Conceptualization of the Neolithic world in incised equid phalanges: anthropomorphic figurine from Çatalhöyük (GDN Area)
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The opening of the final excavation area in Çatalhöyük and the zooarcheological research conducted there have revealed an equid phalanx with incision marks shaped to resemble eyes. We argue that the choice of bone as raw material for the artifact (the first bone figurine from Çatalhöyük) is related to its anatomy and to availability. We show that the figurine and other modified equid first phalanges at Çatalhöyük were associated with food storage rooms, which exclusively represent the late phases of occupation. In these terms, they differ from the known practices of the Near East.
KeywordsBone figurine Equid phalanx Idols Neolithic Çatalhöyük Turkey
We would like to thank Arkadiusz Klimowicz, Katarzyna Regulska, Marta Saj, Heeli Schechter, and Jesse Wolfhagen for their technical assistance. We would also like to thank Virginia García-Díaz for her help in technological analysis. Special thanks go to Nerissa Russell for useful comments on an earlier draft of this manuscript and to the reviewers for their suggestions. We are also grateful to Ian Hodder for the possibility of participating in the Çatalhöyük Research Project. The deposit from TPC Area was excavated by Marek Z. Barański and Kamilla Pawłowska in 2012. The TPC equid phalanx discussed here was examined by Kamilla Pawłowska in 2012.
The GDN research was funded by the National Science Centre of Poland (DEC-2013/11/N/HS3/04889) (MZB).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The funders had no role in study, design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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