Delineation of potential sites for water harvesting structures using remote sensing and GIS
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Availability of groundwater varies spatially and temporally depending upon the terrain. The scarcity of water affects the environmental and developmental activities of an area. Construction of small water harvesting structures across streams/watersheds is gaining momentum in recent years. In the present study, potential sites for construction of rainwater harvesting structures in the Bakhar watershed of Mirzapur District, Uttar Pradesh, India have been identified by using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Various thematic maps such as Landuse/Landcover, geomorphology and lineaments, etc. were prepared using remote sensing. These layers along with geology and drainage were integrated using GIS techniques to derive suitable water harvesting sites. Each theme was assigned a weightage depending on its influence on ground water recharge (for example weightages 20,18,15,25,25 and 0 were assigned to geomorphology, landuse, geology, lineament, drainage and road and villages respectively). Each class or unit in the map was assigned a knowledge based ranking of one to four depending on its significance in storage and transmittance of groundwater, and these values were multiplied with layer weightage to form score. The average score for excellent region is greater than 200, for good 121 to 200, for moderate 81 to 121 and the other polygon having value less than 80 (excluding zero) were assigned to poor category. The final map showing different categories of suitability sites for water harvesting structures such as Check dams, Contour bunding, Recharge pits, Wells and Contour trenching have been suggested.
KeywordsRain water harvesting site suitability Remote sensing GIS
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