Marine Biodiversity

, Volume 44, Issue 3, pp 343–365 | Cite as

Two new species of Rhynchonema Cobb, 1920 from a Brazilian sandy beach

Diversity of marine meiofauna on the coast of Brazil

Abstract

Rhynchonema Cobb, 1920 is a genus with worldwide distribution. It is found in diverse coastal environments ranging from brackish water to exposed beaches in intertidal and low subtidal zones, from clay to coarse sand and in sediments under seagrass beds. In this study we describe two new tropical species from Northeast South America: Rhynchonema cemae sp.n. and R. veronicae sp. n. from Olinda’s Isthmus, Pernambuco, Brazil. These two species are mainly characterized by the shapes of the spicules and gubernaculum, which are described here for the first time. The two species can be differentiated primarily on the basis of the spicules, which in R. cemae are symmetrical, fine and long, while in R. veronicae they are asymmetrical, more robust and shorter. We describe for the first time the presence of Rhynchonema species on the east side of South America and provide a review of the genus and a polytomous identification key. Our review of the literature and construction of a polytomous key demonstrated that most of the species descriptions are incomplete.

Keywords

Rhynchonema sp.n Sandy beach Tropical Marine nematode Revision South America 

References

  1. Allgen C (1940) Über einige neue freilebende Nematoden von der Nordwest- und Nordküste Norwegens. Folia Zool Hydrobiol 10:443–449Google Scholar
  2. Aryuthaka C (1989) Two new species of the genus Rhynchonema (Nematoda, Xyalidae) from Amakusa, south Japan. Hydrobiologia 171(1):3–10. doi:10.1007/BF00005719
  3. Boisseau JP (1957) Technique pour l’étude quantitative de la faune interstitielle des sables. C R Congr Soc Savantes Paris Dep Sci 117 (119)Google Scholar
  4. Boucher G (1974) Six especes nouvelles du genre Rhynchonema (Rhynchonematinae–nematoda). Cah Biol Mar XV:447–463Google Scholar
  5. Bussau C (1993) Taxonomische und ökologische Untersuchungen an Nematoden des Peru-Beckens. Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doctorgrades der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen. Fakultät der Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, KielGoogle Scholar
  6. Calles-Procel AK (2007) Spatial and temporal patterns of meifauna along Ecuadorian sandy beaches, with a focus on nematode biodiversity. PhD thesis. Faculty of Sciences. Ghent University, GhentGoogle Scholar
  7. Cobb N (1920) One hundred new nemas (type species of 100 new genera). Contrib Sci Nematol 9:1–64Google Scholar
  8. De Grisse AT (1969) Redescription ou modification de quelques techniques utilisees dans l’etude de nematodes phytoparasitaires. Meded Rijksfakulteit Landbouwwet Gent 34:351–369Google Scholar
  9. Fonseca G, Bezerra TN (2014) Order Monhysterida. Filipjev, 1929. In: Schmidt-Rhaesa A (ed) Handbook of zoology, 1st ed. De Gruyter, Berlin, pp 435–465Google Scholar
  10. Fonsêca-Genevois V (1987) Ecologie des méio-et-mixofaunes d’une vasière de l’estuaire de la Loire. Correlations avec le milieu sédimentaire et ses eaux interstitielles. Thèse de Doctorat d’Etat. Sciences Naturelles, Université de Nantes, NantesGoogle Scholar
  11. Gerlach S (1953a) Die Nematodenbesiedlung des Sandstrandes und des Küstengrundwassers an der italienischen Küste I. Systematicher Teil. Archo Zool Ital 37:517–640Google Scholar
  12. Gerlach S (1953b) Die Nematodenfauna der Uferzonen und des Küstengrundwassers im Finnischen Meerbusen. Acta zool. Fenn Societas pro fauna et flora Fennica 73:1–32Google Scholar
  13. Gerlach S (1955) Zur kenntnis der freilebenden marinen nematoden von San Salvador. Z wiss Zool 158:249–303Google Scholar
  14. Gerlach SA, Riemann, F (1973) The Bremerhaven checklist of aquatic nematodes. A catalogue of nematoda Adenophorea excluding the Dorylaimida. Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für Meeresforschung Bremerhaven Suppl. Bremerhaven, Institute of Marine Research, pp 1–736Google Scholar
  15. Gourbault N (1982) Nematodes marins de Guadeloupe. I. Xyalidae nouveaux des genres Rhynchonema Cobb et Prorhynchonema nov. gen. Bull Mus natn Hist Nat., Paris 4, Section A nos 1-2:78–87Google Scholar
  16. Hopper B (1961) Marine nematodes from the coast line of the Gulf of Mexico. Can J Zool 39:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Huang H, Liu S (2002) One new species of free-living marine nematodes from southeastern beach of Xiamen Island. J Oceanogr. Taiwan Strait (Taiwan Haixia) 21(2):177–180Google Scholar
  18. King IW, Waumann D, De Ley P (2007) New record and SEM of Rhynchonema ornatum (Lorenzen, 1975) from the Sea of Cortez, Mexico, with notes on Rhynchonema amakusanum (Aryuthaka, 1989). In: Society of Nematologists 46th Annual Meeting. J Nematol 39(1):67–104Google Scholar
  19. Lorenzen S (1972) Die Nematodenfauna im Verklappungsgebiet für Industriabwasser nordwestlich von Helgoland I. Araeolaimida und Monhysterida. Zool Anz Leipzig 187:223–248Google Scholar
  20. Lorenzen S (1975) Rynchonema-Arten (Nematodes, Monhysteridae ) aus Südamerika und Europa. Mikrofauna Meeresbodens 55:1–29Google Scholar
  21. Murphy D (1964) Rhynconema subsetosa, a new species of marine nematode, with a note on the genus Phylolaimus Murphy, 1963. Proc Helminthol Soc Wash 31(1):26–28Google Scholar
  22. Nicholas W, Stewart A (1995) New genera, species and a new subfamily of Xyalidae (Nematoda, Monhysterida) from ocean beaches in Australia and Thailand. Trans R Soc S Aust 119(2):47–66Google Scholar
  23. Peso, M (2007) Electronic key for the species of the genus Rhynchonema. Available at: http://nemys.ugent.be. Version 1/2007. Accessed at http://www.marinespecies.org/deblauwehans/aphia.php?p=idkeys_redirect&page=licence&taxon=400&keyid=65
  24. Vitiello P (1967) Deux nouvelles especes du genre Rhynchonema (Nematoda, Monhysteridae). Bull Soc Zool Fr 92(1):1–9Google Scholar
  25. Warwick R, Platt H, Somerfield P (1998) Free-living marine nematodes: part III Monhysterids: pictorial key to world genera and notes for the identification of British species. Synopses of the British fauna (New Series), 53. Field Studies Council, ShrewsburyGoogle Scholar
  26. Wieser W (1956) Free-living Marine Nematodes III. Axonolaimoidea and Monhysteroidea. Acta Univ Lund (NF 2) 52:1–115Google Scholar
  27. Wieser W (1959) Reports of the Lund University Chile expedition 1948–1949. 34. Free-living marine nematodes IV: General part. Lunds Universitets Årsskrift. Ny Följd Avd 2 55(5):1–112Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiologyGhent UniversityGhentBelgium
  2. 2.Department of BiologyGhent UniversityGhentBelgium

Personalised recommendations