Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences

, Volume 11, Issue 9, pp 4971–4982 | Cite as

Behind the steps of ancient sheep mobility in Iberia: new insights from a geometric morphometric approach

  • L. ColominasEmail author
  • A. Evin
  • J. Burch
  • P. Campmajó
  • J. Casas
  • P. Castanyer
  • C. Carreras
  • J. Guardia
  • O. Olesti
  • E. Pons
  • J. Tremoleda
  • J.-M. Palet
Original Paper


In Western Europe, the transition from the middle Iron Age to the early Roman period implied changes in livestock practices, with the emergence of a specialized and selective animal husbandry. These changes have been related in Italy and south of France with changes in livestock management involving their mobility between ecologically complementary areas. The study of this question in the Iberian Peninsula has only been partially investigated through palaeoenvironmental analyses, and the information about the origin and significance of this phenomenon is very scarce. To shed new light on this topic we used an archaeozoological approach, with the application of geometric morphometrics. They were used to study size and shape variability in sheep astragali from 9 sites dating from the middle Iron Age to the early Roman period (5th c. BC–3rd c. AD) and located on the Pyrenees and on the north-eastern Iberian coast as a case study. The results we obtained, combined with Number of Identified Specimens (NISP) and kill-off patterns, showed local specificities in terms of breeding methods and sheep morphologies between the two areas during the middle Iron Age. On the contrary, sheep with similar size and the implementation and development of similar sheep husbandry practices in the Pyrenees and the north-eastern Iberian coast were documented during the early Roman period. These results suggest the existence of livestock links between these two areas during the Roman period, that could be involved a possible movement of sheep between the lowlands and the Pyrenees for the first time.


Ovis aries Astragalus Morphological changes Iron Age Roman period Iberian Peninsula 



LC would like to thank N. Pöllath for advice during processing of the data.

Funding information

LC is currently supported by a postdoctoral grant from the Institut Català d’Arqueologia Clàssica (ICAC), but would like to recognise a previous postdoctoral fellowship (n_FPDI-2013-18324) from the Government of Spain. Funding for this research has been provided within the framework of the project HAR2012-39087-C02.

Supplementary material

12520_2019_837_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (34 kb)
Table 1 Definition of landmarks used in this study. (XLSX 33 kb)
12520_2019_837_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (7 kb)
Figure 1 Scatterplot representation of the log (centroid) size of the lateral and plantar astragalus view comparing size variation between sites. (PDF 7 kb)


  1. Albarella U (1997) Shape variation of cattle metapodials: age, sex or breed? Some examples from mediaeval and postmediaeval sites. Anthropozoologica 25–26:37–47Google Scholar
  2. Albarella U (2007) The end of the sheep age: people and animals in the lste Iron Age. In: Haselgrove C, Moore T (eds) The Late Iron Age in Britain and beyond. Oxbow Books, Oxford, pp 72–87Google Scholar
  3. Albarella U, Davis SJM (1996) Mammals and birds from Launceston Castle, Cornwall. Decline in status and the rise of agriculture. Circaea 12:1–156Google Scholar
  4. Albarella U, Payne S (2005) Neolithic pigs from Durrington Walls, Wiltshire, England: a biometrical database. J Archaeol Sci 32:589–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Albarella U, Johnstone C, Vickers K (2008) The development of animal husbandry from the Late Iron Age to the end of the Roman period: a case study from South-East Britain. J Archaeol Sci 20:1–21Google Scholar
  6. Antolín F, Navarrete V, Saña M, Viñerta A, Gassiot E (2018) Herders in the mountains and farmers in the plains? A comparative evaluation of the archaeobiological record from Neolithic sites in the eastern Iberian Pyrenees and the southern lower lands. Quat Int 484:75–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Aquilué X, Burés L, Buxó R, Castanyer P, Esteba J, Fernández E, de la Reguera J, Pons E, Santos M, Solé J, Tremoleda J (1999) Intervencions Arqueològiques a Sant Martí d’Empúries (1994–1996). De l’Assentament Precolonial a l’Empúries Actual. Monografies Emporitanes 9, GironaGoogle Scholar
  8. Barr WA (2014) Functional morphology of the bovid astragalus in relation to habitat: controlling phylogenetic signal in ecomorpholgy. J Morph 275:1201–1216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Benjamini Y, Hochberg Y (1995) Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B 57:289–300Google Scholar
  10. Bergmann C (1847) Über die Verhältnisse der Wärmeökonomie der Thiere zu ihrer Grösse. Gottinger Stud 3:595–708Google Scholar
  11. Boessneck J (1969) Osteological differences between sheep (Ovis aries Linné) and goat (Capra hircus Linné). In: Brothwell D, Higgs E (eds) Science in archaeology: a survey of Progress and research. London, pp. 302–58Google Scholar
  12. Bopp-Ito M, Deschler-Erb S, Vach W, Schliber J (2018a) Size diversity in Swiss Bronze Age cattle. Int J Osteoarchaeol 28(13):294–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bopp-Ito M, Cucchi T, Evin A, Stopp B, Schliber J (2018b) Phenotypic diversity in Bronze Age pigs from the alpine and central plateau regions of Switzerland. J Archaeol Sci Rep 21:38–46Google Scholar
  14. Bréhard S, Campmajó P (2005) Exploitation des animaux domestiques et estructuration de l’espace montagnard à l’Age dur Bronze: Llo (Cerdagne, Pyrénées- Orientales). Anthropozoologica 40(1):217–233Google Scholar
  15. Breuer G, Rehazek A, Stopp B (2001) Veränderung der körpergrösse von Haustierenaus Fundstellender Nordschweizvonder Spätlaténezeitbis ins Frühmittelalter. Jahresberichte 22:161–178Google Scholar
  16. Brun JP (1996) La grande transhumance à l’époque romaine. À propos des recherches sur la Crau d’Arles. Anthropozoologica 24:31–44Google Scholar
  17. Burch J, Rojas A, Vivo J (2010) L’assentament ibèric de Sant Sebastià de la Guarda (Palafrugell, Baix Empordà). Trib d’Arq:45–58Google Scholar
  18. Burch J, Nolla JM, Sagrera J (2011) Les defenses de l’oppidum de *Kerunta, Girona-Sant Julià de Ramis, Excavacions arqueològiques a la muntanya de Sant Julià de Ramis, 4, GironaGoogle Scholar
  19. Campmajó P (1983) Le site protohistorique de Llo (Pyrénées-Orientales). Centre d’Études Préhistoriques Catalanes, Université de Perpignan, PerpignanGoogle Scholar
  20. Casas J, Soler V (2003) La Villa de Tolegassos: Una Explotación Agrícola de Época Romana en el Territorio de Ampurias. BAR International Series 1101, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  21. Casas J, Nolla JM, Palahí L, Vivó D, Soler V (2016) Mas Gusó: un establecimiento militar y de época romana en el suburbium ampuritano. Arch Esp Arqueol 89:117–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Colominas L (2011) Anàlisi arqueozoològica de les restes de fauna. In: Burch L, Nolla JM, Sagrera J (eds) Les defenses de l’oppidum de Kerunta, Excavacions arqueològiques a la muntanya de Sant Julià de Ramis, 4. Girona, pp 182–92Google Scholar
  23. Colominas L (2012) Anàlisi arqueozoològica de les restes de fauna recuperades al jaciment de Sant Sebastià de la Guarda (Palafrugell, Girona). Campanyes 2006, 2007 i 2008. Laboratori d’Arqueozoologia, Departament de Prehistòria, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. (Unpublished technical report)Google Scholar
  24. Colominas L (2013) Arqueozoología y Romanización. Producción, Distribución y Consumo de animales en el noreste de la Península Ibérica entre los siglos V ane- V dne. BAR International Series 2480, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  25. Colominas L (2017a) Pràctiques ramaderes a la plana de la Cerdanya entre els segles III ane - III dne: més que pernae. Treb d’Arq 21:129–147Google Scholar
  26. Colominas L (2017b) Roman conquest and changes in animal husbandry in the north-east of the Iberian Peninsula: searching for patterns, rates and singularities. Archaeofauna (IJA) 26:9–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Colominas L, Fernández C, Iborra P (2017) Animal husbandry and hunting practices in Hispania Tarraconensis: an overview. Eur J Archaeol 20:510–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Columeau P (1993) La faune archéologique du Port à Salses (66) dans le contexte de l’archéo-faune du Languedoc occidental et du Roussillon au course de l’Age de Fer. In: Ugolini D (ed) Languedoc occidental protohistorique. Fouilles et recherches récentes (VI-IV av. J.-C.), Travaux du Centre Camille Jullian 19, Aix-en-Provence, pp 11–22Google Scholar
  29. Corbier M (2007) Propieta Imperiale e allevamento Transumante in Italia. In: Pupillo D (ed) Le propietà imperiali nell’Italia romana. Economica, produzione, amministrazione, Quaderni degli annali dell’Università di Ferrara, Sezzione Storia, 6, FlorènciaGoogle Scholar
  30. Davis S (2000) The effect of castration and age on the development of the Shetland sheep skeleton and a metric comparison between bones of males, females and castrates. J Archaeol Sci 27(5):373–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Davis S (2017) A metrical distinction between sheep and goat astragali. In: Serjeantson D, Rowley-Conwy P, Halstead P (eds) Economic zooarchaeology: studies in hunting. Herding and Early Agriculture, Oxbow, Oxford, pp 453–466Google Scholar
  32. DeGusta D, Vrba E (2003) A method for inferring paleohabitats from the functional morphology of bòvid astragali. J Archaeol Sci 30:1009–1022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Deschler-Erb S (2017) Animal husbandry in Roman Switzerland: state of research and new perspectives. Eur J Archaeol 20(3):416–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dobney K (2001) A place at the table: the role of vertebrate zooarchaeology within a Roman research agenda. In: James S, Millett M (eds) Britons and romans. Council for British Archaeology, York, pp 36–45Google Scholar
  35. Duval C, Horard-Herbin MP, Lepetz S (2013) Morphological changes in domestic cattle in Gaul, from the second century BC to the fifth century AD: diversity of herds in the Seine valley (France) and northern Gaul. J Archaeol Sci 40:3977–3990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Duval C, Cucchi T, Horard-Herbin MP, Lepetz S (2018) The development of new husbandry and economic models in Gaul between the Iron age and the Roman period: new insights from pig bones and teeth morphometrics. J Archaeol Sci 99:10–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ejarque A (2013) La alta montaña pirenaica: génesis y configuración holocena de un paisaje cultural. Estudio paleoambiental en el valle del Madriu-Perafita-Claror (Andorra). BAR International Series 2507, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  38. Ejarque A, Julià R, Reed JM, Marco-Barba J, Mesquita-Joanes F, Riera S (2016) Coastal evolution in a Mediterranean microtidal zone: mid to Late Holocene natural dynamics and human management of the Castelló lagoon, NE Spain. PlosOne 11(5):1–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Evin A, Cucchi T, Cardini A, Strand-Vidarsdottir U, Larson G, Dobney K (2013) The long and winding road : identifying pig domestication through molar size and shape. J Archaeol Sci 40:735–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fernández C (2003) Ganadería, caza y animales de compañía en la Galicia romana: estudio arqueozoológico. Brigantium, 15. A Coruña: Museo Arqueológico e Histórico “Castelo de San Antón”Google Scholar
  41. Gallego A, Rivals F, Colominas L, Palet JM (2017) Pastando en las marismas. Una aproximación desde la técnica del microdesgaste dentario a la alimentación del ganado ovino en el Empordà romano (Noreste de la Península Ibérica). Pyrenae 48(1):93–113Google Scholar
  42. Galop D (2005) Les transformations de l’environnement pyrénéen durant l’Antiquité: l’état de la question à la lumière des données polliniques. In: Bost JP (ed) L’Aquitaine et l’Hispanie septentrionale à l’époque Julio-Claudienne. Organisation et exploitaton des espaces provinciaux. Fâedâeration Aquitania, Bordeuax, pp 317–327Google Scholar
  43. Gassiot E, Rodríguez-Antón D, Burjachs F, Antolín F, Ballesteros P (2012) Poblamiento, explotación y entorno natural de los estadios alpinos y subalpinos del Pirineo central durante la primera mitad del Holoceno. Cuat Geomorfol 26(3–4):29–45Google Scholar
  44. Goodall CR (1995) Procrustes methods in the statistical analysis of shape revisited. In: Mardia KV, Gill CA (eds) Current issues in statistical shape analysis. University of Leeds Press, Leeds, pp 18–33Google Scholar
  45. Grant A (1989) Animals in Roman Britain. In: Todd M (ed) Research on Roman Britain: 1960–89. Britannia monograph series, 11. Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies, London, pp 135–146Google Scholar
  46. Guàrdia J, Guitart J, Carreras C, Olesti O (2017) El fórum de Iulia Libica i la capitalitat ceretana en època altimperial. Treb d’Arq 21:181–204Google Scholar
  47. Gudea A (2008) Contribuitii la istoria economica a Daciei Romane. Studiu Archeozoologic, Editura Mega, IX. Chyi-NaporaGoogle Scholar
  48. Haruda A (2017) Separating sheep (Ovis aries L.) and goats (Capra hircus L.) using geometric morphometric methods: an investigation of astragalus morphology from Late and Final Bronze Age central Asian contexts. Int J Osteoarchaeol 27(4):551–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. King A (1999) Diet in the Roman world: a regional inter-site comparison of the mammal bones. Journal of Roman Archaeology 12:160–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Knockaert J, Balasse M, Rendu C, Burens A, Campmajo P, Carozza L, Bousquet D, Fiorillo D, Vigne JD (2018) Mountain adaptation of caprine herding in the eastern Pyrenees during the Bronze Age: a stable oxygen and carbon isotope analysis of teeth. Quat Int 484:60–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Leguilloux M (1994) L’archéozoologie et l’interprétation des sites. Recherches archéologiques sur la Provence romaine et médiévale, Aix-en-ProvenceGoogle Scholar
  52. Leguilloux M (2003) Les bergeries de la Crau: production et commerce de la laine. Rev Archéol Picardie 1-2:339–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lepetz S (1996) L’animal dans l’économie gallo-romaine. Rev Archéol Picardie Num Spéc 12:81–147Google Scholar
  54. Leveau Ph (2009) Transhumance, remues et migrations des troupeaux dans les Alpes et les Pyrénées antiques. La question du pastoralisme romain. In: Callegarin L, Réchin F (eds) Espaces et Sociétés à l’époque romaine: entre Garonne et Ebre, Hommage à Georges Fabre. Archèologie des Pyrénées Occidentales et des Landes, Hors s. 4, Pau, pp 141–174Google Scholar
  55. Leveau Ph (2016) Approches de la transhumance en Gaule à l'époque romaine. In: Rendu C (ed) Estives d’Ossau. 7000 ans de pastoralisme dans les Pyrénées, Éditions Le Pas d’Oiseau, pp 205–221Google Scholar
  56. Leveau PH, Palet JM (2010) Les Pyrénées romaines, la frontière, la ville et la montagne. PALLAS 82:171–198Google Scholar
  57. Mackinnon M (2004) Production and consumption of animals in roman Italy: integrating the zooarchaeological and textual evidence. Journal of Roman Archaeology, supplementary series 54. Rhode IslandGoogle Scholar
  58. Maltby M (1981) Iron Age, Romano-British and Anglo-Saxon animal husbandry: a review of the faunal evidence. In: Jones M, Dimbleby G (eds) The environment of man: the Iron Age to the Anglo-Saxon period. British archaeological reports, British series, 87, Oxford, pp 155–203Google Scholar
  59. Miralles F, Tutusaus J (2005) Mil anys pels camins de l’herba: el llegat d’un món que s’acaba. EfadósGoogle Scholar
  60. Montaner J, Julià R, Castanyer P, Tremoleda J, Santos M, Riera S, Usera J, Solà J (2014) El paleopaisatge fluvio-estuari d’Empúries. Est Baix Emp 33:11–51Google Scholar
  61. Morera J (2017) Territori i poblament de Cerdanya a l’antiguitat: la iberització i romanització de la Vall Cerdana. Dissertation, Universitat Autònoma de BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  62. Morera J, Olesti O, Mercadal O, Crespo C (2011) El Castellot de Bolvir (Cerdanya): ocupacions Ceretana, iberoromana i altmedieval. Trib Arqueol 2009-2010:281–315Google Scholar
  63. Noddle BA (1984) A comparison of the bones of cattle, sheep and pigs from ten Iron Age and Romano-British sites. In: Grigson C, Clutton-Brock J (eds) Animals in archaeology: 4. Husbandry in Europe. British archaeological reports, International series, S227, Oxford, pp 105–125Google Scholar
  64. Olesti O (2014) Paisajes de la Hispania Romana. La explotación de los territorios del Imperio. Dstoria edicions, SabadellGoogle Scholar
  65. Olesti O, Guardia J, Mercadal O (2014) El fin del sueño urbano en Iulia Livica (Llívia, Cerdaña). In: Ramallo SF, Quevedo A (eds) Las ciudades de la Tarraconense oriental entre loss. II-IV D.C. Evolución urbanística y contextos materiales. Ediciones de la Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, pp 61–88Google Scholar
  66. Orengo HA, Palet JM, Ejarque A, Miras Y, Riera S (2013) Pitch production during the Roman period: an intensive mountain industry directed towards long distance trade? Antiquity 87(337):802–814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Oueslati T (2006) Approche archéozoologique des modes d’acquisition, de transformation et de consommation des ressources animales dans le contexte urbain gallo-romain de Lutèce (Paris, France), BAR International Series 1479, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  68. Palet JM, Orengo H, Ejarque A, Euba I, Miras Y, Riera S (2011) Formas de paisaje de montaña y ocupación del territorio en los Pirineos orientales en época romana: estudios pluridisciplinares en el valle del Madriu-Perafita-Claror (Andorra) y en la sierra del Cadí (Cataluña), Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Classical Archaeology (Roma 2008), Bollettino di Archeologia on line, volume speciale A8, pp 67–79Google Scholar
  69. Palet JM, Garcia A, Orengo H, Riera S, Miras Y, Julià R (2014) Ocupación y explotación de espacios altimontanos pirenaicos en la antigüedad: visiones desde la arqueología del paisaje. In: Dall’Aglio PL, Franceschelli C, Maganzani L (eds) Atti del IV Convegno Internazionale di Studi Veleiati, Bologna, pp 455–470Google Scholar
  70. Payne S, Bull G (1988) Components of variation in measurements of pig bones and teeth and the use of measurements to distinguish wild from domestic pig remains. Archaeozoologia 2:27–66Google Scholar
  71. Pèlachs A, Soriano JM, Nadal J, Esteban A (2007) Holocene environmental history and human impact in the Pyrenees. Contrib Sci 3(3):423–431Google Scholar
  72. Pigière F (2017) The evolution of cattle husbandry practices in the Roman period in Gallia Belgica and Western Germania inferior. Eur J Archaeol 20(3):472–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Plummer TW, Bishop LC, Hertel F (2008) Habitat preference of extant African bovids based on astragalus morphology: operationalizing ecomorphology for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. J Archaeol Sci 35:3016–3027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Pöllath N, Alibert P, Schafberg R, Peters J (2018) Striking new paths-Distinguishing ancient Ovis orientalis from its modern domestic descendant (Karakul breed) applying Geometric and Traditional Morphometric approaches to the astragalus. In: Çakırlar C, Berton R, Chahoud J, Pilaar Birch S (eds) Archaeozoology of the Near East XII. Proceedings of the Archaeozoology of Southwest Asia and Adjacent Regions Working Group Meeting in Groningen June 10–14 2015. Barkhuis publishers, GroningenGoogle Scholar
  75. Pöllath N, Schafberg R, Peters J (2019) Astragalar morphology: approaching the cultural trajectories of wild and domestic sheep applying geometric morphometrics. J Archaeol Sci Rep 23:810–821Google Scholar
  76. Pons E (2002) Mas Castellar de Pontós (Alt Empordà). Un complex arqueològic d’època ibèrica (Excavacios 1990-1998). Sèrie Monogràfica 21, GironaGoogle Scholar
  77. Popkin P, Baker P, Worley F, Payne S, Hammon A (2012) The sheep project (1): determining skeletal growth, timing of epiphyseal fusion and morphometric variation in unimproved Shetland sheep of known age, sex, castration status and nutrition. J Archaeol Sci 39:1775–1792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Prummel W, Frisch HJ (1986) A guide for the distinction of species, sex and body side in bones of sheep and goat. J Archaeol Sci 13:567–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rendu C (2003) La montagne d’Enveig. Une estive pyrénéenne dans la longue durée. CanetGoogle Scholar
  80. Rendu C, Campmajó P, Davasse B, Galop D, Crabol D (1996) Premières traces d’occupation pastorale sur la montagne d’Enveig. Trav Preh Cat:35–43Google Scholar
  81. Rensch B (1938) Some problems of geographical variation and species formation. Proc Linn Soc London 150:275–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Rohlf FJ, Slice D (1990) Extensions of the procrustes method for the optimal superimposition of landmarks. Syst Biol 39:40–59Google Scholar
  83. Rowley-Conwy P, Albarella U, Dobney K (2012) Distinguishing wild boar from domestic pigs in prehistory: a review of approaches and recent results. J World Prehist 25:1–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ruscillo D (2003) Alternative methods for identifying sex from archaeological animal bone. Br School Athens Stud 9:37–44Google Scholar
  85. Schlager S (2017) Morpho and Rvcg - shape analysis in R. In: Zheng G, Li S and Szekely G (eds) Statistical shape and deformation analysis. Academic Press, pp 217–256Google Scholar
  86. Segard M (2009) Les Alpes occidentales romaines. Développement urbain et exploitation des ressources des régions de montagne (Gaule Narbonnaise, Italie, provinces alpines), Centre Camille Jullian, Aix-en-ProvenceGoogle Scholar
  87. Tremoleda J (2008) Cent anys d’excavacions arqueológiques a Empúries. ANNALS IEE 39:81–100Google Scholar
  88. Trentacoste A, Nieto-Espinet A, Valenzuela-Lamas S (2018) Pre-Roman improvements to agricultural production: evidence from livestock husbandry in late prehistoric Italy. PLoS One 13(12):e0208109. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Trixl S, Steidl B, Peters J (2017) Archaeology and zooarchaeology of the late Iron age-Roman transition in the province of Raetia (100 bc–100 ad). Eur J Archaeol 20(3):431–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Valenzuela A, Alcover JA, Cau MÁ (2017) The impact of Roman conquest on the pattern of livestock exploitation on the Balearic Islands. Archaeofauna 26:127–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Vigne JD (1980) Quelques données sur les ossaments de l’oppidum protohistorique de Llo. In: Campmajó P (ed) Le site protohistorique de Llo (Pyrénées-Orientales). Centre d’Études Préhistoriques Catalanes, Université de Perpignan, Perpignan, pp 130–152Google Scholar
  92. Zeder MA, Lapham HA (2010) Assessing the reliability of criteria used to identify postcranial bones in sheep, Ovis, and goats, Capra. J Archaeol Sci 37:2887–2905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Zohary D, Tchernov E, Horwitz LK (1998) The role of unconscious selection in the domestication of sheep and goats. J Zool 245:129–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut Català d’Arqueologia ClàssicaTarragonaSpain
  2. 2.Institut des Sciences de l’Evolution–MontpellierMontpellier, Cedex 5France
  3. 3.Departament d’Història i Història de l’ArtUniversitat de GironaGironaSpain
  4. 4.Université Toulouse II Jean JaurèsToulouseFrance
  5. 5.Museu d’Arqueologia de Catalunya-EmpúriesGironaSpain
  6. 6.Departament de Ciències de l’Antiguitat i de l’Edat MitjanaUniversitat Autònoma de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  7. 7.Museu d’Arqueologia de Catalunya-GironaGironaSpain

Personalised recommendations