Advertisement

Revisiting Mwulu’s Cave: new insights into the Middle Stone Age in the southern African savanna biome

  • P. de la Peña
  • A. Val
  • D. J. Stratford
  • F. Colino
  • I. Esteban
  • J. M. Fitchett
  • T. Hodgskiss
  • J. Matembo
  • R. Moll
Original Paper

Abstract

In this paper, we present a revised stratigraphy and results of preliminary analyses of the archaeological material from Mwulu’s Cave. This arises from two excavation campaigns conducted in 2017, 71 years after the site was initially investigated by P.V. Tobias. This cave, located in Limpopo Province (South Africa), preserves one of the few known Middle Stone Age sequences in the northeastern part of the country. Here, we revisit the stratigraphic sequence of the site and provide new analyses of sediments, palynomorphs, phytoliths, ochre and lithics. The renewed excavations and reappraisal of the archaeological material from Mwulu’s Cave form part of a larger research project exploring Middle Stone Age variability in the northeastern part of South Africa, with a specific focus on the so-called Pietersburg industries.

Keywords

Stratigraphy Sedimentology Pollen Phytoliths Ochre Lithics Pietersburg industry 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Judy Maguire, Gary Trower, Lucinda Backwell, Deon Richter and Moloko Madibana, who helped to locate the site, as well as Chris Thornhill, who helped during the two excavation campaigns. J.M. Maíllo, María del Carmen Arriaza Dorado and Lyn Wadley kindly read and gave advice for an early draft of this manuscript. We thank the Shamane Magashula community for kindly giving us permission to excavate in Mwulu’s Cave. The support of the DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Palaeosciences (CoE in Palaeosciences) towards this research is hereby acknowledged. Opinions expressed and conclusions arrived at are those of the authors and are not necessarily to be attributed to the CoE in Palaeosciences. We are grateful to The Palaeontological Scientific Trust (PAST), Johannesburg, South Africa and CoE in Palaeosciences for providing three research grants for Mwulu’s Cave project.

Supplementary material

12520_2018_749_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (582 kb)
Supplementary Table 1 (XLSX 581 kb)
12520_2018_749_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (17 kb)
Supplementary Table 2 (XLSX 17 kb)

References

  1. Albert RM (2000) Study of ash layers through phytolith analyses from the middle Palaeolithic levels of Kebara and Tabun caves. PhD Dissertation, Universitat de Barcelona.  https://doi.org/10.1006/jasc.2002.0854 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Albert RM, Weiner S (2001) Study of phytoliths in prehistoric ash layers from Kebara and Tabun Caves using a quantitative approach. In: Meunier JD, Colin F (eds) Phytoliths: applications in earth sciences and human history, Lisse, pp 251–266Google Scholar
  3. Allmendinger RW, Cardozo NC, Fisher D (2013) Structural geology algorithms: vectors and tensors. Cambridge, England. Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  4. Andrews P, Bamford M (2008) Past and present vegetation ecology of Laetoli, Tanzania. J Hum Evol 54:78–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Backwell LR, Parkinson AH, Roberts EM, d'Errico F, Huchet JB (2012) Criteria for identifying bone modification by termites in the fossil record. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 337:72–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Backwell LR, McCarthy TS, Wadley L, Henderson Z, Steininger CM, Barré M, Lamothe M, Chase BM, Woodborne S, Susino GJ, Bamford MK (2014) Multiproxy record of late Quaternary climate change and middle stone age human occupation at Wonderkrater, South Africa. Quat Sci Rev 99:42–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Backwell LR, d’Errico F, Banks WE, de la Peña P, Sievers C, Stratford D, Lennox SJ, Wojcieszak M, Bordy E, Bradfield J, Wadley L (2018) New excavations at Border cave, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. J Field Archaeol.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00934690.2018.1504544 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Balme BE (1995) Fossil in situ spores and pollen grains: an annotated catalogue. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 87:81–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barham LS (2002) Systematic pigment use in the middle Pleistocene of south-Central Africa. Curr Anthropol 43(1):181–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Beaumont PB (1978) “Border Cave.” M.A. thesis, University of Cape TownGoogle Scholar
  11. Beaumont PB, Vogel JC (2006) On a timescale for the past million years of human history in Central South Africa. S Afr J Sci 102:217–228Google Scholar
  12. Bertran P, Texier JP (1995) Fabric analysis: application to Palaeolithic sites. J Archaeol Sci 22:521–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bicho N, Cascalheira J, Haws J, Gonçalves C (2018) Middle Stone Age technologies in Mozambique: a preliminary study of the Niassa and Massingir regions. J Afr Archaeol 16(1):60–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Button A (1973) The depositional history of the Welkberg Proto-Basin, Transvaal. S Afr J Geol 76(1):15–25Google Scholar
  15. Button A (1986) The Transvaal sub-basin of the Transvaal sequence. Mineral deposits of southern Africa, Geological Society of South Africa, Johannesburg 1:811–817Google Scholar
  16. Cabanes D, Shahack-Gross R (2015) Understanding fossil phytolith preservation: the role of partial dissolution in paleoecology and archaeology. PLoS One 10:e0125532.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125532 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cabanes D, Weiner S, Shahack-Gross R (2011) Stability of phytoliths in the archaeological record: a dissolution study of modern and fossil phytoliths. J Archaeol Sci 38:2480–2490.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2011.05.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carrión JS, Scott L (1999) The challenge of pollen analysis in palaeoenvironmental studies of hominid beds: the record from Sterkfontein caves. J Hum Evol 36:401–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Clark JD (1959) The prehistory of southern Africa. Harmondsworth, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  20. Collura LV, Neumann K (2017) Wood and bark phytoliths of west African woody plants. Quat Int 434:142–159.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2015.12.070 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Conard NJ, Porraz G (2015) Revising models for the cultural stratigraphic sequence of the Middle Stone Age. S Afr Archaeol Bull 70(201):127–130Google Scholar
  22. Cooke HBS, Malan BD, Wells LH (1945) 3. Fossil man in the Lebombo Mountains, South Africa: the ‘Border Cave’, Ingwavuma District, Zululand. Man 45:6–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cordova CE (2013) C3 Poaceae and Restionaceae phytoliths as potential proxies for reconstructing winter rainfall in South Africa. Quat Int 287:121–140.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2012.04.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cordova CE, Scott L (2010) The potential of Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Restionaceae phytoliths to reflect past environmental conditions in South Africa. In: Runge J (ed) African Palaeoenvironments and geomorphic landscape evolution. Taylor & Francis, pp 107–134Google Scholar
  25. d’Errico F, García Moreno R, Rifkin RF (2012) Technological, elemental and colorimetric analysis of an engraved ochre fragment from the middle stone age levels of Klasies River cave 1, South Africa. J Archaeol Sci 39:942–952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dayet L, Texier P-J, Daniel F, Porraz G (2013) Ochre resources from the middle stone age sequence of Diepkloof rock shelter, Western Cape, South Africa. J Archaeol Sci 40:3492–3505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. de la Peña P (2015) Refining our understanding of Howiesons Poort lithic technology: the evidence from Grey rocky layer in Sibudu cave (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa). PLoS One 10(12):e0143451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. de la Peña, P, Witelson, D (2018) Trampling vs. retouch in a lithic assemblage: a case study from a middle stone age site, steenbokfontein 9KR (Limpopo, South Africa). J Field Archaeol 43(7):522–537.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00934690.2018.1524219 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Els BG, van den Berg WA, Mayer JJ (1995) The Black Reef Formation in the western Transvaal: sedimentological and economic aspects, and significance for basin evolution. Mineral Deposita 30:112–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Eriksson PG, Schweitzer JK, Bosch PJA, Schereiber UM, Van Deventer JL, Hatton CJ (1993) The Transvaal sequence: an overview. J Afr Earth Sci (and the Middle East) 16(1–2):25–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Eriksson PG, Hattingh PJ, Altermann W (1995) An overview of the geology of the Transvaal sequence and Bushverld complex, South Africa. Mineral Deposita 30:98–111Google Scholar
  32. Eriksson PG, Altermann W, Catuneanu O, Van der Merwe R, Bumby AJ (2001) Major influences on the evolution of the 2.67–2.1 Ga Transvaal basin, Kaapvaal craton. Sediment Geol 141:205–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Esteban I, De Vynck JC, Singels E, Vlok JHJ, Marean CW, Cowling RM, Fisher EC, Cabanes D, Albert RM (2017a) Modern soil phytolith assemblages used as proxies for Paleoscape reconstruction on the south coast of South Africa. Quat Int 434:160–179.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2016.01.037 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Esteban I, Vlok J, Kotina EL, Bamford MK, Cowling RM, Cabanes D, Albert RM (2017b) Phytoliths in plants from the south coast of the greater cape floristic region (South Africa). Rev Palaeobot Palynol 245.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2017.05.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fitchett JM, Bamford MK (2017) The validity of the Asteraceae: Poaceae fossil pollen ratio in discrimination of the southern African summer- and winter-rainfall zones. Quat Sci Rev 160:85–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fitchett JM, Grab SW, Bamford MK, Mackay AW (2017) Late quaternary research in southern Africa. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 72(3):280–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Getis A, Ord JK (1992) The analysis of spatial association by use of distance statistics. Geogr Anal 24(3):189–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Goodwin, AJH, van Riet Lowe CP (1929). The Stone Age Cultures of South Africa. Annals of the South African Museum, Cape Town, pp 27Google Scholar
  39. Grün R, Beaumont P (2001) Border cave revisited: a revised ESR chronology. J Hum Evol 40:467–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Grün R, Beaumont PB, Tobias PV, Eggins S (2003) On the age of border cave 5 human mandible. J Hum Evol 45:155–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Henry G, Master S (2008) Black reef project. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and University of the Witwatersrand, JohannesburgGoogle Scholar
  42. Henry G, Clendenin CW, Charlesworth EG (1990) Depositional facies of the black reef quartzite formation in the eastern Transvaal. Extended Abstracts, 23rd Earth Science Congress (Geocongress' 90) of the Geological Society of South Africa, Cape Town 90:234–237Google Scholar
  43. Henshilwood CS (2012) Late Pleistocene techno-traditions in southern Africa: a review of the still bay and Howiesons Poort, c. 75–59 ka. J World Prehist 25(3–4):205–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Henshilwood CS, Sealy J, Yates R, Cruz-Uribe K, Goldberg R, Grine FE, Klein RG, Poggenpoel C, van Niekerk K, Watts I (2001) Blombos cave, southern cape, South Africa: preliminary report on 1992-1999 excavations of the Middle Stone Age levels. J Archaeol Sci 28:421–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Henshilwood CS, van Niekerk KL, Wurz S, Delagnes A, Armitage SJ, Rifkin R, Douze K, Keene P, Haaland M, Reynard J, Discamps E, Mienies S (2014) Klipdrift shelter, southern cape, South Africa: preliminary report on the Howiesons Poort layers. J Archaeol Sci 45:284–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hodgskiss T (2012) An investigation into the properties of the ochre from Sibudu, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. South Afr Humanit 24:99–120Google Scholar
  47. Jacobs Z, Roberts RG (2015) An improved single grain OSL chronology for the sedimentary deposits from Diepkloof Rockshelter, Western cape, South Africa. J Archaeol Sci 63:175–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Katz O, Cabanes D, Weiner S, Maeir AM, Boaretto E, Shahack-Gross R (2010) Rapid phytolith extraction for analysis of phytolith concentrations and assemblages during an excavation: an application at Tell es-Safi/Gath, Israel. J Archaeol Sci 37:1557–1563.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2010.01.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Key RM (1983) The geology of the area around Gaborone and Lobatse, Kweneng, Kgatleng, southern and south east districts. District Memoir Geol Surv Botswana 5:229Google Scholar
  50. Key RM (1986) Sedimentation along the eastern margin of the Bushveld Basin, SE Botswana. Geocongress '86 (Johannesburg, South Africa), Abstracts:527–530Google Scholar
  51. Kuman K, Inbar M, Clarke RJ (1999) Palaeoenvironments and cultural sequence of the Florisbad middle stone age hominid site, South Africa. J Archaeol Sci 26(12):1409–1425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lombard M, Wadley L, Deacon J, Wurz S, Parsons I, Mohapi M, Swart J, Mitchell P (2012) South African and Lesotho Stone Age sequence updated. S Afr Archaeol Bull 67(195):123–144Google Scholar
  53. Maguire J (2009) An overview of the physical setting of Makapan. In McNabb, J. & Sinclair, A. (eds). The cave of hearths: Makapan middle Pleistocene research project: field research by Anthony Sinclair and Patrick Quinney, 1996–2001. 29–48. Oxford: Archaeopress. University of Southampton Series in Archaeology No 1Google Scholar
  54. Marean CW (2010) Pinnacle point cave 13B (Western Cape Province, South Africa) in context: the cape floral kingdom, shellfish, and modern human origins. J Hum Evol 59(3–4):425–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Marean CW (2014) The origins and significance of coastal resource use in Africa and Western Eurasia. J Hum Evol 77:17–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Marean CW, Bar-Matthews M, Bernatchez J, Fisher E, Goldberg P, Herries AIR, Jacobs Z, Jerardino A, Karkanas P, Minichillo T, Nilssen PJ, Thompson E, Watts I, Williams HM (2007) Early human use of marine resources and pigment in South Africa during the middle Pleistocene. Nat 449:905–908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mason RJ (1957) The Transvaal Middle Stone Age and statistical analysis. S Afr Archaeol Bull 12(48):119–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mason RJ (1988) Cave of Hearths. Makapansgat. Transvaal. Occasional paper N.21. Archaeological Research UnitGoogle Scholar
  59. McBrearty S (2001) The middle Pleistocene of East Africa. In: Barham L, McBrearty S, Brooks AS (eds) 2000. The revolution that wasn’t: a new interpretation of the origin of modern human behavior. J Hum Evol 39: 453–563. Robson-Brown (eds), Human roots: Africa and Asia in the Middle Pleistocene. Bristol: Western Academic & Specialist Press, pp 81–98Google Scholar
  60. McBrearty S, Brooks AS (2000) The revolution that wasn’t: a new interpretation of the origin of modern human behavior. J Hum Evol 39:453–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mucina L, Rutherford MC (2006) The vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. South African National Biodiversity InstituteGoogle Scholar
  62. Murungi ML (2017) Phytoliths at Sibudu (South Africa): implications for vegetation, climate and human occupation during the MSA. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of the WitwatersrandGoogle Scholar
  63. Novello A, Bamford MK, Van Wijk Y, Wurz S (2018) Phytoliths in modern plants and soils from Klasies River, cape region (South Africa). Quat Int 464:440–459.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2017.10.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Partridge TC (1993) The evidence for Cainozoic aridification in southern Africa. Quat Int 17:105–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Porraz G, Val A, Dayet L, de la Peña P, Douze K, Miller CE, Murungi ML, Tribolo C, Schmid VC, Sievers C (2015) Bushman Rock Shelter (Limpopo, South Africa): a perspective from the edge of the Highveld. South African Archaeol Bull 70:166–179Google Scholar
  66. Porraz G, Val A, Tribolo C, Mercier N, de la Peña P, Haaland M, Igreja M, Miller CE, Schmid V (2018) The MIS5 Pietersburg at ‘28’ Bushman Rock Shelter, Limpopo Province, South Africa. PloS OneGoogle Scholar
  67. Prentice IC (1985) Pollen representation, source area, and basin size: toward a unified theory of pollen analysis. Quat Res 23(1):76–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rayner RJ, Moon BP, Masters JC (1993) The Makapansgat australopithecine environment. J Hum Evol 24(3):219–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Repinski P, Holmgren K, Lauritzen SE, Lee-Thorp JA (1999) A late Holocene climate record from a stalagmite, cold air cave, Northern Province, South Africa. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 150:269–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rossouw L (2009) The application of fossil grass-phytolith analysis in the reconstruction of late Cenozoic environments in the South African interior. University of the Free State, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  71. Rots V, Lentfer C, Schmid VC, Porraz G, Conard NJ (2017) Pressure flaking to serrate bifacial points for the hunt during the MIS5 at Sibudu cave (South Africa). PLoS One 12(4):e0175151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rutherford MC, Mucina L, Lötter MC, Bredenkamp GJ, Smit JHL, Scott-Shaw CR, Hoare DB, Goodman PS, Bezuidenhout H, Scott L, Ellis F, Powrie LW, Siebert F, Mostert TH, Henning BJ, Venter CE, Camp KGT, Siebert SJ, Matthews WS, Burrows JE, Dobson L, van Rooyen N, Schmidt E, Winter PJD, du Preez PJ, Robert A, Ward S, Williamson A, Hurter PJH (2006) Savanna Biome. In: Mucina L, Rutherford M (eds) The Vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. South African National Biodiversity Institute, pp 429–529Google Scholar
  73. Sampson CG (1972) The Stone Age industries of the Orange River Scheme and South Africa (No. 6). National Museum BloemfonteinGoogle Scholar
  74. Sampson CG (1974) The Stone Age archaeology of southern Africa. Studies in Archaeology, Academic PressGoogle Scholar
  75. Santisteban Juan I, Mediavilla R, Lopez-Pamo E, Dabrio CJ, Ruiz Zapata MB, Gil García MJ, Castano S, Martínez-Alfaro PE (2004) Loss on ignition: a qualitative or quantitative method for organic matter and carbonate mineral content in sediments? J Paleolimnol 32(3):287–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Schlegel GCJ, Harmse HVM, Brunke O (1989) Granulometric and mineralogical characteristics of the Kalahari sands of southern Africa. S Afr J Geol 92(3):207–222Google Scholar
  77. Schwertmann U, Cornell RM (1998) Iron oxides in the laboratory: preparation and characterization. VCH, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  78. Singer R, Wymer J (1982) The middle stone age at Klasies River mouth in South Africa. Chicago University Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  79. Stevenson C, Lee-Thorp JA, Holmgren K (1999) A 3000-year isotopic record from a stalagmite in cold air cave, Makapansgat Valley, Northern Province. S Afr J Sci 95:46–48Google Scholar
  80. Thackeray JF, Fitchett JM (2016) Rainfall seasonality captured in micromammalian fauna in Late Quaternary contexts, South Africa. Palaeontol Afr 51:1–9Google Scholar
  81. Tobias PV (1949) The excavation of Mwulu’s cave, Potgietersrust district. S Afr Archaeol Bull 4(13):2–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Tobias PV (1954) Climatic fluctuations in the middle stone age of South Africa, as revealed in Mwulu’s cave. Trans Roy Soc S Afr 34(2):325–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Tobias PV (2005) Into the past: a memoir. Picador Africa, JohannesburgGoogle Scholar
  84. Traverse A (2007) Paleopalynology. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  85. Tribolo C, Mercier N, Valladas H, Joron JL, Guibert P, Lefrais Y, Selo M, Texier PJ, Rigaud JPH, Porraz G, Poggepoel C, Parkington J, Texier JP, Lenoble A (2009) Thermoluminescence dating of a Stillbay-Howiesons Poort sequence at Diepkloof rock shelter (Western cape, South Africa). J Archaeol Sci 36:730–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Tribolo C, Mercier N, Douville E, Joron JL, Reyss JL, Rufer D, Cantin N, Lefrais Y, Miller CE, Porraz G, Parkington J (2013) OSL and TL dating of the Middle Stone Age sequence at Diepkloof Rock Shelter (south Africa): a clarification. J Archaeol Sci 40(9):3401–3411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Tsartsidou G, Lev-Yadun S, Albert RM, Miller-Rosen A, Efstratiou N, Weiner S (2007) The phytolith archaeological record: strengths and weaknesses evaluated based on a quantitative modern reference collection from Greece. J Archaeol Sci 34:1262–1275.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2006.10.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Turner S, Plater A (2004) Palynological evidence for the origin and development of late Holocene wetland sediments: Mdlanzi swamp, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. S Afr J Sci 100:220–229Google Scholar
  89. Tyson PD, Preston-Whyte RA (2005) The weather and climate of southern Africa. Oxford University Press, Cape Town, pp 144–146Google Scholar
  90. Van Peer P, Rots V, Vroomans JM (2004) A story of colourful diggers and grinders: the Sangoan and Lupemban at site 8-B-11, Sai island, northern Sudan. Before Farming 3:Article 1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Van Wilgen BW, Richardson DM (2012) Three centuries of managing introduced conifers in South Africa: benefits, impacts, changing perceptions and conflict resolution. J Environ Manag 106:56–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Wadley L (2008) The Howieson's poort industry of Sibudu cave. Goodwin Series 1:122–132Google Scholar
  93. Wadley L (2012) Two’moments in time during middle stone age occupations of Sibudu, South Africa. South Afr Humanit 24(1):79–97Google Scholar
  94. Wadley L (2015) Those marvellous millennia: the Middle Stone Age of southern Africa. Azania 50:155–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wadley L, Harper P (1989) Rose cottage cave revisited: Malan’s Middle Stone Age collection. S Afr Archaeol Bull 44:23–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wadley L, Murungi ML, Witelson D, Bolhar R, Bamford M, Sievers C, Val A, de la Peña P (2016) Steenbokfontein 9KR: a Middle Stone Age spring site in Limpopo, South Africa. S Afr Archaeol Bull 71(204):130–145Google Scholar
  97. Watts I (1998) The origin of symbolic culture: the middle stone age of southern Africa and Khoisan ethnography. Ph.D. Thesis, University College, LondonGoogle Scholar
  98. Watts I (2001) Ochre in the middle stone age of southern Africa: ritualized display or a hide preservative? S Afr Archaeol Bull 57:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Watts I (2002) Ochre in the middle stone age of southern Africa: ritualized display or hide preservative? S Afr Archaeol Bull 57:64–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Watts I (2010) The pigments from pinnacle point cave 13B, Western cape, South Africa. J Hum Evol 59:392–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wilkins J, Chazan M (2012) Blade production ~500 thousand years ago at Kathu Pan 1, South Africa: support for a multiple origins hypothesis for early middle Pleistocene blade technologies. J Archaeol Sci 37:269–283Google Scholar
  102. Will M, Bader G, Conard NJ (2014) Characterizing the Late Pleistocene MSA lithic technology of Sibudu, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. PLoS One 9:e98359CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Evolutionary Studies InstituteUniversity of the WitwatersrandJohannesburgSouth Africa
  2. 2.School of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental StudiesUniversity of the WitwatersrandJohannesburgSouth Africa
  3. 3.Department of Early Prehistory and Quaternary EcologyUniversity of TübingenTübingenGermany
  4. 4.GEM (Guías de Espeleología y Montaña)MadridSpain
  5. 5.African Centre for Coastal PalaeoscienceNelson Mandela UniversityPort ElizabethSouth Africa
  6. 6.Origins CentreUniversity of the WitwatersrandJohannesburgSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations