Marine Biodiversity

, Volume 41, Issue 1, pp 141–179 | Cite as

Predictions of 27 Arctic pelagic seabird distributions using public environmental variables, assessed with colony data: a first digital IPY and GBIF open access synthesis platform

  • Falk Huettmann
  • Yuri Artukhin
  • Olivier Gilg
  • Grant Humphries
ARCTIC OCEAN DIVERSITY SYNTHESIS

Abstract

We present a first compilation, quantification and summary of 27 seabird species presence data for north of the Arctic circle (>66 degrees latitude North) and the ice-free period (summer). For species names, we use several taxonomically valid online databases [Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), AviBase, 4 letter species codes of the American Ornithological Union (AOU), The British List 2000, taxonomic serial numbers TSNs, World Register of Marine Species (WORMS) and APHIA ID] allowing for a compatible taxonomic species cross-walk, and subsequent applications, e.g., phylogenies. Based on the data mining and machine learning RandomForest algorithm, and 26 environmental publicly available Geographic Information Systems (GIS) layers, we built 27 predictive seabird models based on public open access data archives such as the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), North Pacific Pelagic Seabird Database (NPPSD) and PIROP database (in OBIS-Seamap). Model-prediction scenarios using pseudo-absence and expert-derived absence were run; aspatial and spatial model assessment metrics were applied. Further, we used an additional species model performance metric based on the best publicly available Arctic seabird colony location datasets compiled by the authors using digital and literature sources. The obtained models perform reasonably: from poor (only a few coastal species with low samples) to very high (many pelagic species). In compliance with data policies of the International Polar Year (IPY) and similar initiatives, data and models are documented with FGDC NBII metadata and publicly available online for further improvement, sustainability applications, synergy, and intellectual explorations in times of a global biodiversity, ocean and Arctic crisis.

Keywords

Pelagic circumpolar seabird distribution Open access online databases GIS (Geographic Information System) Circumpolar seabird colonies International Polar Year (IPY) Arctic biodiversity Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data mining synthesis 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to devote this research to R.G.B. Brown and R. O’Connor for their visions and life-long efforts regarding (arctic) pelagic seabirds, quantitative ecology and modeling .This study and its data are a gift to IPY and the polar and global audience; we hope it leaves a good legacy and can be used with success. We are grateful to IPY and the Arctic Frontiers 2010 conference organizers for encouraging and supporting this project. Special thanks goes to D. Carlson and the IPY team, the GBIF team, Census of Marine Life (COML), J. Ausubel and his team, ArcOD, B. Bluhm, B. Best (R code to harvest GBIF), A. Hahn (for large GBIF query help), the Polar Macroscope crew with CAML, V. Wadley, and H. Beyer (free Hawth’s GIS tools). We acknowledge specifically all data providers in GBIF (see Online Resource 2: THANKS SO MUCH), OBIS-Seamap, and submissions made by the Beringia Seabird Catalogue, NPPD, Bruno Danis at SCAR-MARBIN and other sources mentioned in this publication. We are to blame for potential oversights, data and processing errors. F.H. wishes to thank specifically S. Linke, the EWHALE lab, I. Rutzen for her thesis data work, A. Baltensperger and M. Lindgren for online queries, the AK GAP project, and D. Cairns and A.W. (Tony) Diamond for earlier collaborations and discussions. D. Steinberg from Salford Systems Ltd kindly provided an academic software license. We are very grateful to G.H. for doing most of the actual model-prediction runs. We further thank C. Zoeckler and four anonymous reviewers for input and improvements. M. Gavrilo and others provided friendly discussions, corrections and, some valuable publications. This is EWHALE lab publication #102.

Supplementary material

12526_2011_83_MOESM1_ESM.doc (24 kb)
Online Resource IList of major sources of bird banding data for the Circumpolar Arctic. (DOC 24 kb)
12526_2011_83_MOESM2_ESM.zip (372 kb)
Online Resource IIStudy Area shapefiles (coastline, Arctic Circle polygon and 21 Assessment Areas: Svalbard, Barents Sea, Kara Sea, Wrangel Island, Bering Sea, Franz-Josef-Land, New Siberian Islands, Severnaya Zemlya, Atlantic, West Greenland, North Alaska and Canada, Northeast Greenland, Northeast Canada, Nowaja Zemlya, Central Canadian Arctic, Central Arctic, Eastern Siberian Sea, Western Siberia Sea, Laptev Sea, Canadian Archipelago, East Greenland). (ZIP 371 kb)
12526_2011_83_MOESM3_ESM.doc (496 kb)
Online Resource IIINumber of records (by major dataset and provider) in GBIF (data was accessed 15th February 2010) over 66 degrees N latitude (Arctic circle) for the 27 species of this study. The North Pacific Pelagic Seabird Database (NPPSD) was also added externally to these data queries. No relevant online data were found for Aleutian tern, Heuglin’s Gull and Skua. (DOC 496 kb)
12526_2011_83_MOESM4_ESM.zip (2.8 mb)
Online Resource IVAll presence-only data in CSV (ASCII and jpgs) format for all species listed in Table 1. FGDC NBII Metadata are submitted and available with NBII at the Metadata Clearinghouse website. (ZIP 2846 kb)
12526_2011_83_MOESM5_ESM.zip (1.3 mb)
Online Resource Va) All presence/random data as shapefiles (ArcGIS9.3) for all species listed in Table 1 b) All presence/expert-derived absence data as shapefiles (ArcGIS3) for all species listed in Table 1. FGDC NBII Metadata are submitted and available with NBII at the Metadata Clearinghouse website. (ZIP 1318 kb)
12526_2011_83_MOESM6_ESM.zip (7.9 mb)
Online Resource VIIndividual high-resolution circumpolar seabird prediction maps in ArcGIS (ESRI GRID format) for 27 species of this study. FGDC NBII Metadata are submitted and available with NBII at the Metadata Clearinghouse website. (ZIP 8111 kb)
12526_2011_83_MOESM7_ESM.zip (26.6 mb)
Online Resource VIIAll compiled circumpolar seabird colony locations for the species studied in shapefiles and as jpgs. Data are merged from some available digital databases, and literature references. FGDC NBII Metadata are submitted and available with NBII at the Metadata Clearinghouse website. (ZIP 27245 kb)
12526_2011_83_MOESM8_ESM.doc (23 kb)
Online Resource VIIIList of additional 31 bird species suggested to be included in future marine studies of the circumpolar Arctic. (DOC 23 kb)

References

  1. Anisimov OA, Vaughan DG, Callaghan TV, Furgal C, Marchant H, Prowse TD, Vilhjalsson HH, Walsh JE (2007) Polar regions (Arctic and Antarctic). In: Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, van der Linden PJ, Hanson CE (eds) Climate Change 2007: impacts adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 653–685Google Scholar
  2. Anker-Nielssen T, Erikstad S-H, Lorentsen C (1996) Aims and effort in seabird monitoring: an assessment based on Norwegian data. Wildl Biol 2:17–26Google Scholar
  3. Anker-Nilssen T, Bakken V, Strom H, Golovkin AN, Bianki VV, Tatarinkova IP (2000) The status of marine birds breeding in the Barents Sea Region. Norsk Polarinst. Rapport 113Google Scholar
  4. Arctic Council (2004) Arctic Climate assessment. Fourth Arctic Council Ministerial Meeting, Reykjavik, IcelandGoogle Scholar
  5. Artukhin YB, Burkanov VB (1999) Seabirds and marine mammals of the Russian Far East (in Russian). AST Press, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  6. Bailey AM (1948) Birds of Arctic Alaska. Popular Series 8, Colorado Museum of Natural History, Denver, ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  7. Bakken V (2000) Seabird colony databases of the Barents Sea Region and the Kara Sea, 2nd edn. Norsk Polarinstitut, TromsoGoogle Scholar
  8. Bakken V, Falk K (1998) Incidental take of seabirds in Commercial Fisheries in the Arctic Countries. CAFF Technical Report No1. Circumpolar Seabird working groupGoogle Scholar
  9. Bakken V, Gavrilo M (1995) Registration of seabirds in the Laptev, Kara and Barents Seas. – Swedish- Russian Tundra Ecology – Expedition -94. A cruise report. Stockholm, pp 264–275Google Scholar
  10. Bakken V, Gavrilo M, Isaksen K, Strann K-B (1996) Selection of marine bird Valued Ecosystem Components and description of impact hypotheses in the Northern Sea Route Area. INSROP Working Paper No. 60Google Scholar
  11. Bandura A (2007) Impeding ecological sustainability through selective moral disengagement. Int J Innov Sust Develop 2:8–35Google Scholar
  12. Barrett RT, Bakken V, Krasnov Yu V (1997) Movements of kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla ringed in Norway. Ring Migr 18:25–32Google Scholar
  13. Belopolsky L O (1957) Ecology of marine colonial birds of the Barents sea, Moscow and Leningrad, Publishing House of the Academy of Sciences of USSR (in Russian)Google Scholar
  14. Birkhead T (1993) Great Auk Islands: a field biologist in the Arctic. Poyser, LondonGoogle Scholar
  15. Birt VL, Birt TP, Goulet D, Cairns DK, Montevecchi WA (1987) Ashmole’s halo: direct evidence for prey depletion by a seabird. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 40:205–208Google Scholar
  16. Bluhm B, Watts D, Huettmann F (2010) Free database availability, metadata and the internet: an example of two high latitude components of the census of marine life. Chapter 13. In: Cushman S, Huettmann F (eds) Spatial complexity, informatics and wildlife conservation. Springer, Japan, pp 233–244Google Scholar
  17. Boardman R (2006) The international politics of bird conservation: biodiversity. Regionalism and global governance. Edward Elgar, CheltenhamGoogle Scholar
  18. Boersma PD, Clark JA, Hillgarth N (2002) Seabird conservation. In: Schreiber EA, Burger J (eds) Biology of marine birds. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 559–580Google Scholar
  19. Boertmann D (1994) A annotated checklist to the birds of Greenland. Medd Grønland-Biosci 38:1–63Google Scholar
  20. Boertmann D, Mosbech A, Falk K, Kampp K (1996) Seabird colonies in western Greenland, (60°–79° 3′ N. lat). National Environmental Research Institute, Denmark. NERI Technical Report No. 170Google Scholar
  21. Booms T, Huettmann F, Schempf P (2009) Gyrfalcon nest distribution in Alaska based on a predictive GIS model. Polar Biol 33:1601–1612Google Scholar
  22. BOU (1999) The British list 2000. Tring, Herfordshire; British Ornithologists’ Union, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  23. Braune BM, Mallory ML, Gilchrist HG (2006) Elevated mercury levels in a declining population of Ivory Gulls in the Canadian Arctic. Mar Pollut Bull 52:978–982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Braun C (ed) (2005) Techniques for wildlife investigations and management. The Wildlife Society, BethesdaGoogle Scholar
  25. Breiman L (2001) Statistical modeling: the two cultures. Stat Sci 16:199–215Google Scholar
  26. Brinkley ES (2007) Field guide to birds of North America. Sterling, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Brooke MdeL (2002) Seabird systematics and distribution: a review of current knowledge. In: Schreiber EA, Burger J (eds) Biology of marine birds. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 57–86Google Scholar
  28. Brown RGB (1986) Revised Atlas of Eastern Canadian seabirds. Canadian Wildlife ServiceGoogle Scholar
  29. Brown RGB, Nettleship DN (1981) The biological significance of polyneas to Arctic colonial birds. Polynas in Canadian Arctic. Occas Pap Can Wildl Serv 45:59–66Google Scholar
  30. Brown RGB, Nettleship DN, Germain P et al (1975) Atlas of eastern Canadian seabirds. Canadian Wildlife ServiceGoogle Scholar
  31. Burger J, Gochfeld M (1996) Family Laridae (Gulls). In: del Hoyo J et al (eds) Handbook of the birds of the world, vol 3. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, pp 572–623Google Scholar
  32. CAFF (Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna) (1996) International murre conservation strategy and action plan. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, ReykjavikGoogle Scholar
  33. CAFF (Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna) (2001a) Arctic flora and fauna: status and conservation. Edita, HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
  34. CAFF (Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna) (2001b) Seabird Harvest Regimes in the Circumpolar Nations. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Technical Report No. 9Google Scholar
  35. CAFF (Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna) (2004) Distribution of murres outside the breeding season. “Circumpolar Murre Banding Program” North Atlantic Regions. CAFF Technical Report No. 13. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, ReykjavikGoogle Scholar
  36. Cairns D, Gaston AJ, Huettmann F (2008) Endothermy, ectothermy, and the global structure of marine vertebrate communities. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 356:239–250Google Scholar
  37. Chapin FS, Kofinas GP, Folke C (eds) (2010) Principles of ecosystem stewardship: resilience-based natural resource management in a changing world. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. Chapman AD, Wieczorek J (2006) Guide to best practices for georeferencing. Global Biodiversity Information Facility, Denmark, pp 1–80Google Scholar
  39. Cioc M (2010) The game of conservation: international treaties to protect the world’s migratory animals. Ohio University Press series in Ecology and History, AthensGoogle Scholar
  40. Costello M (2009) Motivating online publication of data. Bioscience 59:418–427Google Scholar
  41. Cramp S (1985) The birds of the Western Palearctic, vol IV. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  42. Cramp S, Simmons KEL (1977) The birds of the Western Palearctic, vol I. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  43. Cramp S, Simmons KEL (1983) The birds of the Western Palearctic, vo III. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  44. Crane K, Galasso JL (1999) Arctic environmental atlas. Office of Naval Research, Naval Research Laboratory, Hunter College, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  45. Cushman S, Huettmann F (2010) Spatial complexity, informatics and wildlife conservation. Springer, JapanGoogle Scholar
  46. Daelemans FF (1994) Polychlorinated biphenyls and some selected organochlorine pesticides in seabirds and marine mammals from the Svalbard archipelago. Dr. thesis, University of AntwerpenGoogle Scholar
  47. Day RH, DeGrange AR, Divoky GV, Troy DM (1988) Distribution and subspecies of the Dovekie in Alaska. Condor 90:712–714Google Scholar
  48. De Korte J, Volkov AE (1993) Large colony of Ivory Gulls (Pagophilea eburnea) at Domashniy Island, Severnaya Zemlaya. Sula 7:107–110Google Scholar
  49. del Hoyo J, Elliott A, Sargatal J (1992) Handbook of the birds of the world, vol 1. Lynx Edicions, BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  50. del Hoyo J, Elliott A, Sargatal J (1996) Handbook of the birds of the world, vol 3. Lynx Edicions, BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  51. Diamond AW, Gaston AJ, Brown RGB (1993) A model of the energy demands of the seabirds of eastern Arctic Canada. In: Montevecchi WA (ed). Studies of high-latitude birds. Canadian Wildlife Service, Occasional paper Number 77Google Scholar
  52. Dietrich KS, Parrish JK, Melvin EF (2009) Understanding and addressing seabird bycatch in Alaska demersal longline fisheries. Biol Cons 142:2642–2656Google Scholar
  53. Divoky GY (1976) The pelagic feeding habits of Ivory and Ross’s gulls. Condor 3:229–243Google Scholar
  54. Drew A, Wiersma Yo, Huettmann F (eds) (2010) Predictive modeling in landscape ecology. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  55. Egevang C, Boertmann D (2008) Ross’s Gulls (Rhodostethia rosea) breeding in Greenland: a review, with special emphasis on records from 1979 to 2007. Arctic 61:322–328Google Scholar
  56. Egevang C, Stenhouse IJ, Phillips RA, Petersen A, Fox JW, Silk JRD (2010) Tracking of Arctic terns Sterna paradisaea reveals longest animal migration. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:2078–2081PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Eldridge VD, Hodges GI, Syroechkoksiy EV, Krechmar EA (1993) The Russian–American aerial waterfol surveys in the North East Asia in 1992. Russ Ornitol Zh 2:457–461 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  58. Elith J, Graham CH (2009) Do they? How do they? Why do they differ? On finding reasons for differing performances of species distribution models. Ecography 32:66–77Google Scholar
  59. Elith J, Graham C, NCEAS working group (2006) Novel methods improve prediction of species’ distributions from occurrence data. Ecography 29:129–151Google Scholar
  60. Erikstad KE, Bustnes KE, Vader W (1988) Duration of ship-following by kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla in the Barents Sea. Polar Res 6:191–1994Google Scholar
  61. Evans PGH (1984) The seabirds of Greenland: their status and conservation. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  62. Falk K, Moeller S (1995) Colonies of northern fulmars and black-legged kittiwakes associated with the Northeast Water polynya, Northeast Greenland. Arctic 48:186–195Google Scholar
  63. Fauchald P, Erikstad KE, Systad GH (2002) Seabirds and marine oil incidents: is it possible to predict the spatial distribution of pelagic seabirds? J Appl Ecol 39:349–360Google Scholar
  64. Forsberg M (1995) Ivory Gulls flock to former military station. WWF Arct Bull 3:15Google Scholar
  65. Friesen VL, Montevecchi WA, Baker AJ, Barrett RT, Davidson WS (1996) Population differentiation and evolution in the Common Guillemot Uria aalge. Mol Ecol 5:793–805PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Frolov IE, Gudkovich ZM, Karklin VP, Kovalev EG, Smolyanitsky VM (2009) Climate change in Eurasian Arctic shelf seas. PraxisGoogle Scholar
  67. Full E (1999) The great auk. Abrams, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  68. Furness RW (1987) The skuas. Poyser, CaltonGoogle Scholar
  69. Furness RW, Monaghan P (1987) Seabird ecology. Blackie, GlasgowGoogle Scholar
  70. Gaston AJ (2004) Seabirds: a natural history. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  71. Gaston AJ, Jones IL (1998) The auks. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  72. Gaston AJ, Elliot RD (eds) (1991) Studies of high-latitudes seabirds. 2. Conservation biology of thick-billed murres in the Northwest Atlantic. Can. Wildl. Serv. Occ. Paper 69Google Scholar
  73. Gaston AJ, Nettleship DN (1981) The thick-billed murres of Prince Leopold Island – a study of the breeding ecology of a colonial high arctic seabird. Canadian Wildlife Service Monograph Series No 6Google Scholar
  74. Gavrilo M, Bakken V, Isaksen K (eds.) (1998a) The distribution, population status and ecology of marine birds selected as valued ecosystem components in the Northern Sea Route area. INSROP Working paper No 123 II.4.2Google Scholar
  75. Gavrilo M, Bakken V, Firsova L et al. (eds.) (1998b) Oil vulnerability assessment for marine birds occurring along the Northern Sea Route area. INSROP Working paper No 97Google Scholar
  76. Gibson DD, Byrd GV (2007) Birds of the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Nuttall Ornithological Club & The American Ornithologists’ UnionGoogle Scholar
  77. Gilchrist G, Strom H, Gavrilo M, Mosbech A (2008) International Ivory Gull conservation strategy and action plan. CAFFs Circumpolar Seabird Group. CAFF Technical report No 18. SeptemberGoogle Scholar
  78. Gilg O, Sane R, Solovieva RV, Pozdnyakov VI, Sabard B, Tsanos D, Zoeckler C, Lappo EG, Syroechkovski EE Jr, Eichhorn G (2000) Birds and mammals of the Lena Delta Nature Reserve, Siberia. Arctic 53:118–133Google Scholar
  79. Gilg O, Sabard B, Kampp K, Andreasen C, Scheifler R, Ioset J, Schwoehrer C, Druesne C, Wiest JP, Schreiber M, Geoffroy L, Barrat J-A (2005) Ecopolaris – Tara 5 expedition to NE Greenland 2004. GREA, FranchevilleGoogle Scholar
  80. Gilg O, Strøm H, Aebischer A, Gavrilo MV, Volkov A, Miljeteig C, Sabard B (2010) Post- breeding movements of the Northeast Atlantic Ivory gull populations. J Av Biol 41:532–542. doi:10.1111/j.1600-048X.2010.05125.x Google Scholar
  81. Graham CH, Ferrier S, Huettmann F, Moritz C, Peterson AT (2004) New developments in museum-based informatics and applications in biodiversity analysis. Trends Ecol Evol 19:497–503PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Grant PJ (1997) Gulls: a guide to identification, 2nd ed. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  83. Guisan A, Zimmermann NE (2000) Predictive habitat distribution models in ecology. Ecol Modell 135:147–186Google Scholar
  84. Harrison P (1983) Seabirds: an identification guide. Houghton Mifflin, BostonGoogle Scholar
  85. Hastie T, Tibshirani RJ, Friedman JH (2008) The elements of statistical learning: data mining, inference, and prediction. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  86. Hegel T, Cushman SA, Evans J, Huettmann F (2010) Current state of the art for statistical modelling of species distributions. Chapter 16. In: Cushman S, Huettmann F (eds) Spatial complexity, informatics and conservation. Springer, Japan, pp 273–312Google Scholar
  87. Hinzman LD, Bettez ND, Bolton WR, Chapin FS III, Dyurgerov MB, Fastie CL, Griffith B, Hollister RD, Hope A, Huntington HP, Jensen AM, Jia GJ, Jorgenson T, Kane DL, Klein DR, Kofinas R, Lynch AH, Lloyd AH, McGuire AD, Nelson FE, Nolan M, Oechel WC, Osterkamp TE, Racine CH, Romanovsky VE, Stone RS, Stow RA, Sturm M, Tweedie CE, Vourlitis GL, Walker MD, Walker DA, Webber PJ, Welker J, Winker KS, Yoshikawa K (2005) Evidence and implications of recent climate change in northern Alaska and other arctic regions. Clim Change 72:251–298Google Scholar
  88. Hodges YI, Eldridge WD (1994) Aerial waterfowl surveys oon the arctic coast of Eastern Russia, 1993. Unpublished Report, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, AnchorageGoogle Scholar
  89. Huettmann F (2000) Environmental determination of seabird distribution in the Northwest Atlantic. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of New Brunswick (UNB), Fredericton, New Brunswick, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  90. Huettmann F (2007) Constraints, suggested solutions and an outlook towards a new digital culture for the oceans and beyond: experiences from five predictive GIS models that contribute to global management, conservation and study of marine wildlife and habitat. In: Vanden Berghe E et al (eds) Proceedings of ‘Ocean Biodiversity Informatics’: an international conference on marine biodiversity data management Hamburg, Germany, 29 November–1 December, 2004. IOC Workshop Report, 202, VLIZ Special Publication 37, pp 49–61. http://www.vliz.be/vmdcdata/imis2/imis.php?module=ref&refid=107201
  91. Huettmann F (2008) Marine conservation and sustainability of the sea of Okhotsk in the Russian Far East: an overview of cumulative impacts, compiled public data, and a proposal for a UNESCO world heritage site. In: Nijhoff M (ed). Ocean Year Book 22:353–374, Halifax, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  92. Huettmann F (2009) The global need for, and appreciation of, high-quality metadata in biodiversity work. In: Spehn E, Koerner C (eds) Data mining for global trends in mountain biodiversity. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 25–28Google Scholar
  93. Huettmann F (2010) Modern adaptive management: adding digital opportunities towards a sustainable world with new values. In: Reck RA (ed) Climate change and sustainable development. Linton Atlantic, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  94. Huettmann F, Diamond AW (2001) Seabird colony locations and environmental determination of seabird distribution: a spatially explicit seabird breeding model in the Northwest Atlantic. Ecol Modell 141:261–298Google Scholar
  95. Huettmann F, Czech B (2006) Taking marine seabird conservation seriously: towards a steady state economy for the pacific and beyond. Pac Seabirds 33(2):52–54Google Scholar
  96. Huettmann F, Diamond AW (2006) Large-scale effects on the spatial distribution of seabirds in the Northwest Atlantic. Landscape Ecol 21:1089–1108Google Scholar
  97. Huettmann F, Hazlett S (2010) Changing the arctic: adding immediate protection to the equation. Alaska Park Science, U.S. National Park Service, Fairbanks, pp 118–121Google Scholar
  98. Humphries GRW (2010) The ecological niche of storm-petrels in the North Pacific and a global model of dimethylsulfide concentration. Unpublished MSc thesis. University of Alaska-Fairbanks. Fairbanks, AlaskaGoogle Scholar
  99. Hunt GL, Bakken V, Mehlum F (1996) Marine birds in the marginal ice zone of the Barents Sea in late winter and spring. Arctic 49:53–61Google Scholar
  100. Irons DB, Anker-Nilssen T, Gaston A, Byrd GV, Falk F, Gilchrist G, Hario M, Hjernquis M, Krasnov YV, Mosbech A, Olsen B, Petersen A, Reid JB, Robertson GJ, Strom H, Wohl KD (2008) Fluctuations in circumpolar seabird populations linked to climate oscillations. Glob Change Biol 14:1455–1463Google Scholar
  101. Isaksen K (1995) Distribution of seabirds at sea in the northern Barents Sea. Nor Polarinst Medd 135Google Scholar
  102. Kadmon R, Farber O, Danin A (2004) Effect of roadside bias on the accuracy of predictive maps produced by bioclimatic models. Ecol Appl 14:401–413Google Scholar
  103. Kampp K, Nettleship DN, Evans PGH (1994) Thick-billed Murres of Greenland: status and prospects. In: Nettleship DN, Burger J, Gochfeld M (eds) Seabirds on islands, threats, case studies and action plans. BirdLife Int., Conserv. Ser. No. 1, pp 133–154Google Scholar
  104. Kerry KR, Riddle MJ (eds) (2009) Health of Antarctic wildlife: a challenge for science and policy. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  105. Kessel B (1989) Birds of the Seward Peninsula. University of Alaska Press, AlaskaGoogle Scholar
  106. Knystautas A (1993) Collins guide to the birds of Russia. Collins, LondonGoogle Scholar
  107. Kondratyev A, Litvinenko Ya, Kaiser GW (eds) (2000) Seabirds of the Russian Far East. Ottawa, Can Wildl Serv, Spec PublGoogle Scholar
  108. Krasnov YV, Barrett RT (1995) Large-scale interactions among seabirds, their prey and humans in the southern Barents Sea. In: Skjoda HR, Hopkins C, Erikstad KE, Leinass HP (eds) Ecology of fjords and coastal waters. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 443–456Google Scholar
  109. Krasnov YV, Barrett RT (1997) The first record of North Atlantic Gannets Morus bassanus breeding in Russia. Seabird 19:54–57Google Scholar
  110. Krasnov YV, Barrett RT, Nikolaeva NG (2007) Status of black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), common guillemots (Uria aalge) and Brünnich’s guillemots (U. lomvia) in Murman, north-west Russia, and Varanger, north-east Norway. Pol Res 26:113–116Google Scholar
  111. Krasnov YV, Goryaev, Nikolaeva NG, Shavykin AA, Gavrilo MV, Chernook VI (2002) The Atlas of marine birds of the Pechora Sea. Apatity (in Russian)Google Scholar
  112. Krasnov YV, Shavykin AF, Spiridonov VA, Nikolaeva NG (2005) Problems of seabird protection in the time of the offshore hydrocarbon development in the Arctic seas. Proceedings of the 7th International conference on the Oil and Gas in the Russian Arctic and CIS continental shelf, St. Petersburg, 13–15 September 2005, pp 513–519Google Scholar
  113. Krechmar AV, Andreev AV, Kondratyev AY (1991) The birds of northern plains. Nauka. St.Petersburg (in Russian with English summary)Google Scholar
  114. Krupnik I, Jolly D (eds) (2002) The earth is faster now: indigenous observations of arctic environmental change. Arctic Research Consortium of the United States, FairbanksGoogle Scholar
  115. Leighton FA, Butler RG, Peakall DB (1985) Oil and Arctic marine birds: an assessment of risk. In: Engelhardt FR (ed) Petroleum effects in the Arctic environment. Elsevier, London, pp 183–215Google Scholar
  116. Lock AR, Petrie J, Griswold A (1997) PIROP – a database for mapping seabird distribution. Canadian Wildlife Service, Atlantic RegionGoogle Scholar
  117. Lyngs P (2003) Migration and winter ranges of birds in Greenland: an analysis of ringing recoveries. Dansk Ornithologisk Forenings Tidsskrift 97Google Scholar
  118. Mace GM, Cramer W, Diaz S, Faith DP, Larigauderie A, Le Prestre P, Palmer M, Perrings C, Scholes RJ, Walpole M, Walther BA, Watson JA, Mooney HA (2010) Biodiversity targets after 2010. Environ Sust 2:1–6Google Scholar
  119. Magness DR, Huettmann F, Morton JM (2008) Using random forests to provide predicted species distribution maps as a metric for ecological inventory & monitoring programs. In: Smolinski TG, Milanova MG, Hassanien AE (eds) Applications of computational intelligence in biology: Current trends and open problems. Studies in computational intelligence, vol 122. Springer, Berlin, pp 209–229Google Scholar
  120. Magness D, Morton JM, Huettmann F (2010) How spatial information contributes to the management and conservation of animals and habitats. Chapter 23. In: Cushman S, Huettmann F (eds) Spatial complexity, informatics and wildlife conservation. Springer, Japan, pp 429–444Google Scholar
  121. Martin VG, Tyler N (1995) The 5th Wolrd Wilderness Congress: Arctic wilderness. The International Wilderness Leadership (WILD) Foundation. Ojai, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  122. Mehlum F (1990) Seabird distribution in the northern Barents Sea marginal ice-zone during late summer. Polar Res 8:61–65Google Scholar
  123. Mehlum F (1997) Seabird species associations and affinities to areas covered with sea ice in the northern Greenland and Barents Seas. Polar Biol 18:116–127Google Scholar
  124. Mehlum F, Nordlund N, Isaksen K (1998) The importance of the polar front as a foraging habitat for guillemots Uria spp. At Bjoenoeya, Barents Sea. J Mar Syst 14:27–43Google Scholar
  125. Mendenhall VM, Anker-Nilssen T (1996) Seabird populations and commercial fisheries in the circumpolar region: do we need to worry? Circumpolar Seabird Bull 2:1–7Google Scholar
  126. Merkel F, Barry T (eds) (2008) Seabird harvest in the Arctic. CAFF International Secretariat, Circumpolar Seabird Group (CBird), CAFF Technical Report No. 16Google Scholar
  127. Moeller AP, Flensted-Jensen E, Mardal W (2007) Agriculture, fertilizers and life history of a coastal seabird. J Anim Ecol 76:515–525Google Scholar
  128. Mordecai R, Laurent E, Moore-Barnhill L, Huettmann F, Miller D, Sachs E, Tirpak J (2010) A field guide to web technology. Southeast Partners in Flight (SEPIF). http://sepif.org/content/view/62/1/
  129. Mosbech A, Dietz R, Boertmann D, Johansen P (1996) Oil exploration in the Fylla Area. An initial assessment of potential environmental impacts. National Environmental Research Institute, Technical Report No. 156Google Scholar
  130. National Research Council [NRC] (2003) Cumulative environmental effects of oil and gas activities on Alaska’s North Slope. National Academy Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  131. Nettleship DN (1991) Seabird management and future research: guest editorial. Colon Waterbirds 14:77–84Google Scholar
  132. Nettleship D, Burger J, Gochfeld M (eds) (1994) Seabirds on islands, threats, case-studies and action plans. Birdlife International, Conservation series No. 1Google Scholar
  133. Nettleship DN, Birkhead TR (eds) (1985) The Atlantic Alcidae: the evolution, distribution and biology of the auks inhabiting the Atlantic Ocean and Adjacent Water Areas. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  134. Nettleship DN (1996) Family Alcidae (Auks). In: del Hoyo J et al (eds) Handbook of the birds of the world. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, pp 678–722Google Scholar
  135. Newton I (2003) The speciation & biogeography of birds. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  136. Nikolaeva NG, Spiridonov VA, Krasnov YV (2006) In: Boere GC, Galbraith CA, Stroud DA (eds) Existing and proposed marine protected areas and their relevance for seabird conservation: a case study in the Barents Sea region. Waterbirds around the world. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, pp 743–749Google Scholar
  137. Norse EA, Crowder LB (2005) Marine conservation biology: the science of maintaining the sea’s biodiversity. Island Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  138. Ohse B, Huettmann F, Ickert-Bond S, Juday G (2009) Modeling the distribution of white spruce (Picea glauca) for Alaska with high accuracy: an open access role-model for predicting tree species in last remaining wilderness areas. Polar Biol 32:1717–1724Google Scholar
  139. Onley D, Scofield P (2007) Albatrosses, Petrels & Shearwaters of the world. Princeton University Press , PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  140. Oppel S, Huettmann F (2010) Using a random forest model and public data to predict the distribution of prey for marine wildlife management. Chapter 8. In: Cushman S, Huettmann F (eds) Spatial complexity, informatics and wildlife conservation. Springer, Japan, pp 151–164Google Scholar
  141. Oppel S, Strobel C, Huettmann F (2009) Alternative methods to quantify variable importance in ecology. Technical Report Number 65, Department of Statistics. University of Munich, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  142. Overpeck J, Hughen K, Hardy D, Bradley R, Case R, Douglas M, Finney B, Gajewski K, Jacoby G, Jennings A, Lamoureux S, Lasca A, MacDonald G, Moore G, Retelle M, Smith S, Wolfe A, Zielinski G (1997) Arctic environmental change of the last four centuries. Science 278:1251–1256Google Scholar
  143. Paneva TD (1989) Concentrations of nonbreeding gulls in the vicinity of Murmansk city. Ecology of birds on the Kola Peninsula 63-71 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  144. Pearce J, Ferrier S (2000) Evaluating the predictive performance of habitat models developed using logistic regression. Ecol Model 133:225–245Google Scholar
  145. Petersen AE (1994) Status and population changes of auks in Iceland. Circumpolar Seabird Bull 1:4–7Google Scholar
  146. Petersen AE, Irons D, Anker-Nilssen T, Artukhin Yu, Barrett R, Boertmann D, Egevang C, Gavrilo MV, Gilchrist G, Hario M, Mallory M, Mosbech A, Olsen B, Osterblom H,Robertson R, Strom H (2008) CAFFs Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program: Framework for a Circumpolar Arctic Seabird Monitoring Network. CAFF CBMP ReportGoogle Scholar
  147. Pittmann S, Huettmann F (2006) Chapter 4 - Seabird distribution and diversity. In: Battista TR, Pittmann CS (eds) An ecological characterization of the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Region: Oceanographic, Biogeographic, and Contaminants Assessment. Prepared by NCCOS’s Biogeography Team in cooperation with the National Marine Sanctuary Program. NOAA Technical Memorandum NCCOS 45. Silver Spring, Maryland, U.S.Google Scholar
  148. Rosales J (2008) Economic growth, climate change, biodiversity loss: distributive justice for the Global North and South. Cons Biol 22:1406–1417Google Scholar
  149. Rutzen I (2008) Predictive GIS-modeling of arctic mesozooplankton based on available public online data: Experiences from four copepod species (Calanus glacialis, C. hyperboreus, Metridia longa and M. pacifica). MSc thesis, University of HannoverGoogle Scholar
  150. Schreiber EA (2002) Climate and weather effects on seabirds. In: Schreiber EA, Burger J (eds) Biology of marine birds. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 179–216Google Scholar
  151. Schreiber EA, Burger J (2002) Biology of marine birds. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  152. Schweder T (2001) Protecting whales by distorting uncertainty: non-precautionary Mis-management. Fish Res 52:217–225Google Scholar
  153. Serreze MC, Walsh JE, Chapin FS III, Osterkamp T, Dyurgerov M, Romanovsky V, Oechel WC, Morison J, Zhang T, Barry RG (2000) Observational evidence of recent change in the northern high-latitude environment. Clim Change 46:159–207Google Scholar
  154. Shuntov VP (2000) Chapter 2. Far East seas as habitats for seabirds. In: Kondratyev A, Litvinenko NM, Kaiser GW (eds) Seabirds of the Russian Far East. Special Publication. Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, pp 21–36Google Scholar
  155. Sinclair PH, Nixon WA, Eckert CD, Hughes NL (2003) Birds of the Yukon. UBC Press, VancouverGoogle Scholar
  156. Slyus R (1982) Geographical variation of the Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla. Gerfaut 72:221–230Google Scholar
  157. Smith MA, Smith Q (2009) Atlas of the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. Audubon Alaska, in cooperation with Oceana, Anchorage, AlaskaGoogle Scholar
  158. Spehn E, Koerner C (ed) (2009) Data mining for global trends in mountain biodiversity. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  159. Stempniewicz L (1992) Manuring of tundra near a large colony of seabirds on Svalbard. In: Opalinsky KW, Klekowski RZ (eds) Landscape, life world and man in high Arctic. Inst. of Ecology, Polish Academy of Sciences, pp 255–269Google Scholar
  160. Stishov MS, Pridatko VI, Baranyuk VV (1991) The birds on the Wrangel Island. Nauka, Novosibirsk.(in Russian)Google Scholar
  161. Strann K-B, Vader W (1992) The nominate Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus fuscus, a gull with a tern-like feeding biology, and its recent decrease in northern Norway. Ardea 80:133–142Google Scholar
  162. Syroechkovkiy EE, Rogacheva EV (1994) The Great Arctic Reserve: problems of the Arctic Nature conservation. In: Arctic Tundras of Taimyr and Kara sea islands: nature, fauna and conservation problems, vol 1. Moscow, pp 17-43Google Scholar
  163. Thomassen J, Lovas SM, Loset S (1994) Environmental impact assessment – preliminary design. INSROP Discussion PaperGoogle Scholar
  164. Truett JC, Johnson SR (eds) (2000) The natural history of an Arctic oil field: development and biota. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  165. Uspenski SM (1956) The bird bazaars of Novaya Zemlya. Canadian Wildlife Service Translation of Russian Game Reports, vol 4. Ottawa (Translated from Russian, 1958)Google Scholar
  166. Uspenski SM, Beme RL, Velizhanin AJ (1963) Avifauna ostrova Wrangelya (Avifauna of Wrangel Island). Ornitologiya 6:58–67Google Scholar
  167. Uspenski SM (1969) Zhizn v vysokikh shirotakh na primere ptits. (Life in high latitudes. Demonstrated mainly on birds). Moscow, MyslGoogle Scholar
  168. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (1992) Alaska Seabird Management Plan. Unpublished report, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage, AlaskaGoogle Scholar
  169. Vaughan R (1991) In search of Arctic birds. Black, LondonGoogle Scholar
  170. Vanden Berghe E, Stock KI, Grassle JF (2010) Chapter 17: data integration: the ocean biogeographic information system. In: McIntyre AD (ed) Life in the world’s oceans: diversity, distribution, and abundance. Census of Marine Life (COML) and Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, pp 333–353 (hardback)Google Scholar
  171. VanDerWal J, Shoo LP, Graham C, Williams SE (2009) Selecting pseudo-absence data for presence-only distribution modeling: how far should you stray from what you know? Ecol Model 220:589–594Google Scholar
  172. Van Franeker JA, Camphuysen CJ, Mehlum F (1998) The birds of Jan Mayen. Circumpolar J 13:28–43Google Scholar
  173. Vuilleumier F (1996) Birds observed in the Arctic Ocean to the North Pole. Arct Alpine Res 28:118–122Google Scholar
  174. Walter KM, Zimov SA, Chanton JP, Verbyla D, Chapin FS (2006) Methane bubbling from Siberian thaw lakes as a positive feedback to climate warming. Nature 443:71–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Wannhoff U, Toermer K (1997) Commandor: Leben am Ende der Welt. Eigenverlag, DresdenGoogle Scholar
  176. Wayland M, Hoffman DJ, Mallory ML, Alisauskas RT, Stebbings KT (2010) Evidence of weak contaminant-related oxidative stress in Glaucous Gulls (Larus glaucoides) from the Canadian Arctic. J Toxic Env Health Part 1 73:1058–1073Google Scholar
  177. Weiser E (2010) Use of Anthropogenic Foods by Glaucous Gulls (Larus hyperboreus) in Northern Alaska. MSc thesis, University of Alaska, FairbanksGoogle Scholar
  178. Wiese F, Robertson G, Gaston A (2004) Impacts of chronic marine oil pollution and the murre hunt in Newfoundland on thick-billed murre Uria lomvia populations in the eastern Canadian Arctic. Biol Cons 116:205–216Google Scholar
  179. Wilson Rowe E (ed) (2009) Russia and the North. University Ottawa Press, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  180. Worm B, Myers RA (2003) Meta-analysis of cod-shrimp interactions reveals top-down control in oceanic food webs. Ecol 84:162–173Google Scholar
  181. Yen P, Huettmann F, Cooke F (2004) Modelling abundance and distribution of Marbled Murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus) using GIS, marine data and advanced multivariate statistics. Ecol Model 171:395–413Google Scholar
  182. Yergin D (1991) The epic quest for oil, money, and power. Simon & Schuster, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  183. Young OR (2002) The institutional dimensions of environmental change: fit, interplay, and scale. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  184. Young O, Steffen W (2009) The earth system: sustaining planetary life-support systems. In: Chapin FS, Kofinas GP, Folke C (eds) Principles of ecosystem stewardship: resilience-based natural resource management in a changing world. Springer, New York, pp 295–318Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Senckenberg, Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Falk Huettmann
    • 1
  • Yuri Artukhin
    • 2
  • Olivier Gilg
    • 3
    • 4
  • Grant Humphries
    • 1
  1. 1.EWHALE lab, Institute of Arctic Biology, Biology & Wildlife DepartmentUniversity of AlaskaFairbanksUSA
  2. 2.Laboratory of Ornithology, Kamchatka Branch of Pacific Inst. of GeographyRussian Academy of SciencePetropavlovsk-KamchatskyRussia
  3. 3.Laboratoire Biogéosciences, UMR CNRS 5561, Equipe Ecologie EvolutiveUniversité de BourgogneDijonFrance
  4. 4.Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Division of Population BiologyUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland

Personalised recommendations