranean marine protected areas (MPAs): a strategy and practical guide for managers. IUCN, Malaga (Spain)Google Scholar
  66. Paula J, Hartnoll RG (1989) The larval and post-larval development of Percnon gibbesi (Crustacea, Brachyura, Grapsidae) and the identity of the larval genus Pluteocaris. J Zool Lond 218:17–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pennings SC (1991) Spatial and temporal variation in recruitment of Aplysia californica Cooper: patterns, mechanisms and consequences. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 146:253–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Petersen HE (1918) Algae (excluding calcareous algae). Rep Danish Oceanog Biology (Exped. 1908–1910 Medit. adj. seas) 2:1–20Google Scholar
  69. Piazzi L, Meinesz A, Verlaque M, Akçali B, Antolić B, Argyrou M, Balata M, Ballesteros E, Calvo S, Cinelli F, Cirik S, Cossu A, D’Archino F, Djellouli AS, Javel F, Lanfranco E, Mifsud C, Pala D, Panayotidis P, Peirano A, Pergent G, Petrocelli A, Ruitton S, Žuljević A, Ceccherelli G (2005) Invasion of Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Caulerpales, Chlorophyta) in the Mediterranean Sea: an assessment of the spread. Cryptogamie, Algol 26(2):189–202Google Scholar
  70. Por FD (1978) Lessepsian migration. The influx of Red Sea biota into Mediterranean by way of the Suez Canal. Ecological Studies, 23. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  71. Relini M, Orsi L, Puccio V, Azzuro E (2000) The exotic crab Percnon gibbesi (H. Milne-Edwards, 1853) (Decapoda, Grapsidae) in the Central Mediterranean. Sci Mar 64:337–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Repetto G (1989) Nuovo ritrovamento in Mediterraneo di Chlamys lischkei (Bunker, 1850). Boll Malacol 25:261–262Google Scholar
  73. Schembri PJ, Barbara J, Deidun A, Lanfranco E, Lanfranco S (2015) It was only a matter of time: occurrence of Caulerpa taxifolia (Vahl) C. Agardh var. distichophylla (Sonder) Verlaque, Huisman and Procaccini in the Maltese Islands (Chlorophyta, Ulvophyceae, Caulerpaceae). BioInvasions Rec 4(1):9–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Steinitz W (1927) Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Küstenfauna Palästinas. I. Pubbl Staz Zool Napoli 8(3–4):311–353Google Scholar
  75. Trainito E (2003) Mediterranean harlequins, a field guide to Mediterranean sea slugs. Taphros, Olbia (Italy)Google Scholar
  76. Tsiamis K, Aydogan Ö, Bailly N, Balistreri P, Bariche M, Carden-Noad S, Corsinifoka M, Crocetta F, Davidov B, Dimitriadis C, Dragičević B, Drakulić M, Dulčić J, Escánez A, Fernández-Álvarez FA, Gerakaris V, Gerovasileiou V, Hoffman R, Izquierdo-Gómez D, Izquierdo-Muñoz A, Kondylatos G, Latsoudis P, Lipej L, Madiraca F, Mavrič B, Parasporo M, Sourbès L, Taşkin E, Tűrker A, Yapici S (2015) New Mediterranean biodiversity records (July 2015). Mediterr Mar Sci 16(2):472–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Valdés A, Alexander J, Crocetta F, Yokes B, Giacobbe S, Poursanidis D, Zenetos A, Cervera JL, Caballer M, Galil B, Schembri P (2013) The origin and dispersal pathway of the spotted sea hare Aplysia dactylomela (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia) in the Mediterranean Sea. Aquat Invasions 8:427–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Verlaque M (1989) Contribution à la flore des algues marines de Méditerranée: espèces rares ou nouvelles pour les côtes françaises. Bot Mar 32:101–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wallentinus I, Nyberg CD (2007) Introduced marine organisms as habitats modifiers. Mar Pollut Bull 55:323–332CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. West EJ, Barnes P, Wright J, Davis A (2007) Anchors aweigh: fragment generation of invasive Caulerpa taxifolia by boat anchors and its resistance to desiccation. Aquat Bot 87:196–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Zenetos A, Gofas S, Russo G, Templado J (2004) Molluscs. In: Briand F (ed) CIESM atlas of exotic species in the Mediterranean, vol 3. CIESM Publishers, Monaco, pp 1–380Google Scholar
  82. Zenetos A, Gofas S, Verlaque M, Çinar ME, García Raso JE Bianchi CN, Morri C, Azzurro E, Bilecenoglu M, Froglia C, Siokou I, Violanti D, Sfriso A, San Martìn G, Giangrande A, Katağan T, Ballesteros E, Ramos Espla A, Mastrototaro F, Ocaña O, Zingone A, Gambi MC, Streftaris N (2010) Alien species in the Mediterranean Sea by 2010. A contribution to the application of European Union’s Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Part I. Spatial distribution. Mediterr Mar Sci 11(2):381–493Google Scholar
  83. Zenetos A, Gofas S, Morri C, Rosso A, Violanti D, García Raso JE, Çinar ME, Almogi-Labin A, Ates AS, Azzurro E, Ballesteros E, Bianchi CN, Bilecenoglu M, Gambi MC, Giangrande A, Gravili C, Hyams-Kaphzan O, Karachle PK, Katsanevakis S, Lipej L, Mastrototaro F, Mineur F, Pancucci-Papadopoulou MA, Ramos Esplá A, Salas C, San Martín G, Sfriso A, Streftaris N, Verlaque M (2012) Alien species in the Mediterranean Sea by 2012. A contribution to the application of European Union’s Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Part 2. Patterns in introduction trends and pathways. Mediterr Mar Sci 13(2):328–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna Maria Mannino
    • 1
  • Manfredi Parasporo
    • 2
  • Fabio Crocetta
    • 3
  • Paolo Balistreri
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Section of Botany and Plant EcologyUniversity of PalermoPalermoItaly
  2. 2.FavignanaItaly
  3. 3.Hellenic Centre for Marine ResearchInstitute of Marine Biological Resources and Inland WatersAnavyssosGreece

Personalised recommendations