Advertisement

Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences

, Volume 11, Issue 9, pp 4397–4421 | Cite as

Explaining links from the past: material distribution in Charco Hondo 2 Acheulian archeological site (Madrid, Spain)

  • Javier Baena PreyslerEmail author
  • Concepción Torres Navas
Original Paper

Abstract

The study of the lithic assemblage from Charco Hondo 2 (Madrid, Spain) indicates the existence of intense activities related to the quarrying of Miocene flint outcrops, within a drainage context inside the interfluvial plateau of the Manzanares and Jarama rivers (Madrid region). This lithic production was oriented to produce the first stages of large flake bifacial shaping, with an important collection of refitted materials of the Lower/Middle Paleolithic. The sedimentological circumstances and the presence of refitted items initially suggest the existence of good preservation conditions for an open-air site. In this contribution, we present a brief analysis of the geoarchaeological sequence with special attention to depositional and post-depositional processes, in order to determine the extent to which tool distribution and the lithic refitting connections were the consequence of human activity or, on the contrary, the combination of different human and natural agents. This site provides us with a good example to discuss the relevance and significance of particular refitted distributions in open-air quarrying contexts.

Keywords

Lithic refits Acheulian Mousterian Sedimentary processes Quarries 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We want to thank Dra. Francesca Romagnoli and Dr. Manuel Vaquero for their kind invitation to the workshop “The Big Puzzle 30 Years After: a Multidisciplinary, Shared, Paleolithic Perspective,” kindly supported by the Wenner-Gren Foundation Ref: Gr CONF-737. This work was also carried out as part of the research project HAR2016-76760-C3-2-P “¿COMO, QUIEN Y DONDE?: VARIABILIDAD DE COMPORTAMIENTOS EN LA CAPTACION Y TRANSFORMACION DE LOS RECURSOS LITICOS DENTRO DE GRUPOS NEANDERTALES 2” financed by Agencia Estatal de Investigación (AEI) and Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER). We would also like to thank the help and support of Miguel Fernández from Virtua Nostrum Company and the Dirección General de Patrimonio of the Community of Madrid, Los Ahijones archeological team, the Compensation Board of Los Ahijones (Vicálvaro-Madrid), and ARGEA SL Company. We should like to extend our special thanks to Jorge Vega and Sergio Bárez for their helpful contribution in the fieldworks.

References

  1. Aubry T, Bradley B, Almeida M, Walter B, Neves MJ, Pelegrin J, Lenoir M, Tiffagom M (2008) Solutrean laurel leaf production at Maîtreaux: an experimental approach guided by techno-economic analysis. World Archaeology.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00438240701843538
  2. Baena J, Bárez S, Pérez-González A, Roca M, Lázaro A, Márquez R, Rus I, Manzano C, Cuartero F, Ortiz I, Rodríguez P, Pérez T, González I, Polo J, Rubio D, Alcaraz M, Escobar A (2011) Searchers and miners: first signs of flint exploitation in Madrid’s region. In: Consuegra S, Díaz-del-Río P, Bar S (eds) Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference of the UISPP Commission on Flint Mining in Pre- and Protohistoric Times, BAR International Series, vol 2260, pp 203–220Google Scholar
  3. Baena J, Ortíz I, Torres C, Bárez S (2015) Recycling in abundance: re-use and recycling processes in the Lower and Middle Paleolithic contexts of the Central Iberian Peninsula. Quat Int 361:142–154.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2014.07.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baena Preysler J, Torres Navas C, Sharon G (2018) Life history of a large flake biface. Quat Sci Rev 190:123–136.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2018.04.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bailey G (2007) Time perspectives, palimpsests and the archaeology of time. J Anthropol Archaeol 26:198–223.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaa.2006.08.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bárez S, Pérez-González A (2006) Terrazas fluviales del Pleistoceno inferior y medio del río Manzanares en Vaciamadrid: el perfil de Calamuecos y sus implicaciones geomorfologicas. Boletín Geologico y Minero 117(3):351–361Google Scholar
  7. Bárez S, Rus I, Pérez-González A, Vega J (2011) Los yacimientos achelenses de “Los Ahijones”, metodología geoarqueológica y resultados preliminares de la intervención. In: Santonja M (ed) Actas de Las V Jornadas de Patrimonio Arqueológico En La Comunidad de Madrid. Los primeros pobladores: arqueología, pp 185–200Google Scholar
  8. Bárez S, Baena J, Pérez-González A, Torres C, Rus I, Vega J (2016) Acheulian flint quarries in the Madrid Tertiary basin, Central Iberian Peninsula: first data obtained from geoarchaeological studies. Quat Int 411:329–348.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2016.01.041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barkai R, Gopher A, La Porta PC (2002) Palaeolithic landscape of extraction: flint surface quarries and workshops at Mt Pua, Israel. Antiquity 76:672–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barton CM, Riel-Salvatore J (2014) The formation of lithic assemblages. J Archaeol Sci 46:334–352.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2014.03.031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Benn DI (2013) Till fabric analysis. In: Encyclopedia of quaternary Science: Second Edition.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-53643-3.00087-X
  12. Bentsen SE (2010) A sound of silence? Interpreting empty areas at Pincevent. In: Połtowicz-Bobak M, Bobak D (eds) The Magdalenian in Central Europe. New ideas and concepts. Collectio Archaeologica Ressoviensis, pp 47–52Google Scholar
  13. Bergman CA, Roberts MB, Collcutt S, Barlow P (1987) Refitting ans spatial analysis of artefacts from quarry 2 at the Middle Pleistocene Acheulean site of Boxgrove, West Sussex, England. In: The big puzzle: International Symposium on Refitting Stone Artefacts. Monperos, pp 265–281Google Scholar
  14. Bertran P, Texier JP (1995) Fabric analysis: application to paleolithic sites. J Archaeol Sci.  https://doi.org/10.1006/jasc.1995.0050
  15. Boëda É, Pelegrin J (1985) Approche expérimentale des amas de Marsangy. In: In Les Amas Lithiques de La Zone N19 Du Gisement Magdalénien de Marsangy: Approche Méthodologique Par l’expérimentation, Bourgogne, pp 19–36Google Scholar
  16. Bourguignon L, Faivre J-P, Turq A (2004) Ramification des chaînes opératoires: Une spécificité du moustérien ? Paléo:37–48Google Scholar
  17. Burton J (1984) Quarrying in a tribal society. World Archaeol 16:234–247.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00438243.1984.9979930 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bustillo M a, Pérez-Jiménez JL (2005) Características diferenciales y génesis de los niveles silíceos explotados en el yacimiento arqueológico de Casa Montero (Vicálvaro, Madrid). Geogaceta 38:243–246Google Scholar
  19. Bustillo MÁ, Pérez-Jiménez JL, Bustillo M (2012) Caracterización geoquímica de rocas sedimentarias formadas por silicificación como fuentes de suministro de utensilios líticos (Mioceno, cuenca de Madrid). Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geologicas 29:233–247Google Scholar
  20. Callahan E (1979) The basics of biface kanapping in the eastern fluted point tradition. A manual for flintknappers and lithic analystsGoogle Scholar
  21. Calvo JP, Alonso Zarza AM, García del Cura MA (1989) Models of Miocene marginal lacustrine sedimentation in response to varied source areas and depositional regime in the Madrid basin, central Spain. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 90:199–214Google Scholar
  22. Calvo JP, Alonso Zarza AM, García del Cura MA, Ordo~nez S, Rodriguez-Aranda JP, Sanz Montero ME (1996) Sedimentary evolution of lake systems through the Miocene of the Madrid basin: paleoclimatic and paleohydrological constrains. In: Friend PF, Dabrio CJ (Eds.) Tertiary Basins of Spain, Cambridge University Press, Madrid, p 272–277Google Scholar
  23. Conde C, Baena Preysler J, Carrión E (2000) Los modelos de explotación de los recursos líticos durante el Pleistoceno de la región de Madrid. SPAL 9:145–166Google Scholar
  24. Delagnes A, Rendu W (2011) Shifts in Neandertal mobility, technology and subsistence strategies in western France. J Archaeol Sci 38:1771–1783.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2011.04.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Deschamps M, Zilhão J (2018) Assessing site formation and assemblage integrity through stone tool refitting at Gruta da Oliveira (Almonda karst system, Torres Novas, Portugal): a middle paleolithic case study. PLoS One 13:e0192423.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0192423 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Despriée J, Courcimault G, Moncel M-H, Voinchet P, Tissoux H, Puaud S, Gallet X, Bahain J-J, Moreno D, Falguères C (2016) The Acheulean workshop of la Noira (France, 700 ka) in the European technological context. Quat Int 393:112–136.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2015.04.051 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dominguez-Rodrigo M, Barba R, Egeland CP (2007) Deconstructing Olduvai. Museum. 40:453–460.  https://doi.org/10.1080/0142159X.2018.1440077 Google Scholar
  28. Goy JL, Pérez-González A, Zazo C (1989) Cartografía geológica del Cuaternario, geomorfología y Memoria correspondiente de la Hoja a E. 1: 50.000 de Madrid (559)Google Scholar
  29. Hammer Ø (2009) New statistical methods for detecting point alignments. Comput Geosci 35:659–666.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2008.03.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hosfield, R.T., Chambers, J.C., 2016. Flake modifications during fluvial transportation: three cautionary tales. Lithics—The Journal of the Lithic Studies SocietyGoogle Scholar
  31. Kuhn SL, Clark AE (2015) Artifact densities and assemblage formation: evidence from Tabun Cave. J Anthropol Archaeol 38:8–16.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaa.2014.09.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. de la Torre I, Vanwezer N, Benito-Calvo A, Proffitt T, Mora R (2018) Spatial and orientation patterns of experimental stone tool refits. Archaeol Anthropol Sci.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12520-018-0701-z
  33. Laplana C, Herráez E, Yravedra J, Bárez S, Rubio-Jara S, Panera J, Rus I, Pérez-González A, Rubio S, Panera J, Rus I, Pérez-González A (2015) Biocronología de la Terraza Compleja de Butarque del río Manzanares en el Estanque de Tormentas al sur de Madrid (España). Estud Geol 71:1–16.  https://doi.org/10.3989/egeol.41808.338 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Machado J, Hernández CM, Mallol C, Galván B (2013) Lithic production, site formation and Middle Palaeolithic palimpsest analysis: in search of human occupation episodes at Abric del Pastor stratigraphic unit IV (Alicante, Spain). J Archaeol Sci 40:2254–2273.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2013.01.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Malinsky-Buller A, Hovers E, Marder O (2011) Making time: “living floors”, “palimpsests” and site formation processes—a perspective from the open-air lower Paleolithic site of Revadim Quarry, Israel. J Anthropol Archaeol 30:89–101.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaa.2010.11.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Manzano I, Dapena L, Expósito A, Gómez J, Caro J, Álavarez D, Roca N, Díaz D, Lillo JM, Baena J, Debenham N (2011) Yacimientos paleolíticos en los Berrocales (Proyecto U.Z.P.- Desarrollo del Este de los Berrocales, Vicálvaro, Madrid). In: Santonja M (ed) Actas de Las Quintas Jornadas de Patrimonio Arqueológico En La Comunidad de Madrid, Madrid, pp 201–204Google Scholar
  37. Miall AD (2014) Fluvial depositional systems. Fluvial Depositional Systems.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-00666-6
  38. Moncel MH, Chacón MG, La Porta A, Fernandes P, Hardy B, Gallotti R (2014) Fragmented reduction processes: Middle Palaeolithic technical behaviour in the Abri du Maras shelter, southeastern France. Quat Int 350.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2014.05.013
  39. Müller W, Pasda C (2011) Site formation and faunal remains of the Middle Pleistocene site Bilzingsleben. QuartarGoogle Scholar
  40. Neruda P (2017) GIS analysis of the spatial distribution of Middle Palaeolithic artefacts in Kůlna Cave (Czech Republic). Quat Int 435:58–76.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2015.10.028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Newcomer MH (1971) Some quantitative experiments in handaxe manufacture. World Archaeol 3:85–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Oron M, Goren-Inbar N (2013) Mousterian intra-site spatial patterning at Quneitra, Golan Heights. Quat Int 331:186–202.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2013.04.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Paddayya K, Petraglia M (1996) Acheulian workshop at Isampur, Hunsgi Valley, Karnataka: a preliminary report. Bulletin of the Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute 56–57:3–26Google Scholar
  44. Paddayya K, Jhaldiyal R, Petraglia MD (2006) The Acheulian quarry at Isampur, Lower Deccan, India. In: Goren-Inbar N, Sharon G (eds) Axe age: Acheulian tool-making from quarry to discard. Equinox, London, pp 45–74Google Scholar
  45. Panera J, Torres T, Pérez-González A, Ortiz J, Rubio-Jara S, Uribelarrea D, Val D (2011) Geocronología de la Terraza Compleja de Arganda en el valle del río Jarama (Madrid, España). Estud Geol 67:495.  https://doi.org/10.3989/egeol.40550.204 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pérez-González A, Rublo Jara S, Panera J, Uribelarrea D (2008) Geocronología de la sucesión arqueoestratigráfica de Los Estragales en la Terraza Compleja de Butarque (Valle del río Manzanares, Madrid). Geogaceta 45:39–42Google Scholar
  47. Rodríguez-Aranda J, Calvo J, Sanz-Montero E (2002) Lower Miocene gypsum palaeokarst in the Madrid Basin (Central Spain): dissolution diagenesis, morphological relics and karst end-products. Sedimentology 49:1358–1400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Romagnoli F, Vaquero-Rodríguez M (2016) Quantitative stone tools intra-site point and orientation patterns of a Middle Palaeolithic living floor: a GIS multi-scalar spatial and temporal approach. Quartär.  https://doi.org/10.7485/QU63
  49. Romagnoli F, Nishiaki Y, Rivals F, Vaquero M (2018) Time uncertainty, site formation processes, and human behaviours: new insights on old issues in high-resolution archaeology. Quat Int 474:99–102.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2018.04.033 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Rubio-Jara S, Panera J, Rodríguez-de-Tembleque J, Santonja M, Pérez-González A (2015) Large flake Acheulean in the middle of Tagus basin (Spain): middle stretch of the river Tagus valley and lower stretches of the rivers Jarama and Manzanares valleys. Quat Int 411:349–366.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2015.12.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rubio S, Panera J (2005) Bifaces y elefantes:: la investigación de Paleolítico Inferior en Madrid, Zona Arque. ed. Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid. Servicio de Documentación y Publicaciones, MadridGoogle Scholar
  52. Rus I, Vega Toscano G (1984) El yacimiento de Arriaga II: problemas de una def- inición actual de los suelos de ocupación. Primeras Jornadas de Metodología e Investigación Prehistórica pp 387–404Google Scholar
  53. Santonja M, López Martínez N, Pérez-González A (1980) Ocupaciones achelenses en el valle del Jarama. Arqueología y Paleontología IGoogle Scholar
  54. Santonja M, Rubio-Jara S, Panera J, Pérez-González A (2014) The Paleolithic in the Manzanares and Jarama River valleys (Madrid). In: Sala R (ed) Pleistocene and Holocene hunter-gatherers in Iberia and the Gibrartar Strait: the current archaeological record. Universidad de Burgos y Fundación Atapuerca, Burgos, pp 561–567Google Scholar
  55. Sharon G (2009) Acheulian giant-core technology. A worldwide perspective by Gonen Sharon 50.  https://doi.org/10.1086/598849
  56. Shott MJ (2003) Chaine operatoire and reduction sequence. Lithic Technol 28:95–105.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01977261.2003.11721005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Solodenko N, Zupancich A, Cesaro SN, Marder O, Lemorini C, Barkai R (2015) Fat residue and use-wear found on Acheulian biface and scraper associated with butchered elephant remains at the site of Revadim, Israel. PLoS One 10:e0118572.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118572 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Stanistreet IG, McHenry LJ, Stollhofen H, de la Torre I (2018) Bed II sequence stratigraphic context of EF-HR and HWK EE archaeological sites, and the Oldowan/Acheulean succession at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. J Hum Evol 120:19–31.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2018.01.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Turq A, Roebroeks W, Bourguignon L, Faivre J-P (2013) The fragmented character of Middle Palaeolithic stone tool technology. J Hum Evol 65:641–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Vallin L, Masson B, Caspar JP (2001) Taphonomy at Hermies, France: a Mousterian knapping site in a Loessic context. J Field Archaeol 28:419–436Google Scholar
  61. Vaquero M (2011) New perspectives on recycling of lithic resources using refitting and spatial data. Quartär 58:113–130Google Scholar
  62. Vaquero M (2013) Análisis micro-espacial : áreas domésticas , variabilidad funcional y patrones temporales. In: Diez MG, Peña LZ (eds) Métodos y Técnicas de Análisis y Estudio En Arqueología Prehistórica: Universidad del País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, pp 245–271Google Scholar
  63. Vaquero M, Fernández-Laso MC, Chacón MG, Romagnoli F, Rosell J, Sañudo P (2017) Moving things: comparing lithic and bone refits from a Middle Paleolithic site. J Anthropol Archaeol 48:262–280.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaa.2017.09.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Villaverde V, Eixea A, Zilhão J, Sanchis A, Real C, Bergadà M (2017) Diachronic variation in the Middle Paleolithic settlement of Abrigo de la Quebrada (Chelva, Spain). Quat Int 435:164–179.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2015.09.075 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Weiss M, Otcherednoy A, Wiśniewski A (2017) Using multivariate techniques to assess the effects of raw material, flaking behavior and tool manufacture on assemblage variability: an example from the late Middle Paleolithic of the European Plain. J Archaeol Sci 87:73–94.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2017.09.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wheatley D, Gillings M (2002) Spatial technology and archaeology: the archaeological applications of GIS, The Archaeological Applications of GIS.  https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203302392
  67. Yravedra J, Rubio-Jara S, Panera J, Uribelarrea D, Pérez-González A (2012) Elephants and subsistence. Evidence of the human exploitation of extremely large mammal bones from the Middle Palaeolithic site of PRERESA (Madrid, Spain). J Archaeol Sci 39:1063–1071.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2011.12.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Zilhão J, Anesin D, Aubry T, Badal E, Cabanes D, Kehl M, Klasen N, Lucena A, Martín-Lerma I, Martínez S, Matias H, Susini D, Steier P, Wild EM, Angelucci DE, Villaverde V, Zapata J (2017) Precise dating of the Middle-to-Upper Paleolithic transition in Murcia (Spain) supports late Neandertal persistence in Iberia. Heliyon 3:e00435.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2017.e00435 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Javier Baena Preysler
    • 1
    Email author
  • Concepción Torres Navas
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Prehistory and ArchaeologyUniversity Autónoma of MadridMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations