Monitoring Horizontal and Vertical Cropping Pattern and Dynamics in Bihar over a Decade (2001–2012) Based on Time-Series Satellite Data

  • Praveen Kumar
  • C. JeganathanEmail author
Research Article


Increasing population and natural disasters like drought, flood, cyclone etc., has impacted global agriculture area and hence continuously modifying cropping pattern and associated statistics. The present study analysed agriculture dynamics over one of the densely populated and disaster prone state (Bihar) in India and derived vital statistics (single, double and triple cropping area, and monthly, seasonal, annual and long term status at the state and district level) for the years 2001–2012. The study used time-series MODIS vegetation index (EVI; MOD13A2, 1 km, 16 day, 2001–2012), MODIS annual Land Cover product (MCD12Q1, 500 m, 2001–2012) and Global Land Cover map (Scasia_V4, 1 km, 2000; Globcover_V2.2, 300 m, 2005/2006 and V2.3, 2009, 300 m), and extracted horizontal (i.e., area change) and vertical (i.e., cropping intensification) agriculture change pattern. The results were inter-compared, and validated using government reports as well as with high spatial resolution data (IRS-LISS III 23.5 m). From 2001–2006 to 2007–2012, the net horizontal and vertical change in agriculture area is +145.24 and +907.82 km2, respectively, and net change in seasonal crop area (winter, summer and monsoon) is +959.21, +1009.84 and −1061.64 km2, respectively. The districts which are located along the eastern part of Ganges experienced maximum positive changes and the districts along Gandak river in the north-western part of the study area experienced maximum negative changes. Overall, the study has quantified and revealed interesting space–time agriculture change patterns over 12 years including impacts caused by droughts and floods in the study area.


MODIS EVI Cropping pattern Spatio-temporal change Bihar India 



Authors are thankful to Technical Education Quality Improvement Programme (TEQIP, BIT), India for providing fund to PK. Authors would like to thank MODIS (NASA) and GLC (ESA) team for freely sharing their data and products without which this study would not be possible. Authors are highly thankful to Department of Remote Sensing, BIT for providing all the facilities for carrying out the study. We also thank Mr. Saptarshi Mondal, Mr. Harshit Rajan, Mr. Nitish Kumar Sinha and Mrs. Vinita Suman for their support during data processing.

Supplementary material

12524_2016_614_MOESM1_ESM.docx (48 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 48 kb)


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Copyright information

© Indian Society of Remote Sensing 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Remote SensingBirla Institute of Technology (BIT)Mesra, RanchiIndia

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