Marine Biodiversity

, Volume 41, Issue 4, pp 537–544

Elevated species diversity in abyssal gastropods off Newfoundland: the potential role of food supply

  • Carol T. Stuart
  • Michael A. Rex
  • Derek P. Tittensor
  • Craig R. Smith
Original Paper

Abstract

We compare species diversity and composition in a large sample of deep-sea gastropods collected off Newfoundland and the Grand Banks (4,400 m) to samples from the continental rise (3,806-3,834 m) and abyssal plain (4,680-4,970 m) south of New England. The sample from Newfoundland shares half its species with the fauna found south of New England, but is distinguished compositionally from both continental rise and abyssal communities. Species diversity off Newfoundland is similar to diversity at continental rise depths, but significantly higher than at abyssal depths south of New England. Elevated abyssal diversity off Newfoundland is associated with higher surface production and rates of particulate organic carbon flux to the seafloor, suggesting that food supply potentially plays an important role in regulating diversity at great depths.

Keywords

Species diversity Deep sea Abyssal Gastropods Newfoundland Food supply 

References

  1. Allen JA (2008) Bivalvia of the deep Atlantic. Malacologia 50:57–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aller JY, Aller RC, Green MA (2002) Benthic faunal assemblages and carbon supply along the continental shelf/shelf break-slope off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. Deep-Sea Res II 49:4599–4625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chao A (1984) Non-parametric estimation of the number of classes in a population. Scand J Statist 11:265–270Google Scholar
  4. Diaz RJ, Blake JA, Cutter Jr GR (eds) (1994) Input, accumulation and cycling of materials on the continental slope off Cape Hatteras. Deep-Sea Res II 41:705-982Google Scholar
  5. Gage JD (1997) High benthic species diversity in deep-sea sediments: the importance of hydrodynamics. In: Ormond RFG, Gage JD, Angel MV (eds) Marine biodiversity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 148–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Glover AG, Smith CR, Paterson GLJ, Wilson GDF, Hawkins L, Sheader MS (2002) Polychaete species diversity in the central Pacific abyss: local and regional patterns, and relationships with productivity. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 240:157–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Grassle JF, Maciolek NJ (1992) Deep-sea species richness: regional and local diversity estimates from quantitative bottom samples. Am Nat 193:313–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Grassle JF, Smith W (1976) A similarity measure sensitive to the contribution of rare species and its use in investigation of variation in marine benthic communities. Oecologia 25:13–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Haedrich RL, Rowe GT, Polloni PT (1980) The megabenthic fauna in the deep sea south of New England, USA. Mar Biol 57:165–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hecker B (1990) Variation in megafaunal assemblages on the continental margin south of New England. Deep-Sea Res 37:37–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hessler RR, Sanders HL (1967) Faunal diversity in the deep-sea.Deep-Sea Res 14:65-78Google Scholar
  12. Hurlbert SH (1971) The nonconcept of species diversity: a critique and alternative parameter. Ecology 52:577–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Johnson NA, Campbell JW, Moore TS, Rex MA, Etter RJ, McClain CR, Dowell MD (2007) The relationship between the standing stock of deep-sea macrobenthos and surface production in the western North Atlantic. Deep-Sea Res I 54:1350–1360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jumars PA, Hessler RR (1976) Hadal community structure: implications from the Aleutian Trench. J Mar Res 34:547–560Google Scholar
  15. Levin LA, Etter RJ, Rex MA, Gooday AJ, Smith CR, Pineda J, Stuart CT, Hessler RR, Pawson D (2001) Environmental influences on regional deep-sea species diversity. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 32:51–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lutz MJ, Caldeira K, Dunbar RB, Behrenfeld MJ (2007) Seasonal rhythms of net primary production and particulate organic carbon flux describe biological pump efficiency in the global ocean. J Geophys Res 112:C10011. doi:10.1029/2006JC003706 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Maciolek NJ, Grassle JF, Hecker B, Brown B, Blake JA, Boehm PD, Petrecca R, Duffy S, Baptiste E, Ruff RE (1987a) Study of biological processes on the U.S. North Atlantic slope and rise, final report prepared for U.S. Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service, Washington, D.C., and appendices A-LGoogle Scholar
  18. Maciolek N, Grassle JF, Hecker B, Boehm PD, Brown B, Dade B, Steinhauer WG, Baptiste E, Ruff RE, Petrecca R (1987b) Study of biological processes on the U.S. Mid-Atlantic slope and rise, final report prepared for U.S. Department of the Interior Minerals Management Service, Washington, D.C., and appendices A-MGoogle Scholar
  19. Maciolek NJ, Smith WK (2009) Benthic species diversity along a depth gradient: Boston Harbor to Lydonia Canyon. Deep-Sea Res II 56:1763–1774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. McClain CR, Rex MA, Etter RJ (2009) Patterns in deep-sea macroecology. In: Witman JD, Roy K (eds) Marine macroecology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 65–100Google Scholar
  21. Rex MA (1973) Deep-sea species diversity: decreased gastropod diversity at abyssal depths. Science 181:1051–1053PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rex MA (1976) Biological accommodation in the deep-sea benthos: comparative evidence on the importance of predation and productivity. Deep-Sea Res 23:975–987Google Scholar
  23. Rex MA (1981) Community structure in the deep-sea benthos. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 12:331–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rex MA (1983) Geographic patterns of species diversity in the deep-sea benthos. In: Rowe GT (ed) The sea, vol 8. Wiley, New York, pp 453–472Google Scholar
  25. Rex MA, Etter RJ (2010) Deep-sea biodiversity: pattern and scale. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  26. Rex MA, Etter RJ, Nimeskern PW Jr (1990) Density estimates for deep-sea gastropod assemblages. Deep-Sea Res 37:555–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rex MA, McClain CR, Johnson NA, Etter RJ, Allen JA, Bouchet P, Warén A (2005) A source-sink hypothesis for abyssal biodiversity. Am Nat 165:163–178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rowe GT, Polloni PT, Haedrich RL (1982) The deep-sea macrobenthos on the continental margin of the northwest Atlantic Ocean. Deep-Sea Res 29:257–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sanders HL, Hessler RR (1969) Ecology of the deep-sea benthos. Science 163:1419–1424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sanders HL, Hessler RR, Hampson GR (1965) An introduction to the study of deep-sea benthic faunal assemblages along the Gay Head-Bermuda transect. Deep-Sea Res 12:845–867Google Scholar
  31. Smith CR, Berelson W, DeMaster DJ, Dobbs FC, Hammond D, Hoover DJ, Pope RH, Stephens M (1997) Latitudinal variations in benthic processes in the abyssal equatorial Pacific: control by biogenic particle flux. Deep-Sea Res II 44:2295–2317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Stuart CT, Rex MA (1994) The relationship between development pattern and species diversity in deep-sea prosobranch snails. In: Young CM, Eckelbarger KJ (eds) Reproduction, larval biology and recruitment in the deep-sea benthos. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 119–136Google Scholar
  33. Stuart CT, Rex MA (2009) Bathymetric patterns of deep-sea gastropod species diversity in 10 basins of the Atlantic Ocean and Norwegian Sea. Mar Ecol 30:164–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Stuart CT, Rex MA, Etter RJ (2003) Large-scale spatial and temporal patterns of deep-sea benthic species diversity. In: Tyler PA (ed) Ecosystems of the world, 28. Ecosystems of the deep oceans. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 297–313Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Senckenberg, Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carol T. Stuart
    • 1
  • Michael A. Rex
    • 1
  • Derek P. Tittensor
    • 2
    • 4
    • 5
  • Craig R. Smith
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of MassachusettsBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of BiologyDalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada
  3. 3.Department of OceanographyUniversity of HawaiiHonoluluUSA
  4. 4.UNEP World Conservation Monitoring CentreCambridgeUK
  5. 5.Microsoft Research Computational Science LaboratoryCambridgeUK

Personalised recommendations