Advertisement

How can fracture mechanics and failure analysis assist in solving mysteries of ancient metal artifacts?

  • 18 Accesses

Abstract

Metals and their alloys were used by ancient civilizations based on their appearance and properties. During antiquity, the production process of metal artifacts frequently caused strain hardening, cracking, and loss of strength. In addition, devastating failure has often occurred after long burial periods, resulting from residual stresses and continuous corrosion attack. Therefore, the present study aims to examine how a fracture mechanics approach, integrated with failure analysis tools, may assist archeologists in gaining additional information concerning ancient metal objects. For this purpose, a literature survey of post-mortem studies of the RMS Titanic ship’s failure is presented, followed by a review of various archeological and historical studies of metal objects and structures made of silver, lead, copper, iron, and their alloys. Lastly, based on the current literature review, a methodology is proposed for analyzing ancient metal artifacts. This approach may assist archeologists in gaining a better understanding of the manufacturing techniques of ancient metal objects, their original shape and dimensions, the cause of failure, and state of preservation and conservation. Moreover, the use of such an approach may be valuable for future conservation and restoration of such archeological metal artifacts.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 99

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10

References

  1. Antolovich SD, Saxena A, Gerberich WW (2018) Fracture mechanics–an interpretive technical history. Mech Res Commun 91:46–86

  2. Aronson A, Ashkenazi D, Barkai O, Kahanov Y (2013) Archaeometallurgical investigation of the iron anchor from the Tantura F shipwreck. Mater Charact 78:108–120

  3. Ashby MF, Gandhi C, Taplin DMR (1979) Overview no. 3: fracture-mechanism maps and their construction for fcc metals and alloys. Acta Metall 27(5):669–729

  4. Ashkenazi D, Bunimovitz S, Stern A (2016) Archaeometallurgical investigation of thirteenth–twelfth centuries BCE bronze objects from Tel Beth-Shemesh, Israel. J Archaeol Sci Rep 6:170–181

  5. Ashkenazi D, Cvikel D, Iddan N, Mentovich E, Kahanov Y, Levinshtein M (2011) Archaeometallurgical study of the brass cases from the Akko 1 shipwreck. J Archaeol Sci 38(9):2410–2419

  6. Ashkenazi D, Cvikel D, Langgut D, Rosen B, Galili E (2017a) Artillery and rigging artefacts from the Megadim wreck-site, Israel. J Archaeol Sci Rep 14:91–105

  7. Ashkenazi D, Cvikel D, Stern A, Pasternak A, Barkai O, Aronson A, Kahanov Y (2014) Archaeometallurgical investigation of joining processes of metal objects from shipwrecks: three test cases. Metallogr Microstruct Anal 3(5):349–362

  8. Ashkenazi D, Fantalkin A (2017) Archaeometallurgical and archaeological investigation of Hellenistic metal objects from Ashdod-Yam (Israel). Archaeol Anthropol Sci 11(3):913–935

  9. Ashkenazi D, Fischer M, Stern A, Tal O (2013a) Manufacturing technology of an ancient ship brazier: a unique example from the southern Levant. Skyllis 12(1):85–93

  10. Ashkenazi D, Golan O, Tal O (2013b) Archaeometallurgical characterization of selected 13th century iron arrowheads and bolts from Arsur (Apollonia-Arsuf), Israel. Archaeometry 55(2):235–257

  11. Ashkenazi D, Gitler H, Stern A, Tal O (2017b) Metallurgical investigation on fourth century BCE silver jewellery of two hoards from Samaria. Sci Rep 7:1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep40659

  12. Ashkenazi D, Gitler H, Stern A, Tal O (2018) Archaeometallurgical characterization and manufacturing technologies of fourth century BCE silver jewelry: the Samaria and Nablus hoards as test case. Metall Microstruct Anal 7(4):387–413

  13. Ashkenazi D, Iddan N, Tal O (2012a) Archaeometallurgical characterization of Hellenistic metal objects: the contribution of the bronze objects from Rishon Le-Zion (Israel)*. Archaeometry 54(3):528–548

  14. Ashkenazi D, Mentovich E, Cvikel D, Barkai O, Aronson A, Kahanov Y (2012b) Archaeometallurgical investigation of iron artifacts from shipwrecks–a review. In: Ollich-Castanyer I (ed) Archaeology, New Approaches in Theory and Techniques. Intech Publisher, Rijeka, pp 169–186

  15. Ashkenazi D, Misgav I, Issachar R, Klein S, Cvikel D (2019) New insights into brass nails from the 19th-century Akko Tower Wreck (Israel): metallurgical characterization. J Alloys Compounds 771:614–628

  16. Ashkenazi D, Taxel I, Tal O (2015) Archeometallurgical characterization of late Roman-and byzantine-period Samaritan magical objects and jewelry made of copper alloys. Mater Charact 102:195–208

  17. Atkinson BK (ed) (2015) Fracture mechanics of rock. Academic Press, London

  18. Balogh B, Kovacs R, Majsai J (2006). Applications and comparison of failure analysis methods. In Electronics Technology, ISSE’06 29th International Spring Seminar, IEEE:14–19

  19. Banks-Sills L (2015) Interface fracture mechanics: theory and experiment. Int J Fract 191(1–2):131–146

  20. Banks-Sills L, Leiderman V, Fang D (1997) On the effect of particle shape and orientation on elastic properties of metal matrix composites. Compos B Eng 28(4):465–481

  21. Banks-Sills L, Travitzky N, Ashkenazi D (2000) Interface fracture properties of a bimaterial ceramic composite. Mech Mater 32(12):711–722

  22. Banks-Sills L, Boniface V, Eliasi R (2005) Development of a methodology for determination of interface fracture toughness of laminate composites—the 0/90 pair. Int J Solids Struct 42(2):663–680

  23. Banks-Sills L, Freed Y, Eliasi R, Fourman V (2006) Fracture toughness of the+ 45°/–45° interface of a laminate composite. Int J Fract 141(1–2):195–210

  24. Banks-Sills L, Ishbir C, Fourman V, Rogel L, Eliasi R (2013) Interface fracture toughness of a multi-directional woven composite. Int J Fract 182(2):187–207

  25. Ballard RD (2007) Archaeological oceanography. Oceanography 20(4):62–67

  26. Becker WT, Lampman S (2002) Fracture appearance and mechanisms of deformation and fracture. ASM International, Materials Park, pp 559–586

  27. Belford P (2012) Hot blast iron smelting in the early nineteenth century: a re-appraisal. Hist Metall 46(1):32–44

  28. Bellanova M, Felicetti R (2019) A multidisciplinary strategy for the inspection of historical metallic tie-rods: the Milan Cathedral case study. Int J Architectural Heritage 13(3):371–389

  29. Belytschko T, Gracie R, Ventura G (2009) A review of extended/generalized finite element methods for material modeling. Model Simul Mater Sci Eng 17(4):043001-1–24

  30. Benac DJ, Cherolis N, Wood D (2016) Managing cold temperature and brittle fracture hazards in pressure vessels. J Fail Anal Prev 16(1):55–66

  31. Bottaini C, Vilaça R, Schiavon N, Mirão J, Candeias A, Bordalo R, Paternoster G, Montero-Ruiz I (2016) New insights on Late Bronze Age Cu-metallurgy from Coles de Samuel hoard (Central Portugal): a combined multi-analytical approach. J Archaeol Sci Rep 7:344–357

  32. Buchwald VF, Wivel H (1998) Slag analysis as a method for the characterization and provenancing of ancient iron objects. Mater Charact 40(2):73–96

  33. Çakaj O, Duka E, Tafilica Z, Stamati F, Civici N, Dilo T (2012) Preliminary investigation of some copper alloy medieval objects from the northern Albania. In: 3rd Balkan symposium on Archaeometry. Bucharest, Romania, pp 58–64

  34. Ceriolo L, Di Tommaso A (1998) Fracture mechanics of brittle materials: a historical point of view. In 2nd Sympos Civil Eng, Budapest

  35. Chan SK, Tuba IS, Wilson WK (1970) On the finite element method in linear fracture mechanics. Eng Fract Mech 2(1):1–17

  36. Chen JW, Zhou XP, Berto F (2019) The improvement of crack propagation modelling in triangular 2D structures using the extended finite element method. Fatigue Fract Eng Mater Struct 42(2):397–414

  37. Cohen M, Ashkenazi D, Kahanov Y, Stern A, Klein S, Cvikel D (2015) The brass nails of the Akko Tower Wreck (Israel): archaeometallurgical analyses. Metallogr Microstruct Anal 4(3):188–206

  38. Cohen M, Ashkenazi D, Stern A, Kahanov Y, Cvikel D (2017) Iron artefacts from the Akko Tower Wreck, Israel, and their contribution to the ship’s characterization. Archaeol Anthropol Sci 9(6):1243–1257

  39. Costa V (2001) The deterioration of silver alloys and some aspects of their conservation. Stud Conserv 46(1):18–34

  40. Costa V, Urban F (2005) Lead and its alloys: metallurgy, deterioration and conservation. Stud Conserv 50(1):48–62

  41. Cvikel D, Mentovich ED, Ashkenazi D, Kahanov Y (2013) Casting techniques of cannonballs from the Akko 1 shipwreck: archaeometallurgical investigation. J Min Metall Sec B: Metall 49(1):107–119

  42. Cvikel D (2016) The 19th-century Akko Tower Wreck, Israel: a summary of the first two excavation seasons. Int J Naut Archaeol 45(2):406–422

  43. Cvikel D, Kahanov YA (2009) The Akko 1 shipwreck, Israel: the first two seasons. Int J Naut Archaeol 38(1):38–57

  44. Cvikel D, Ben-Artzi T, Ashkenazi D, Iddan N, Stern A, Kahanov Y (2016) A box containing Carpenter's accessories from the Akko 1 Shipwreck, Israel: Archaeometallurgical analysis of surviving ironwork. Archaeometry 58(3):427–440

  45. Cvikel D, Cohen M, Inberg A, Klein S, Iddan N, Ashkenazi D (2017a) Metallurgical characterization of brass sheet from the 19th-century Akko Tower Wreck (Israel). Mater Charact 131:175–187

  46. Cvikel D, Ashkenazi D, Inberg A, Shteiman I, Iddan N, Kahanov Y (2017b) Two nails 2400 years apart: metallurgical comparison between copper nails of the Ma ‘agan Mikhael ship and its replica. Metallogr Microstruct Anal 6(1):12–21

  47. Dennies DP (2006) A review of the findings and recommendations of the Columbiaaccident investigation board. J Fail Anal Prev 6(1):11–12

  48. Desset F (2018) Nine linear Eamite texts inscribed on silver “Gunagi” vessels (X, Y, Z, F’, H’, I’, J’, K’and L’): new data on Linear Elamite writing and the history of the Sukkalmaḫ Dynasty. Iran, J British Inst Persian Studies 56(2):105–143

  49. Dilo T, Civic N, Stamati F, Cakaj O, Angelopoulos A (2010) Archaeometallurgical characterization of some ancient copper and bronze artifacts from Albania. AIP Conf Proceed 1203(1):985

  50. Doménech-Carbó A, Doménech-Carbó MT, Peiró-Ronda MA, Osete-Cortina L (2011) Electrochemistry and authentication of archaeological lead using voltammetry of microparticles: application to the Tossal De Sant Miquel Iberian Plate. Archaeometry 53(6):1193–1211

  51. Dorogoy A (2019) Shear–compression loaded interface crack between a rigid substrate and an FGM layer—frictional crack closure effects. Int J Fract 216(2):149–159

  52. El Morr Z, Pernot M (2011) Middle Bronze Age metallurgy in the Levant: evidence from the weapons of Byblos. J Archaeol Sci 38:2613–2624

  53. Eliyahu M, Barkai O, Goren Y, Eliaz N, Kahanov Y, Ashkenazi D (2011) The iron anchors from the Tantura F shipwreck: typological and metallurgical analyses. J Archaeol Sci 38(2):233–245

  54. Faieta R, Guida G, Vidale M (2018) A preliminary note on the metallography and chemical analysis of silver samples from the Mahboubian collection, London. Iran 56(2):144–147

  55. Faridmehr I, Osman MH, Adnan AB, Nejad AF, Hodjati R, Azimi M (2014) Correlation between engineering stress-strain and true stress-strain curve. Am J Civil Eng Architect 2(1):53–59

  56. Felkins K, Leigh HP, Jankovic A (1998) The royal mail ship Titanic: did a metallurgical failure cause a night to remember? JOM 50(1):12–18

  57. Foecke T (1998) Metallurgy of the RMS Titanic. US Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, NIST, Mater Sci Eng Lab

  58. Foecke T, Hooper-McCarty J (2009) Quantitative metallography and microanalytical analysis of particles in iron rivets recovered from the wreck of the RMS Titanic. Microsc Microanal 15(S2):524–525

  59. Foecke T, Ma L, Russell MA, Conlin DL, Murphy LE (2010) Investigating archaeological site formation processes on the battleship USS Arizona using finite element analysis. J Archaeol Sci 37(5):1090–1101

  60. Frey BS, Savage DA, Torgler B (2011) Behavior under extreme conditions: the Titanic disaster. J Econ Perspect 5(1):209–221

  61. Garrison WM Jr, Moody NR (1987) Ductile fracture. J Phys Chem Solids 48(11):1035–1074

  62. Garzke Jr WH, Foecke T, Matthias P, Wood D (2000) A marine forensic analysis of the RMS Titanic. In Oceans 2000, Proceed MTS/IEEE:673–690

  63. Garzke WH, Dulin RO, Brown DK, Prince K, Ruggieri J, Silloway R (2002) Marine forensics for naval architects and marine engineers. Pract Fail Anal 2(5):12–15

  64. Gordon R, Knopf R (2006) Metallurgy of bronze used in tools from Machu Picchu, Peru. Archaeometry 48(1):57–76

  65. Gouda VK, Youssef GI, Abdel Ghany NA (2012) Characterization of Egyptian bronze archaeological artifacts. Surf Interface Anal 44(10):1338–1345

  66. Grazzi F, Barzagli E, Scherillo A, De Francesco A, Williams A, Edge D, Zoppi M (2016) Determination of the manufacturing methods of Indian swords through neutron diffraction. Microchem J 125:273–278

  67. Griffith AA (1921) VI. The phenomena of rupture and flow in solids. Phil Trans Royal Soc London A 221(582–593):163–198

  68. Harris MD, Grogg WJ, Akoma A, Hayes BJ, Reidy RF, Imhoff EF, Collins PC (2015) Revisiting (some of) the lasting impacts of the Liberty ships via a metallurgical analysis of rivets from the SS “John W. Brown”. JOM 67(12):2965–2975

  69. Hooper JJ, Foecke T, Graham L, Weihs TP (2003) The metallurgical analysis of wrought iron from the RMS Titanic. Measur Sci Tech 14(9):1556–1563

  70. Hui CY, Ruina A, Long R, Jagota A (2011) Cohesive zone models and fracture. J Adhes Dent 87(1):1–52

  71. Hutchinson JW, Evans AG (2000) Mechanics of materials: top-down approaches to fracture. Acta Mater 48(1):125–135

  72. Ivankovic A, Demirdzic I, Williams JG, Leevers PS (1994) Application of the finite volume method to the analysis of dynamic fracture problems. Int J Fract 66(4):357–371

  73. Inberg A, Ashkenazi D, Cohen M, Iddan N, Cvikel D (2018) Corrosion products and microstructure of copper alloy coins from the Byzantine-period Ma'agan Mikhael B shipwreck, Israel. Microchem J 143:400–409

  74. Irwin GR (1957) Analysis of stresses and strains near the end of a crack traversing a plate. J Appl Mech 24:361–364

  75. Irwin GR (1968) Linear fracture mechanics, fracture transition, and fracture control. Eng Fract Mech 1(2):241–257

  76. Jin ZH, Sun CT (2005) Cohesive fracture model based on necking. Int J Fract 134(2):91–108

  77. Kahanov Y, Ashkenazi D (2011) Lead sheathing of ship hulls in the Roman period: archaeometallurgical characterisation. Mater Charact 62(8):768–774

  78. Kahanov Y, Ashkenazi D, Cvikel D, Klein S, Navri R, Stern A (2015) Archaeometallurgical analysis of metal remains from the Dor 2006 shipwreck: a clue to the understanding of the transition in ship construction. J Archaeol Sci Rep 2:321–332

  79. Khramchenkova R, Shaykhutdinova E, Bugarchev A, Gareev B, Sitdikov A (2017) Interdisciplinary study of 13th century silver coins of the Juchid (based on the materials of the Burundukovsky hoard, Tatarstan, Russia). Acta Imeko 6(3):94–101

  80. Kelly H (2013) The sinking of the titanic. Proto-Type 1:1–8

  81. Knott J (2015) Brittle fracture in structural steels: perspectives at different size-scales. Phil Trans Royal Soc A: Math Phys Eng Sci 373(2038):20140126–1–18

  82. Labib A, Read M (2013) Not just rearranging the deckchairs on the Titanic: learning from failures through risk and reliability analysis. Saf Sci 51(1):397–413

  83. Lei J, Xu Y, Gu Y, Fan CM (2019) The generalized finite difference method for in-plane crack problems. Eng Analys Bound Elem 98:147–156

  84. Leighly HP, Bramfitt BL, Lawrence SJ (2001) RMS Titanic: a metallurgical problem. Pract Fail Anal 1(2):10–13

  85. L’Héritier M, Guillot I, Dillmann P (2019) Microstructural characterization and mechanical properties of iron reinforcements in buildings from the medieval and modern periods in France. Int J Architectural Heritage 13(3):507–519

  86. Li Y, Zhou M (2019) Effect of competing mechanisms on fracture toughness of metals with ductile grain structures. Eng Fract Mech 205:14–27

  87. Long GJ, Hautot D, Grandjean F, Vandormael D, Leighly HP Jr (2004) A Mössbauer spectral study of the hull steel and rusticles recovered from the Titanic. Hyperfine Interact 155(1–4):1–13

  88. Lynch SP, Moutsos S (2006) A brief history of fractography. J Fail Anal Prev 6(6):54–69

  89. Matthias PK, Silloway RF (2000) Use of automated seabed photomosaicing in forensic analysis of the RMS Titanic disaster. In Oceans 2000, Proceed MTS/IEEE: 667–671

  90. McCarty JH, Foecke T (2012) What really sank the Titanic? Kensington Publishing, Corp

  91. Mengot RF, Woytowich RT (2010) The breakup of Titanic: a progress report from the Marine Forensics Panel (SD-7). Marine Tech 47(1):37–46

  92. Mentovich ED, Schreiber DS, Goren Y, Kahanov Y, Goren H, Cvikel D, Ashkenazi D (2010) New insights regarding the Akko 1 shipwreck: a metallurgic and petrographic investigation of the cannonballs. J Archaeol Sci 37(10):2520–2528

  93. Michel JL, Ballard R (1994) The RMS titanic 1985 discovery expedition. In Oceans 1994, Proceed MTS/IEEE:132−137

  94. Mindell D, Bingham B (2001) New archaeological uses of autonomous underwater vehicles. In Oceans 2001, Proceed MTS/IEEE:555–558

  95. Pineau A, Benzerga AA, Pardoen T (2016) Failure of metals I: brittle and ductile fracture. Acta Mater 107:424–483

  96. Potyondy DO, Cundall PA (2004) A bonded-particle model for rock. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 41(8):1329–1364

  97. Rice JR (1968) A path independent integral and the approximate analysis of strain concentration by notches and cracks. J Appl Mech 35(2):379–386

  98. Rocca E, Rapin C, Mirambet F (2004) Inhibition treatment of the corrosion of lead artefacts in atmospheric conditions and by acetic acid vapour: use of sodium decanoate. Corros Sci 46(3):653–665

  99. Šandera P, Pokluda J, Horníková J, Vlach B, Lejček P, Jenko M (2010) Fracture of polycrystalline Fe− 2.3% V− 0.12% P alloy. Eng Fract Mech 77(2):385–392

  100. Scott DA (1991) Metallography and microstructure in ancient and historic metals. Getty Trust, Archetype Books, CA

  101. Scott DA (1990) Bronze disease: a review of some chemical problems and the role of relative humidity. J Am Inst Conserv 29(2):193–206

  102. Shalev S, Shechtman D, Shilstein SS (2014) A study of the composition and microstructure of silver hoards from Tel Beth-Shean, Tel Dor, and Tel Miqne, Israel. Archaeol Anthropol Sci 6(3):221–225

  103. Sekban DM, Aktarer SM, Xue P, Ma ZY, Purcek G (2016) Impact toughness of friction stir processed low carbon steel used in shipbuilding. Mater Sci Eng A 672:40–48

  104. Smith Jr, KM, Garzke Jr WH, Dulin Jr R, Bemis Jr FG, Filling C (2005) Marine forensics-historic shipwrecks determination of the root cause. In Oceans Proceed MTS/IEEE: 432–440

  105. Stern A, Ashkenazi D, Cvikel D, Rosen B, Galili E (2015) Archeometallurgical and technical characterization of 7th century AD iron fishing-spear and fire basket found in the Dor lagoon, Israel. J Archaeol Sci Rep 3:132–143

  106. Stettler JW, Thomas BS (2013) Flooding and structural forensic analysis of the sinking of the RMS Titanic. Ships Offshore Struct 8(3–4):346–366

  107. Thiele Á, Hošek J (2015) Mechanical properties of medieval bloomery iron materials-comparative tensile and charpy-tests on bloomery iron samples and S235JRG2. Periodica Polytechnica Mech Eng 59(1):35–38

  108. Tylecote RF (1992) A History of Metallurgy, 2nd edn. The Metals Society, London

  109. Valério P, Silva RJC, Soares AMM, Arau’jo MF, Fernandes FMB, Silva AC, Berrocal-Rangel L (2010) Technological continuity in early Iron Age bronze metallurgy at the south-western Iberian Peninsula—a sight from Castro dos Ratinhos. J Archaeol Sci 37:1811–1819

  110. Valério P, Silva RJC, Soares AMM, Araújo MF, Gonçalves AP, Soares RM (2015) Combining X-ray based methods to study the protohistoric bronze technology in Western Iberia. Nuc Inst Methods Phys Res Sec B 358:117–123

  111. Voiculescu I, Geantă V, Stern A, Ashkenazi D, Cohen M, Cvikel D (2017) Iron-bound deadeyes from the nineteenth-century Akko Tower Wreck, Israel: metallurgical investigation of the manufacturing technology. Metallogr Microstruct Anal 6(2):106–125

  112. Wanhill R (2003) Embrittlement in archaeological silver artifacts: diagnostic and remedial techniques. JOM 55(10):16–19

  113. Wanhill RJH (2005) Embrittlement of ancient silver. J Fail Anal Prev 5(1):41–54

  114. Wanhill R (2009) Embrittled ancient silver and iron objects and their conservation. Microscopy Today 17(5):34–39

  115. Wanhill RJH (2011) Case histories of ancient silver embrittlement. J Fail Anal Prev 11(3):178–185

  116. Wanhill R (2013) Stress corrosion cracking in ancient silver. Stud Conserv 58(1):41–49

  117. Wanhill RJH, Steijaart JPHM, Leenheer R, Koens JFW (1998) Damage assessment and preservation of an Egyptian silver vase (300–200 BC). Archaeometry 40(1):123–137

  118. Yu FLT (2012) The sinking of the unsinkable Titanic: mental inertia and coordination failures. Hum Syst Manag 31(3):177–186

  119. Zapffe CA, Moore GA (1943) A micrographic study of the cleavage of hydrogenized ferrite. Transac Metall Soc AIME 154:335–359

  120. Zerbst U, Klinger C, Clegg R (2015) Fracture mechanics as a tool in failure analysis—prospects and limitations. Eng Fail Anal 55:376–410

  121. Zerbst U, Madia M, Vormwald M, Beier HT (2018) Fatigue strength and fracture mechanics–a general perspective. Eng Fract Mech 198:2–23

  122. Zhang W (2016) Technical problem identification for the failures of the liberty ships. Challenges 7(2):20–28

  123. Zhu XK, Joyce JA (2012) Review of fracture toughness (G, K, J, CTOD, CTOA) testing and standardization. Eng Fract Mech 85:1–46

Download references

Acknowledgments

The author is grateful to Barbara Doron for the English editing.

Author information

Correspondence to Dana Ashkenazi.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ashkenazi, D. How can fracture mechanics and failure analysis assist in solving mysteries of ancient metal artifacts?. Archaeol Anthropol Sci 12, 34 (2020) doi:10.1007/s12520-019-00970-w

Download citation

Keywords

  • Archeology
  • Crack propagation
  • Embrittlement
  • Failure analysis
  • Fracture mechanics
  • Ancient metals