Advertisement

Luminescence dating of a transitional Chalcolithic/Bronze Age site in Jordan

  • Sahar al KhasawnehEmail author
  • Andrew Murray
  • Lutfi Khalil
Original Paper
  • 33 Downloads

Abstract

In this study, we test the applicability of luminescence dating to geo-archaeological sediments from a “tell” (mound) formation. Combined quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and K-feldspar infrared-stimulated luminescence (IRSL) dating were applied to eight sediment samples taken from the Tell al-Magass archaeological site in southern Jordan. The site is made up of a sequence of multiple sandy and ash layers covering architectural features of stone and mudbrick. OSL samples were collected from layers previously dated by 14C. Both quartz and alkali feldspars (KF) were measured using, for quartz, blue OSL and, for feldspar, IR50 and pIRIR290 signals. The pIRIR290 signals required the subtraction of residual doses (measured using prolonged stimulation in a daylight simulator); in contrast, the IR50 signals did not include a significant residual dose but did require correction for anomalous fading. The resulting agreement of the ages from the two IRSL signals with those from quartz confirms that the quartz was fully reset before or during the last daylight transport event. This is further confirmed by the satisfactory comparison with previously published 14C dates from the same section. We conclude that luminescence is likely to be very suitable for dating “tell” sediments from this region.

Keywords

Tell al-Magass Luminescence dating OSL Geo-archeology Post deposition 

Notes

References

  1. Aitken M (1985) Thermoluminescence dating. Academic pressGoogle Scholar
  2. Athanassas CD, Rollefson GO, Kadereit A, Kennedy D, Theodorakopoulou K, Rowan YM, Wasse A (2015) Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating and spatial analysis of geometric lines in the northern Arabian Desert. J Archaeol Sci 64:1–11Google Scholar
  3. Auclair M, Lamothe M, Huot S (2003) Measurement of anomalous fading for feldspar IRSL using SAR. Radiat Meas 37(4–5):487–492Google Scholar
  4. Bateman MD, Boulter HC, Carr AS, Frederick CD, Peter D, Wilder M (2007) Detecting post-depositional sediment disturbance in sandy deposits. Quat Geochronol 2:57–64Google Scholar
  5. Buylaert J, Murray A, Thomsen K, Jain M (2009) Testing the potential of an elevated temperature IRSL signal from K-feldspar. Radiat Meas 44:560–565Google Scholar
  6. Buylaert J, Jain M, Murray A, Thomsen K, Thiel C, Sohbati R (2012) A robust feldspar luminescence dating method for Middle and Late Pleistocene sediments. Boreas 41:435–451Google Scholar
  7. Freiesleben T, Sohbati R, Murray A, Jain M, Al Khasawneh S, Hvidt S, Jakobsen B (2015) Mathematical model quantifies multiple daylight exposure and burial events for rock surfaces using luminescence dating. Radiat Meas 81:16–22Google Scholar
  8. Görsdorf J (2002) New 14C-datings of prehistoric settlements in the south of Jordan. In: Eichmann R (ed) Ausgrabungen und Surveys im Vorderen Orient 1. Orient-Archäologie, Rahden/Westfalen: Leidorf, pp 333–339 5Google Scholar
  9. Guérin G, Mercier N, Adamiec G (2011) Dose-rate conversion factors: update. Ancient TL 29(1):5–8Google Scholar
  10. Guérin G, Mercier N, Nathan R, Adamiec G, Lefrais Y (2012) On the use of the infinite matrix assumption and associated concepts: a critical review. Measurements 47(9):778–785Google Scholar
  11. Guralnik B, Matmon A, Yoav A, Porat N, Fink D (2011) Constraining the evolution of river terraces with integrated OSL and cosmogenic nuclide data. Quat Geochronol 6(1):22–32Google Scholar
  12. Hansen V, Murray A, Buylaert J, Yeoa E, Thomsen K (2015) A new irradiated quartz for beta source calibration. Radiat Meas 81:123–127Google Scholar
  13. Hansen V, Murray A, Thomsen K, Jain M, Autzen M, Buylaert JP (2018) Towards the origins of over-dispersion in beta source calibration. Radiat Meas 120:157162 Google Scholar
  14. Holzer A, Avner U, Porat N, Horwitz L (2010) Desert kites in the Negev desert and northeast Sinai: their function, chronology and ecology. J Arid Environ 74(7):806–817Google Scholar
  15. Huntley DJ, Baril MR (1997) The K content of the K-feldspars being measured in optical dating or in thermoluminescence dating. Ancient TL 15:11–13Google Scholar
  16. Huntley DJ, Lamothe M (2001) Ubiquity of anomalous fading in K-feldspars and the measurement and correction for it in optical dating. Can J Earth Sci 38(7):1093–1106Google Scholar
  17. Jacobs Z, Roberts GR, Nespoulet R, El Hajraoui MA, Debénath A (2012) Single-grain OSL chronologies for Middle Palaeolithic deposits at El Mnasra and El Harhoura 2, Morocco: implications for Late Pleistocene human–environment interactions. J Hum Evol 62(3):377–394Google Scholar
  18. Jain M, Murray A, Bøtter-Jensen L (2003) Characterisation of blue-light stimulated luminescence components in different quartz samples: implications for dose measurement. Radiat Meas 37(4):441–449Google Scholar
  19. Junge A, Lomax J, Shahack-Gross R, Dunseth ZC, Finkelstein I (2016) OSL age determination of archaeological stone structures using trapped Aeolian sediments: a case study from the Negev highlands, Israel. Geoarchaeology: An International Journal 31:550–563Google Scholar
  20. Khalil L (1987) Preliminary report on the 1985 season of excavation at al Magass-Aqaba. Ann Dep Antiquities of Jordan 31:481–484Google Scholar
  21. Khalil L (2009) The excavations at Tell al-Magass. Stratigraphy and architecture. In: Khalil L, Schmidt K (eds) Prehistoric Aqaba I. Orient-Archäologie, Rahden/Westfalen: Leidorf 23Google Scholar
  22. al Khasawneh SM, Gebel HG, Bonatz D (2016) First application of OSL dating to a Chalcolithic well structures in Qublān Banĭ Murra, Jordan. Mediter Archaeol Archaeom 16(3):127–134Google Scholar
  23. al Khasawneh S, Murray AS, Bourke S, Bonatz D (2017) Testing feldspar luminescence dating of young archaeological heated materials using potshards from Pella (Tell Tabqat Fahl) in the Jordan Valley. Geochronometria 44(1):98–110Google Scholar
  24. al Khasawneh S, Murray A, Thomsen K, & et al. (2018). Dating a near eastern desert hunting trap (kite) using rock surface luminescence dating. Archaeol Anthropol Sci, 1–11Google Scholar
  25. al Khasawneh S, Murray A, Abudanah F (2019) A first radiometric chronology for the Khatt Shebib megalithic structure in Jordan using the luminescence dating of rock surfaces. Quat Geochronol 49:205–210Google Scholar
  26. Klimscha F (2009) Radiocarbon dates from prehistoric Aqaba and other. In: Khalil L, Schmidt K (eds) Prehistoric Aqaba I. Orient, Rahden/Westfalen: Leidorf, pp 363–401Google Scholar
  27. Korjenkov, A. M., & Schmidt, K. (2009). An archaeoseismological study at Tall Hujayrat al-Ghuzlan: seismic destruction of Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age structures. In L. A. Khalil, & Klaus Schmidt (Eds.), Prehistoric Aqaba I, 23 (pp. 79–97)Google Scholar
  28. Liritzis I (2011) Surface dating by luminescence: an overview. Geochronometria 38(3):292–302Google Scholar
  29. Liritzis I, Sideris C, Vafiadou A, Mitsis J (2008) Mineralogical, petrological and radioactivity aspects of some building material from Egyptian old kingdom monuments. J Cult Herit 9(1):1–13Google Scholar
  30. Lombard M, Wadley L, Jacobs Z, Mohapi M, Roberts RG (2010) Still bay and serrated points from Umhlatuzana rock shelter, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. J Archaeol Sci 37(7):1773–1784Google Scholar
  31. Mejdahl V (1987) Internal radioactivity in quartz and feldspar grains. Ancient TL 5:7–10Google Scholar
  32. Murray A, Wintle A (2000) Luminescence dating of quartz using an improved single-aliquot regenerative-dose protocol. Radiat Meas 32(1):57–73Google Scholar
  33. Murray A, Wintle A (2003) The single aliquot regenerative dose protocol: potential for improvements in reliability. Radiat Meas 37:377–381Google Scholar
  34. Murray A, Marten R, Johnston A, Martin P (1987) Analysis for naturally occuring radionuclides at environmental concentrations by gamma spectrometry. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 115(2):263–288Google Scholar
  35. Murray A, Thomsen K, N M, Buylaert JP, Jain M (2012) Identifying well-bleached quartz using the different bleaching rates of quartz and feldspar luminescence signals. Radiat Meas 47(9):688–695Google Scholar
  36. Murray AS, Helsted LM, Autzen M, Jain M, Buylaert JP (2018) Measurement of natural radioactivity: calibration and performance of a high-resolution gamma spectrometry facility. Radiat Meas 120:215–220Google Scholar
  37. Notroff J, Schmidt K, Siegel U, Khalil L (2014) Reconstructing networks, linking spaces- the view from the Aqaba region (Jordan). Levant 46(2):249–267Google Scholar
  38. Porat N, Duller G, Roberts H, Piasetzky E, Finkelstein I (2012) OSL dating in multi-strata Tel: Megiddo (Israel) as a case study. Quat Geochronol 10:359–366Google Scholar
  39. Porat N, Jain M, Ronen A, & Horwitz L (2017). A contribution to late middle Paleolithic chronology of the Levant: new luminescence ages for the Atlit railway bridge site, coastal plain, Israel Quaternary Int, 1–11Google Scholar
  40. Prescott JR, Hutton JT (1994) Cosmic ray contributions to dose rates for luminescence and ESR dating: large depths and long-term variations. Radiat Meas 23:497–500Google Scholar
  41. Rhodius C, Kadereit A, Siegel U, Schmidt K, Eichmann R, Khalil LA (2017) Constraining the time of construction of the irrigation system of Tell Hujayrat al-Ghuzlan near Aqaba, Jordan, using high-resolution optically stimulated luminescence (HR-OSL) dating. Archaeol Anthropol Sci 9(3):345–370Google Scholar
  42. Sánchez J, Mosquera D, Fenollós J (2008) TL and OSL dating of sediment and pottery from two Syrian archaeological sites. Geochronometria 31(1):21–29Google Scholar
  43. Singarayer JS, Bailey RM (2004) Component-resolved bleaching spectra of quartz optically stimulated luminescence: preliminary results and implications for dating. Radiat Meas 38(1):111–118Google Scholar
  44. Sohbati R, Murray A, Porat N, Jain M, Avner U (2015) Age of a prehistoric “Rodedian” cult site constrained by sediment and rock surface luminescence dating techniques. Quat Geochronol 30:90–99Google Scholar
  45. Thomsen K, Bøtter-Jensen L, Denby P, Moska P, Murray A (2006) Developments in luminescence measurement techniques. Radiat Meas 41:768–773Google Scholar
  46. Vandenberghe D, De Corte F, Buylaert J, Kucera J, Van den haute P (2008) On the internal radioactivity in quartz. Radiat Meas 43:771–775Google Scholar
  47. Visocekas R, Spooner NA, Zink A (1994) Tunnel afterglow, fading and infrared emission in thermoluminescence of feldspars. Radiat Meas 23(2–3):377–385Google Scholar
  48. Zimmerman D (1971) Thermoluminescent dating using fine grains from pottery. Archaeometry 13:29–52Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Archaeology and AnthropologyYarmouk UniversityIrbidJordan
  2. 2.Nordic Laboratory for Luminescence Dating, Department of GeoscienceAarhus UniversityAarhusDenmark
  3. 3.Department of ArchaeologyUniversity of JordanAmmanJordan

Personalised recommendations