How pull vs. push information delivery and social proof affect information disclosure in location based services

  • Johannes Klumpe
  • Oliver Francis Koch
  • Alexander Benlian
Research Paper


With the boom of the app economy, users’ location information has become an increasingly valuable differentiator to deliver personalized products and services, yet continues to raise severe privacy concerns. While research on information privacy has paid great attention on explaining and predicting factors of information disclosure decisions, there is still a significant gap in terms of how app providers can combine different mechanisms in the design of their apps to effectuate better disclosure outcomes. Drawing on a randomized online experiment with 143 smartphone users, we analyze how pull (i.e., services with user-controlled position awareness) and push (i.e., demanding always-on access location tracking) information delivery and social proof cues separately and jointly affect users’ actual location information disclosure. The results reveal that both strategies increase actual location information disclosure via two distinct mediation paths. While pull information delivery mitigates users’ privacy concerns, social proof increases their trusting beliefs. However, when both strategies are employed together, we found that social proof overrides the effect of pull information delivery mechanisms.


Location based services Pull information delivery Social proof Location disclosure Privacy concerns Trust 

JEL classification

L86 Information and Internet Services Computer Software C91 Laboratory, Individual Behavior D81 Criteria for Decision-Making under Risk and Uncertainty 


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Copyright information

© Institute of Applied Informatics at University of Leipzig 2018
corrected publication 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Business, Economics and LawTechnische Universität DarmstadtDarmstadtGermany

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