Advertisement

Marine Biodiversity

, Volume 47, Issue 2, pp 603–608 | Cite as

Fish cleaning interactions on a remote island in the Tropical Eastern Pacific

  • Juan Pablo Quimbayo
  • M. S. Dias
  • O. R. C. Schlickmann
  • T. C. Mendes
Short Communication

Abstract

Cleaning interactions are an essential feature of marine ecosystems since they help maintain a healthy community. However, knowledge on the magnitude of the cleaning interactions in the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) is scarce, especially in remote places like oceanic islands. Here, we describe for the first time the cleaning interactions among reef fishes at Malpelo Island, a World Heritage site located in the TEP. In 120 cleaning events at Malpelo, we have observed five fish species acting as cleaners and nineteen acting as clients. We observed one local endemic and four regional endemic species of the TEP among the cleaners, and five elasmobranchs and fourteen ray-finned species as clients. Our results show that Johnrandallia nigrirostris was the cleaner with the largest number of events and client species, whereas Lepidonectes bimaculatus was the most specific cleaner (i.e. it has only one client species). We observed that 56 % of the cleaning interactions involved a top predator as client. Our results suggest that the role of cleaner is executed by just few fish species at Malpelo Island, and that a high number of cleaning interactions occur with top predators (groupers, snappers, sharks, and rays), which could be an indication of the good conservation status of Malpelo.

Keywords

Mutualism Malpelo Island Oceanic island Reef fishes Elasmobranch Colombia 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was carried out under the “Eastern Tropical Pacific Seascape” initiative. We thank Carlos G. Muñoz, Jose J. Tavera and Erika P. Lopez for sharing information, videos and photos using as data in this manuscript, Osmar Luiz and Eric Garcia provided comments on versions of this manuscript. J.P.Q., M.S.D. (CNPq /PDJ n° 150784/2015-5) and T.C.M (PDE n° 202150/2014-3) tare in debt with CAPES and CNPq for financial support. We also acknowledge Fundación Malpelo y Otros Ecosistemas by logistic organization, Colombian National Natural Parks for permits, Conservation International, Unesco, The Walton Family Foundation and Fondo para la Acción Ambiental y la Niñez for funding research at Malpelo Island.

References

  1. Aburto-Oropeza O, Sala E, Sánchez-Ortiz A (2000) Feeding behavior, habitat use, and abundance of the angel fish Holacanthus passer (Pomacanthidae) in the southern Sea of Cortés. Environ Biol Fish 57:435–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aburto-Oropeza O, Erisman B, Galland GB, Mascarenas-Osorio I, Sala E, Ezcurra E (2011) Large recovery of fish biomass in a No-Take marine reserve. Plos ONE 6:e23601Google Scholar
  3. Alzate A, Llanes TJ, Rodríguez-Moreno M, Zapata FA (2006) Interacciones de limpieza entre peces en arrecifes coralinos y rocosos de Isla Gorgona. In: Informe del estado de los ambientes marinos y costeros en Colombia: Año 2005, vol. 8. Santa Marta, Colombia, pp 130–142Google Scholar
  4. Arnal C, Verneau O, Desdevises Y (2006) Phylogenetic relationships and evolution of cleaning behaviour in the family Labridae: importance of body colour pattern. J Evol Biol 19:755–763CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Baliga VB, Mehta RS (2014) Scaling patterns inform ontogenetic transitions away from cleaning in Thalassoma wrasses. J Exp Biol 217:3597–3606CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Baliga VB, Mehta RS (2015) Linking cranial morphology to prey capture kinematics in three cleaner wrasses: Labroides dimidiatus, Larabicus quadrilineatus, and Thalassoma lutescens. J Morphol 276:1377–1391CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bellwood DR, Wainwright PC, Fulton CJ, Hoey AS (2006) Functional versatility supports coral reef biodiversity. Proc R Soc Lond B 273:101–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bessudo S, Soler GA, Klimley AP, Ketchum JT, Hearn A, Arauz R (2011) Residency of the scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) at Malpelo Island and evidence of migration to other islands in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Environ Biol Fish 91:165–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chasqui LV, Zapata FA (2007) Tamaño y composición de dos formaciones coralinas del SFF Malpelo, Pacifico colombiano. In: Informe del estado de los ambientes marinos y costeros en Colombia: Año 2007, vol. 8. Santa Marta, Colombia, pp 96–98.Google Scholar
  10. Cheney KL, Grutter AS, Blomberg SP, Marshall NJ (2009) Blue and yellow signal cleaning behavior in coral reef fishes. Curr Biol 19:1283–1287CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Côté IM (2000) Evolution and ecology of cleaning symbiosis in the sea. Oceanogr Mar Biol 38:311–355Google Scholar
  12. Cowman PF, Bellwood DR, Van Herwerden L (2009) Dating the evolutionary origins of wrasse lineages (Labridae) and the rise of trophic novelty on coral reefs. Mol Phylogenet Evol 52:621–631CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Craig MT, Sadovy YJ, Heenstrand PC (2011) Groupers of the world: a field and market guide, NISC, GrahamstownGoogle Scholar
  14. Eckes M, Dove S, Siebeck UE, Grutter AS (2015) Fish mucus versus parasitic gnathiid isopods as sources of energy and sunscreens for a cleaner fish. Coral Reefs 34:823–833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Feary DA, Wellenreuther M, Clements KD (2009) Trophic ecology of New Zealand triplefin fishes (Family Tripterygiidae). Mar Biol 156:1703–1714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Garzon-Ferreira J, Pinzón JH (1999) Evaluación rápida de estructura y salud de las formaciones coralinas de la Isla de Malpelo (Pacífico Colombiano). In: Informe del estado de los ambientes marinos y costeros en Colombia: Año 1998, vol. 28. Santa Marta, Colombia, pp 137–154Google Scholar
  17. Grutter AS, Rumney JG, Sinclair-Taylor T, Waldie P, Franklin CE (2011) Fish mucous cocoons: the “mosquito nets” of the sea. Biol Lett UK 7:292–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hobson ES (1965) Diurnal-nocturnal activity of some inshore fishes in the Gulf of California. Copeia 3:291–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Johnson WS, Ruben P (1988) Cleaning behavior of Bodianus rufus, Thalassoma bifasciatum, Gobiosoma evelynae, and Periclimenes pedersoni along a depth gradient at Salt River Submarine Canyon, St. Croix. Environ Biol Fish 23:225–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Knudsen SW (2013) Revision of the family Kyphosidae (Teleostei: Perciformes). Zootaxa 3751(1):1–110CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. López-Victoria M, Rozo DM (2006) Model-based geomorphology of Malpelo Island and spatial distribution of breeding seabirds. Bol Invest Mar Cost 35:111–131Google Scholar
  22. Losey GS (1972) The ecological importance of cleaning symbiosis. Copeia 4:960–970Google Scholar
  23. McCosker JE, Rosenblatt RH (1975) Fishes collected at Malpelo Island. In: Graham JB (ed) The biological investigation of Malpelo Island, Colombia, vol. 176. Washington, USA, pp 91–93Google Scholar
  24. Mora C (2015) Large-scale patterns and processes in reef fish richness. In: Mora C (ed) Ecology of fishes on coral reefs. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 88–103Google Scholar
  25. Mouillot D, Villéger S. Parrivicini V, Kulbicki M et al (2014) Functional over-redundancy and high functional vulnerability in global fish faunas on tropical reefs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 13757–13762. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1317625111
  26. Nelson JS (2006) Fish of the world (4th edn). Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  27. Oliver SP, Hussey NE, Turner JR, Beckett AJ (2011) Oceanic sharks clean at coastal seamount. PLoS ONE 6(3):e14755. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0014755 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Quimbayo JP, Zapata FA, Floeter SR, Bessudo S, Sazima I (2010) First record of cleaning by a triplefin blenny in the Tropical Pacific. Coral Reefs 29:909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Quimbayo JP, Floeter SR, Noguchi R, Rangel CA, Gasparini JL, Sampaio CLS, Ferreira CEL, Rocha LA (2012) Cleaning mutualism in Santa Luzia (Cape Verde Archipelago) and São Tomé Islands, Tropical Eastern Atlantic. Mar Biodivers Rec 5:e118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Quimbayo JP, Zapata FA, Floeter SR, Bessudo S, Sazima I (2014) Reef fish foraging associations at Malpelo Island, Colombia (Tropical Eastern Pacific). Bol Invest Mar Cost 43:183–193Google Scholar
  31. Robertson DR, Allen GR (2015) Shore fishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific online information system. Version 1.0. http://biogeodb.stri.si.edu/sftep. Accessed 13 Dec 2015
  32. Sims CA, Riginos C, Blomberg SP, Huelsken T, Drew J, Grutter AS (2014) Cleaning up the biogeography of Labroides dimidiatus using phylogenetics and morphometrics. Coral Reefs 33:223–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Soler GA, Bessudo S, Guzmán A (2013) Long term monitoring of pelagic fishes at Malpelo Island, Colombia. Lat Am J Conserv 3:28–37Google Scholar
  34. Thomson DA, Findley LT, Kerstitch AN (2000) Reef fishes of the Sea of Cortez. University of Texas Press, AustinGoogle Scholar
  35. Zapata FA, Robertson DR (2007) How many shore fishes are there in the Tropical Eastern Pacific. J Biogeogr 34:38–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zapata FA, Vargas-Ángel B (2003) Corals and coral reefs of the Pacific coast of Colombia. In: Cortes J (ed) Latin American Coral Reefs. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 419–448Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Juan Pablo Quimbayo
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • M. S. Dias
    • 4
  • O. R. C. Schlickmann
    • 2
  • T. C. Mendes
    • 5
  1. 1.Programa de Pós-graduação em EcologiaUniversidade Federal de Santa CatarinaFlorianópolisBrazil
  2. 2.Laboratório de Biogeografia e Macroecologia Marinha, Departamento de Ecologia e Zoologia, Centro de Ciências BiológicasUniversidade Federal de Santa CatarinaFlorianópolisBrazil
  3. 3.Grupo de Investigación en Ecología de Arrecifes CoralinosUniversidad del ValleCaliColombia
  4. 4.Departamento de EcologiaUniversidade de BrasíliaBrasíliaBrazil
  5. 5.Institute de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), UMR “Entropie”, Labex CorailUniversité de PerpignanPerpignanFrance

Personalised recommendations