Lytocarpia and Cladocarpus (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa, Aglaopheniidae) from the Bunaken National Marine Park (North Sulawesi, Indonesia)
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The new species Cladocarpus salix and three species of Lytocarpia (L. brevirostris, L. delicatula and L. phyteuma) were recorded from the Bunaken National Marine Park (North Sulawesi, Indonesia). Cladocarpus salix forms large colonies reminiscent of willow trees and differs from the closely similar species C. keiensis in the shape and the size of the intrathecal septum, and in the phylactocarp structure. Moreover, the presence of grooves on the external wall of theca is unique feature of this species. The differences of the three Lytocarpia species are discussed using microscopic imaging, comparison of measurements, and macroscopic features of living specimens. The bathymetric distribution of these species, studied through vertical transect, showed that C. salix and L. delicatula are deep species occurring below 20 m and increasing their abundance from 30 to 50 m depth; L. phyteuma is more abundant from 5 to 30 m and L. brevirostris is more abundant in the shallowest and deepest part of the reef and rarer between 10 and 30 m depth. A series of surveys conducted in the same locality during a year indicated that these species are generally more abundant from November to May (wet season), except for L. delicatula which is active in July.