Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing

, Volume 38, Issue 3, pp 549–563 | Cite as

Tropical rain forest mapping and community analysis of South Andaman Islands (India)

  • H. PadaliaEmail author
  • P. S. Roy
Research Article


Present study deals with the vegetation type mapping, structure and composition analysis of the tropical forests, spread over 1,294 km2 area in South Andaman Islands. Seventeen vegetation classes spreading over 89.92% forested area of the islands were mapped with the overall accuracy of 88.89%. Evergreen, semi-evergreen and mangrove forests were reasonably well distributed forests, while moist deciduous and littoral evergreen were narrowly restricted. The stocking was quite variable across the forest types. 60.04% of forested area was under medium to high canopy density. Secondary and degraded forest types were mapped. Information on floristic composition, structure and diversity of various forest types were obtained from 84 field sample plots. An inventory of 423 species of plants from 101 families included 155 trees, 84 shrubs, 150 herbs and 84 climbers. Tree density and mean basal area ranged from 517 to 900 stems ha−1 and 36.15 to 53.58 m2 ha−1 respectively. Evergreen forests accounted for highest diversity followed almost equally by semi-evergreen and moist deciduous forests.


Vegetation mapping Community structure Species diversity 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anonymous (2003) Biodiversity Characterization at Landscape Level in Andaman and Nicobar Islands using Satellite Remote Sensing and Geographic Information system. Indian Institute of Remote Sensing, Dehra Dun, pp. 304Google Scholar
  2. Ashton PS (1964) A quantitative phytosociological technique applied to tropical mixed rainforest vegetation. Malays For 27:304–307Google Scholar
  3. Balakrishnan NP and Ellis JL (1996) Andaman and Nicobar Islands. In: Hajra et al., “editors”. Flora of India, Part 1. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta, India.Google Scholar
  4. Balakrishnan NP and Rao MKV (1983) The dwindling plant species of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. In An assessment of threatened plants of India. Botanical Survey of India, Naba Mudran Private Limited, Calcutta, India pp. 186–202Google Scholar
  5. Campbell DG, Stone JL and Roses A (1992) A comparison of the phytosociology of three floodplain (varzea) forests of known ages, Rio Jurua, Western Brazilian Amazon. Bot J Linn Soc 108:213–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Campbell DG (1994) Scale and patterns of community structure in Amazonian forests. In Larger-scales Ecology and Conservation Biology (eds Edwards, P. J., May, R. M. and Webb N. R.), Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  7. Champion HG and Seth SK (1968) A Revised Survey of the forest types of India. Government of India Press, Delhi, India, pp. 404Google Scholar
  8. Curtis JT and Mctntosh RP (1951) An upland forest continuum in the prairie forest border region of Wisconsin. Ecology 32:476–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dagar RJC and Singh NT (1999) Plant Resources of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, (1 and 2), ISBN 81-211-0165-4, pp. 987Google Scholar
  10. Elkunchwar S, Savant PV and Rai SN (1997) Status of natural regeneration in tropical forests of the Andaman Islands. Indian Forester 123:1091–1106Google Scholar
  11. Ferreira LV and Prance GT (1998) Species richness and floristic composition in four hectares in the Jaú National Park in upland forests in Central Amazonia. Biodivers Conserv 7:1349–1364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kent M and Coker P (1992) Ordination methods I, 1950–1970. CRC Press, 169–214Google Scholar
  13. Knigh DH (1975) A phytosociological analysis of species rich tropical forest on Barro Colorada Islands, Panama. Ecol Monogra 45:259–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kurz (1870) Report on vegetation of the Andaman Islands, Govt. Printing, CalcuttaGoogle Scholar
  15. Lal R (1990) Diversity and distributional pattern of trees in the tropical rainforest in South Andamans. M. S. Thesis, Univ. Pondicherry, India, pp. 78Google Scholar
  16. Lindenmayer DB and Franklin JF (1997) Forest structure and sustainable temperate forestry: a case study from Australia. Conservation Biology 11:1053–1068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lund HG, Evans DL and Linden DS (1995) Scanned, Zipped, Laminated, Digitized! Advanced technologies for measuring and monitoring vegetation diversity. In biodiversity in tropical and temperate forests, Centre for International Forestry Research, Bogor. pp. 365–382Google Scholar
  18. MacKinnon J (1997) Protected areas systems review of the Indo-Malayan realm. Canterbury, UK: The Asian Bureau for Conservation (ABC) and The World Conservation Monitoring Center (WCMC)/ World Bank Publication.Google Scholar
  19. Magurran AE (1988) Ecological diversity and its measurement. Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 179Google Scholar
  20. Misra R (1968) Ecology work book. Oxford and IBH Publishing Company, New Delhi. pp. 244Google Scholar
  21. Myers NRA, Mittermeier CG, Mittermeier GA, Fonseca B da and Kent J (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nayar MP (1996) Hot Spot of Endemic Plants of India, Nepal and Bhutan. Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Thiruvanthapuram.Google Scholar
  23. Padalia Hitendra (2005) Landscape characterization of South Andaman Islands for Biodiversity Conservation Planning using Geospatial Analysis, PhD thesis, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, pp. 255Google Scholar
  24. Padalia H, Chauhan N, Porwal MC and Roy PS (2004) Phytosociological observations on tree species diversity of Andaman Islands, India. Current Science 87(6):799–806Google Scholar
  25. Parkinson CE (1923) A Forest Flora of the Andaman Islands, Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, pp. 286Google Scholar
  26. Parthasarathy N, Kinhal V, Praveen LK (1992) Plant species diversity and human impacts in the tropical wet evergreen forests of southern western ghats. In Indo-French Workshop on Tropical Forest Ecosystems: Natural Functioning and anthropogenic impacts 26–27 November 1992. Pondicherry: French Institute.Google Scholar
  27. Pielou EC (1966) The measurements of diversity in different types of biological collections. J Theor Biol 13:131–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Poore MED (1968) Studies in Malaysian rain forest. I.: The forest on Triassic sediments in Jengka Forest Reserve. Journal of Ecology 56:143–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Porwal MC, Roy PS, Singh Sarnam and Kurian AJ (1992) Importance of middle infrared band for classifying mangrove vegetation and plantation in Middle Andaman Islands. Proc. National Symposium on Remote Sensing for Sustainable Development, Nov. 17–19, Lucknow, 30–36pGoogle Scholar
  30. Rajkumar M and Parthasarathy N (2008) Tree Diversity and Structure of Andaman Giant Evergreen Forests, India. Taiwania 53(4): 356–368Google Scholar
  31. Richards PW (1996) The Tropical Rain Forest: An Ecological Study, Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  32. Rodgers WA and Panwar HS (1988) Biogeographical classification of India. Wildlife Institute of India, DehradunGoogle Scholar
  33. Roy PS, Ranganath BK, Diwakar PG, Vohra TPS, Bhan SK, Singh IJ and Pandian VC (1991) Tropical forest type mapping and monitoring using remote sensing. International Journal of Remote Sensing 12(11):2205–2225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Roy PS, Padalia H, Chauhan Nidhi, Porwal MC, Biswas Sas. and Jagdale R (2005) Validation of Geospatial model for Biodiversity Characterization at Landscape Level — a study in Andaman & Nicobar Islands, India. Ecological Modelling 185(10): 349–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Roy PS, Singh S and Porwal MC (1993) Characterization of ecological parameters in tropical forest community — A remote sensing approach. J Indian Soc Remote Sens 21(3): 127–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Roy PS, Miyatake S, and Rikimaru A (1997) Biophysical spectral response modelling approach for forest density stratification. GIS Development. Retrieved 25 July 2009 from
  37. Saldhana CJ (1989) Andaman, Nicobar, and Lakshadweep: An Environmental Impact Assessment. New Delhi: Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  38. Singh JS, Singh, SP, Saxena AK and Rawat YS (1981) Report on the Silent Valley Study, Ecology Research Circle, Kumaun University, Nainital, pp. 86Google Scholar
  39. Srinivasan MS (1986) Neogene reference sections of Andaman-Nicobar: their bearing on volcanism, sea-floor tectonism and global sea level changes. In: N.C. Ghosh and S. Varadrajan (Eds.), Ophiolite and Indian plate margin. Prakasham Publication, New Delhi, pp. 295–308Google Scholar
  40. Thothathri K (1962) Contributions to the flora of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Bulletin of Botanical Survey of India. 4: 281–296Google Scholar
  41. Tripathi KP, Tripathi S, Selven T, Kumar, K, Singh, KK, Mehrotra Shanta, and Pushpangadan P (1994) Community structure and species diversity of Saddle Peak forests in Andman Island. Tropical Ecology 45(2):241–250Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Society of Remote Sensing 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Regional Remote Sensing Centre-North (NRSC)DehradunIndia
  2. 2.Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (NRSC)DehradunIndia

Personalised recommendations