Advertisement

Marine Biodiversity

, Volume 43, Issue 4, pp 293–319 | Cite as

Two new closely related deep-sea species of Paramesochridae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) with extremely differing geographical range sizes

  • Karin Pointner
  • Terue Cristina Kihara
  • Thomas Glatzel
  • Gritta Veit-KöhlerEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Two new species of Emertonia (Paramesochridae) were collected during cruises of RV “Meteor” to the Great Meteor Seamount (1998), the Angola Basin (2000) and the Guinea Basin (2005) and of RV “L’Atalante” to the Pacific Nodule Province (2004). The widely distributed Emertonia clausi sp. n. was represented by 13 individuals found in depths from 4,005 m to 5,389 m in Atlantic and Pacific abyssal plains. A revision of material from the plateau and the slope of the Great Meteor Seamount revealed that E. clausi sp. n. is one of the rare eurybathic species of Harpacticoida, as it was also found at the plateau and the slope of the seamount. Emertonia ingridae sp. n. was represented by two individuals reported only from the Atlantic Guinea Basin at 5,139 m and 5,167 m water depth. The new species are placed in Emertonia due to their characteristic swimming legs with 1-segmented endopods in P2–P4 with one apical setal element. E. clausi sp. n. and E. ingridae sp. n. are closely related species, as they have many characters in common, but differ in subtleties. Unique features of both, E. clausi sp. n. and E. ingridae sp. n., are the single seta in enp2 P1 and the structure of seta V of the furcal rami, which changes from robust to flexible after approximately 0.4 × the length of the seta. The robust part of the seta carries in E. ingridae sp. n. two spinule pairs, in E. clausi sp. n. three pairs, the distal pair being situated at the point of structure change. The drawn-out parts of the baseoendopods of the female P5 are cleft medially and angled at the distal ends in both species. The most obvious differences between the two species are the relationship of length to width of the furcal rami, the total length of the furcal rami compared to the three last body somites, the articulated/non-articulated base of seta VII at the furcal rami, and the presence/absence of a seta at the syncoxa of the maxilliped. The new species presented here raise the number of valid members of the genus to 39.

Keywords

Meiofauna CeDAMar DIVA-2 Abyssal plains Species description Morphological taxonomy Biogeography Cosmopolitan species 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Prof. Dr. Pedro Martínez Arbizu, Dr. Kai Horst George, Marco Bruhn (DZMB, Senckenberg am Meer), and Dr. Elke Willen (University of Oldenburg) for sampling the meiofauna during the three RV “Meteor” expeditions. Dr. Sybille Seifried (University of Oldenburg) handled the DIVA-1 material. The technical staff of the DZMB, Annika Hellmann, Jutta Heitfeld and Marco Bruhn, are thanked for sorting the DIVA-2 samples. Dr. Kai Horst George provided Paramesochridae of the Great Meteor Seamount. The NODINAUT material was sampled by Dr. Joëlle Galéron, Dr. Lénaïck Menot (IFREMER) and Prof. Dr. Pedro Martínez Arbizu, copepods were classified by Dr. Radith Mahatma (DZMB, Senckenberg am Meer). Dr. Hendrik Gheerardyn (Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences) determined the working species of Paramesochridae from the CeDAMar expeditions. This is a contribution to CeDAMar (Census of the Diversity of Abyssal Marine Life), a field project of the Census of Marine Life (CoML).

References

  1. Apostolov A, Marinov TM (1988) Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Fauna Bulgarica 18. Aedibus Acad Scient Bulgaricae Sofia 1–384Google Scholar
  2. Barnett PRO, Watson J, Connelly D (1984) A multiple corer for taking virtually undisturbed samples from shelf, bathyal and abyssal sediments. Oceanol Acta 7:399–408Google Scholar
  3. Boxshall GA, Halsey SH (2004) An introduction to copepod diversity. Ray Society, London 166:1–966Google Scholar
  4. George KH, Schminke HK (2002) Harpacticoida (Crustacea, Copepoda) of the Great Meteor Seamount, with first conclusions as to the origin of the plateau fauna. Mar Biol 144:887–895. doi: 10.1007/s00227-002-0878-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gheerardyn H, Veit-Köhler G (2009) Diversity and large-scale biogeography of Paramesochridae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) in South Atlantic abyssal plains and the deep Southern Ocean. Deep-Sea Res I 56:1804–1815. doi: 10.1016/j.dsr.2009.05.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Huys R (2009) Unresolved cases of type fixation, synonymy and homonymy in harpacticoid copepod nomenclature (Crustacea: Copepoda). Zootaxa 2183:1–99Google Scholar
  7. Klie W (1929) Die Copepoda Harpacticoida der südlichen und westlichen Ostsee mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Sandfauna der Kieler Bucht. Zool Jahrb 57:329–386Google Scholar
  8. Koller S, George KH (2011) Description of a new species of Zosime Boeck, 1872 (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Zosimeidae) from the Great Meteor Seamount, representing one of the few eurybathic Harpacticoida among the distinct plateau and deep-sea assemblages. Meiofauna Marina 19:109–126Google Scholar
  9. Kornev PN, Chertoprud EC (2008) Copepod crustaceans of the order Harpacticoida of the White Sea: Morphology, Systematics, Ecology. Biology Faculty, Moscow State University. Tovarishchestvo Nauchnikh Izdanii KMK, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  10. Kottmann J, Kihara TC, Glatzel T, Veit-Köhler G (2013) A new species of Wellsopsyllus (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Paramesochridae) from the deep Southern Ocean and remarks on its biogeography. Helgol Mar Res 67:33–48. doi: 10.1007/s10152-012-0302-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Krishnaswamy S (1951) Three new species of sand-dwelling copepods from the Madras coast. Ann Mag Nat Hist 4:273–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kunz H (1962) Revision der Paramesochridae (Crustacea Copepoda). Kieler Meeresforsch 18:245–257Google Scholar
  13. Kunz H (1974) Zwei neue afrikanische Paramesochridae (Copepoda Harpacticoidea) mit Darstellung eines Bewegungsmechanismus für die Furkaläste. Mikrofauna Meeresbod 36:1–20Google Scholar
  14. Kunz H (1981) Beitrag zur Systematik der Paramesochridae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) mit Beschreibung einiger neuen Arten. Mitt Zool Mus Univ Kiel 1:2–33Google Scholar
  15. Lang K (1934) Marine Harpacticiden von der Campbell-Insel und einigen anderen südlichen Inseln. Acta Univ Lund 30:1–56Google Scholar
  16. Lang K (1944) Monographie der Harpacticiden (Vorläufige Mitteilung). Almqvist & Wiksells Boktryckeri, Uppsala, 39pGoogle Scholar
  17. Mahatma R (2009) Meiofauna communities of the Pacific Nodule Province: abundance, diversity and community structure. PhD thesis, Carl von Ossietzky Universität, OldenburgGoogle Scholar
  18. McIntyre AD, Warwick RM (1984) Meiofauna techniques. In: Holme NA, McIntyre AD (eds.) Methods for the study of marine benthos, 2nd edn. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 217–244Google Scholar
  19. Menzel L, George KH (2012) Copepodid and adult Argestidae Por, 1986 (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) in the southeastern Atlantic deep sea: diversity and community structure at the species level. Mar Biol 159(6):1223–1238. doi: 10.1007/s00227-012-1903-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Menzel L, George KH, Martínez Arbizu P (2011) Submarine ridges do not prevent large-scale dispersal of abyssal fauna: a case study of Mesocletodes (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida). Deep-Sea Res I 58:839–864. doi: 10.1016/j.dsr.2011.05.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Michels J, Büntzow M (2010) Assessment of Congo red as a fluorescence marker for the exoskeleton of small crustaceans and the cuticle of polychaetes. J Microsc 238:95–101. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2818.2009.03360.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mielke W (1984) Einige Paramesochridae (Copepoda) von Panamá. Spixiana 7:217–243Google Scholar
  23. Mielke W (1985) Interstitielle Copepoda aus dem zentralen Landesteil von Chile: Cylindropsyllidae, Laophontidae, Ancorabolidae. Microfauna Marina 2:181–270Google Scholar
  24. Plum C, George KH (2009) The paramesochrid fauna of the Great Meteor Seamount (Northeast Atlantic) including the description of a new species of Scottopsyllus (Intermedopsyllus) Kunz (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Paramesochridae). Mar Biodiv 39:265–289. doi: 10.1007/s12526-009-0022-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Scott T (1892) Additions to the fauna of the Firth of Forth. Part IV. Rep Fish Board Scotl, Edinb 10:244–272Google Scholar
  26. Scott T, Scott A (1894) On some new and rare Crustacea from Scotland. Ann Mag Nat Hist 13:137–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Seifried S, Martínez Arbizu P (2008) A new and exceptional species of Bradya Boeck, 1873 (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Ectinosomatidae) from the abyssal plain of the Angola Basin and the variability of deep-sea Harpacticoida. Zootaxa 1866:303–322Google Scholar
  28. Thistle D, Sedlacek L (2004) Emergent and non-emergent species of harpacticoid copepods can be recognized morphologically. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 266:195–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Vasconcelos DM, Veit-Köhler G, Drewes J, Santos PJP (2009) First record of the genus Kliopsyllus Kunz, 1962 (Copepoda Harpacticoida, Paramesochridae) from Northeastern Brazil with description of the deep-sea species Kliopsyllus minor sp. nov. Zootaxa 2096:327–337Google Scholar
  30. Veit-Köhler G (2004) Kliopsyllus andeep sp. n. (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) from the Antarctic deep sea – a copepod closely related to certain shallow-water species. Deep-Sea Res II 51:1629–1641. doi: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2004.06.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Veit-Köhler G (2005) First deep-sea record of the genus Kliopsyllus Kunz, 1962 (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) with the description of Kliopsyllus diva sp. n. - the most abundant member of Paramesochridae at two different sites of the Angola Basin. Org Divers Evol 5:29–41. doi: 10.1016/j.ode.2004.10.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Veit-Köhler G, Drewes J (2009) Kliopsyllus schminkei sp. n. (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Paramesochridae) – a new copepod from the southeast Atlantic deep sea (Angola Basin). Zootaxa 2096:313–326Google Scholar
  33. Wells JBJ (1963) Copepoda from the littoral region of the estuary of the River Exe (Devon, England). Crustaceana 5:10–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wells JBJ (1967) The littoral Copepoda (Crustacea) of Inhaca Island, Mozambique. Trans R Soc Edinb 67:189–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wells JBJ (2007) An annotated checklist and keys to the species of Copepoda Harpacticoida (Crustacea). Zootaxa 1568:1–872Google Scholar
  36. Wilson CB (1932) The copepods of the Woods Hole region, Massachusetts. Bull US Natl Mus 158:1–635CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karin Pointner
    • 1
    • 2
  • Terue Cristina Kihara
    • 1
  • Thomas Glatzel
    • 2
  • Gritta Veit-Köhler
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Senckenberg am Meer, DZMB – German Centre for Marine Biodiversity ResearchWilhelmshavenGermany
  2. 2.Carl von Ossietzky University OldenburgDepartment of Biology and Environmental Science, Biodiversity and EvolutionOldenburgGermany

Personalised recommendations