Advertisement

Palaeodietary reconstruction as an alternative approach to poorly preserved early medieval human bone assemblages: the case of Boadilla (Toledo, Spain)

  • Maite I. García-Collado
  • Paola Ricci
  • Raúl Catalán Ramos
  • Simona Altieri
  • Carmine Lubritto
  • Juan Antonio Quirós Castillo
Original Paper

Abstract

This article presents the results of research on the human population buried at the early medieval cemetery of Boadilla (Toledo, Spain). This was the burial ground of a rural community that was established at the nearby village of Alameda del Señorío. Both sites were occupied between the end of the fifth and the beginning of the eighth century. The cemetery was characterized by the ordered arrangement of its graves, the frequent re-use of graves and the deposition of grave goods in some burials. The human osteological assemblage was poorly preserved. The minimum number of individuals was estimated to comprise 226 individuals recovered in 181 burials. The population had a demographic profile typical of premodern agricultural societies. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses were successfully carried out on 73 human and 20 faunal samples. The results indicate that the faunal diet was exclusively based on C3 resources and point to different management strategies for each taxon. The human diet was mainly based on C3 plants, but most individuals also consumed small but regular amounts of C4 resources. Protein intake was very variable and related to age, with subadults between 3 and 7 years old having the lowest intake. No relationship was found between the diet of the deceased and the deposition of grave goods in their graves. Finally, there was less variation between the individuals buried in the same grave than within the whole population, an aspect that may suggest the presence of family burials.

Keywords

Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis Early Middle Ages Spain Skeletal preservation Millets Family groups 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Óscar Rodríguez Monterrubio for access to his unpublished zooarchaeological report, Idoia Grau-Sologestoa for help identifying faunal samples and undergraduate students of the module “Advanced topics in Archaeology” 2013-2014 at UPV/EHU who assisted in processing the anthropological material.

Funding information

This study is part of MIGC’s PhD dissertation, currently in progress at the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) and sponsored by the Spanish Ministry of Education (FPU program, AP2010-5177). This research was also financed by the Research Group in Heritage and Cultural Landscapes of the Government of the Basque Country (IT931-16) and the project “Peasant agency and social complexity in north-western Iberia in the medieval period” of the Spanish Ministry of Economy (HAR2016-76094-C4-2R).

Supplementary material

12520_2018_672_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (775 kb)
Online resource 1 (PDF 775 kb)
12520_2018_672_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (478 kb)
Online resource 2 (PDF 478 kb)

References

  1. Acsádi G, Nemeskéri J (1970) History of human life span and mortality. Akadémiai Kiadó, BudapestGoogle Scholar
  2. Alarcón A (2006) Estudio arqueofaunístico del yacimiento arqueológico de “La Huelga.”. In: Morín de Pablos J (ed) La investigación arqueológica de la época visigoda en la Comunidad de Madrid (Zona Arqueológica 8). Museo Arqueológico Regional, Alcalá de Henares, pp 965–981Google Scholar
  3. Alexander MM (2016) The application of stable isotopes to explore diets in late medieval Spain. In: Quirós JA (ed) Demografía, paleopatologías y desigualdad social en el noroeste peninsular en época medieval (Documentos de Arqueología Medieval 10). Universidad del País Vasco, Bilbao, pp 245–261Google Scholar
  4. Alexander MM, Gerrard CM, Gutiérrez A, Millard AR (2015) Diet, society, and economy in late medieval Spain: stable isotope evidence from Muslims and Christians from Gandía, Valencia. Am J Phys Anthropol 156:263–273.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.22647 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ambrose SH (1990) Preparation and characterization of bone and tooth collagen for isotopic analysis. J Archaeol Sci 17:431–451.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-4403(90)90007-R CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ambrose SH, Norr L (1993) Experimental evidence for the relationship of the carbon isotope ratios of whole diet and dietary protein to those of bone collagen and carbonate. In: Lambert JB, Grupe G (eds) Prehistoric human bone. Archaeology at the molecular level. Springer, Berlin, pp 1–37Google Scholar
  7. Beguiristain MA (2007) Necrópolis de Gomacín (Puente La Reina). In: Museo de Navarra (ed) La tierra te sea leve. Arqueología de la muerte en Navarra: Museo de Navarra, Pamplona, exposición, 27 de noviembre de 2007–30 abril de 2008. Gobierno de Navarra, Pamplona, pp 203–208Google Scholar
  8. Bocherens H, Drucker DG (2003) Trophic level isotopic enrichment of carbon and nitrogen in bone collagen: case studies from recent and ancient terrestrial ecosystems. Int J Osteoarchaeol 13:46–53.  https://doi.org/10.1002/oa.662 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brickley M, McKinley JI (2004) Guidelines to the standards for recording human remains (IFA paper no. 7). BABAO, ReadingGoogle Scholar
  10. Brooks S, Suchey JM (1990) Skeletal age determination based on the os pubis: a comparison of the Acsádi-Nemeskéri and Suchey-Brooks methods. Hum Evol 5:227–238.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02437238 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Buikstra JE, Ubelaker DH (eds) (1994) Standards for data collection from human skeletal remains (Proceedings of a Seminar at The Field Museum of Natural History, organized by Jonathan Haas) (Arkansas Archaeological Survey Research Series No. 44). Arkansas Archaeological Survey, FayetevilleGoogle Scholar
  12. Carro J (1971) Anatomía antropológica antigua del pueblo gallego (siglos I al VII d.C.). Universidad de Santiago de Compostela. Facultad de Medicina, Santiago de CompostelaGoogle Scholar
  13. Catalán R (2013) Acerca de la “fíbula de Tiermes”. Una nueva propuesta acerca de su cronología y procedencia a partir del estudio de las fíbulas “trilaminares” en el territorio de la Meseta. In: Sastre JC, Catalán R, Fuentes P (eds) Arqueología en el valle del Duero. Del Neolítico a la Antigüedad Tardía: nuevas perspectivas (Actas de las primeras jornadas de jóvenes investigadores en el valle del Duero. Zamora, 16, 17 y 18 de noviembre de 2011). La Ergástula, Madrid, pp 217–226Google Scholar
  14. Catalán R, Rojas JM (2009) La necrópolis de Boadilla: aspectos funerarios y contexto cronocultural de un asentamiento de época visigoda. In: Pinar J, Juárez T (eds) Contextos funeraris a la Mediterrània nord-occidental (segles V-VIII) (Gausac 34–35). AREDAT, Sant Cugat del Vallès, pp 223–236Google Scholar
  15. Catalán R, Calvo MJ, Vega E Estudio preliminar de la cerámica de época visigoda de Alameda del Señorío (Illescas). Morfotipos, cronología e interpretación cronocultural de un conjunto cerámico en una aldea altomedievalGoogle Scholar
  16. Chamberlain AT (2006) Demography in archaeology. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chisholm BS, Nelson DE, Schwarcz HP (1982) Stable-carbon isotope ratios as a measure of marine versus terrestrial protein in ancient diets. Science 216:1131–1132.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.216.4550.1131 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Coplen TB (1994) Reporting of stable hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen isotopic abundances. Pure Appl Chem 66:273–276.  https://doi.org/10.1351/pac199466020273 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Deines P (1980) The isotopic composition of reduced organic carbon. In: Fritz P, Fontes JC (eds) Handbook of environmental isotope geochemistry. 1 The terrestrial environment, A. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 329–406Google Scholar
  20. DeNiro MJ (1985) Postmortem preservation and alteration of in vivo bone collagen isotope ratios in relation to palaeodietary reconstruction. Nature 317:806–809.  https://doi.org/10.1038/317806a0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. DeNiro MJ, Epstein S (1981) Influence of diet on the distribution of nitrogen isotopes in animals. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 45:341–351.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(81)90244-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Diarte-Blasco P (2016) New thinking in old landscapes: discoveries, research and approaches for Late Antque and Early Medieval Iberia. Medieval Settlement Research 31:1–14Google Scholar
  23. Dupras TL (2010) The use of stable isotope analysis to determine infant and young child feeding patterns. In: Moffat T, Prowse TL (eds) Human diet and nutrition in biocultural perspective: past meets present. Berghahn Books, New York, pp 89–108Google Scholar
  24. Fahy GE, Deter C, Pitfield R, Miszkiewicz JJ, Mahoney P (2017) Bone deep: variation in stable isotope ratios and histomorphometric measurements of bone remodelling within adult humans. J Archaeol Sci 87:10–16.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2017.09.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Falys CG, Lewis ME (2011) Proposing a way forward: a review of standardisation in the use of age categories and ageing techniques in osteological analysis (2004-2009). Int J Osteoarchaeol 21:704–716.  https://doi.org/10.1002/oa.1179 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Froehle AW, Kellner CM, Schoeninger MJ (2010) Effect of diet and protein source on carbon stable isotope ratios in collagen: follow up to Warinner and Tuross (2009). J Archaeol Sci 37:2662–2670.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2010.06.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Galloway JH (2005) The sugar cane industry. An historical geography from its origins to 1914. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  28. García-Blanco V, Vila S (2006) Restos animales y vegetales del yacimiento visigodo de Prado de los Galápagos, interpretación ambiental. In: Morín de Pablos J (ed) La investigación arqueológica de la época visigoda en la Comunidad de Madrid (Zona Arqueológica 8). Museo Arqueológico Regional, Alcalá de Henares, pp 953–964Google Scholar
  29. García-Collado MI (2016) Food consumption patterns and social inequality in an early medieval rural community in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. In: Quirós JA (ed) Social complexity in early medieval rural communities. The north-western Iberia archaeological record. Archaeopress, Oxford, pp 59–78Google Scholar
  30. Gómez-Moreno F, Galera V, Heras C (2012) Primeros datos tafonómicos de dos necrópolis procedentes del yacimiento de la Magdalena (Alcalá de Henares, Madrid). In: Turbón D, Fañanás L, Rissech C, Rosa A (eds) Biodiversidad humana y evolución. Sociedad Española de Antropología Física, Barcelona, pp 204–207Google Scholar
  31. Grau-Sologestoa I (2015) The zooarchaeology of medieval Alava in its Iberian context (BAR International Series 2769). Archaeopress, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  32. Guiry EJ (2012) Dogs as analogs in stable isotope-based human paleodietary reconstructions: a review and considerations for future use. J Archaeol Method Theory 19:351–376.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10816-011-9118-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hakenbeck SE, McManus E, Geisler H, Grupe G, O’Connell TC (2010) Diet and mobility in Early Medieval Bavaria: a study of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. Am J Phys Anthropol 143:235–249.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.21309 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Halsall G (2010) Cemeteries and society in Merovingian Gaul. Selected studies in history and archaeology, 1992-2009. BRILL, LeidenGoogle Scholar
  35. Hammond C, O’Connor T (2013) Pig diet in medieval York: carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. Archaeol Anthropol Sci 5:123–127.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12520-013-0123-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hedges REM, Reynard LM (2007) Nitrogen isotopes and the trophic level of humans in archaeology. J Archaeol Sci 34:1240–1251.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2006.10.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hedges REM, Clement JG, Thomas DL, O’Connell TC (2007) Collagen turnover in the adult femoral mid-shaft: modeled from anthropogenic radiocarbon tracer measurements. Am J Phys Anthropol 133:808–816.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.20598 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Herrerín J (2006) El estudio antropológico de los restos óseos humanos excavados en la necrópolis visigoda de Prado Galápagos (Madrid). In: Morín de Pablos J (ed) La investigación arqueológica de la época visigoda en la Comunidad de Madrid (Zona Arqueológica 8). Museo Arqueológico Regional, Alcalá de Henares, pp 913–944Google Scholar
  39. Katzenberg MA (2008) Stable isotope analysis: a tool for studying past diet, demography, and life history. In: Katzenberg MA, Saunders SR (eds) Biological anthropology of the human skeleton. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 413–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Knipper C, Held P, Fecher M, Nicklisch N, Meyer C, Schreiber H, Zich B, Metzner-Nebelsick C, Hubensack V, Hansen L, Nieveler E, Alt KW (2015) Superior in life-superior in death. Dietary distinction of central European Prehistoric and Medieval elites. Curr Anthropol 56:579–589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lee-Thorp JA (2008) On isotopes and old bones. Archaeometry 50:925–950.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4754.2008.00441.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lewis ME, Shapland F, Watts R (2016) On the threshold of adulthood: a new approach for the use of maturation indicators to assess puberty in adolescents from medieval England. Am J Hum Biol 28:48–56.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.22761 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lightfoot E, Przelomska N, Craven M, O’Connell TC, He L, Hunt HV, Jones MK (2016) Intraspecific carbon and nitrogen isotopic variability in foxtail millet (Setaria italica). Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 30:1475–1487.  https://doi.org/10.1002/rcm.7583 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Longin R (1971) New method of collagen extraction for radiocarbon dating. Nature 230:241–242.  https://doi.org/10.1038/230241a0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. López-Costas O (2015) Taphonomy and burial context of the Roman/post-Roman funerary areas (2nd to 6th centuries AD) of A Lanzada, NW Spain. Estudos do Quaternário 12:55–67Google Scholar
  46. Lovejoy CO, Meindl RS, Pryzbeck TR, Mensforth RP (1985) Chronological metamorphosis of the auricular surface of the ilium: a new method for the determination of adult skeletal age at death. Am J Phys Anthropol 68:15–28.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.1330680103 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lubritto C, García-Collado MI, Ricci P, Altieri S, Sirignano C, Quirós JA (2017) New dietary evidence on medieval rural communities of the Basque Country (Spain) and its surroundings from carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses: social insights, diachronic changes and geographic comparison. Int J Osteoarchaeol 27:984–1002.  https://doi.org/10.1002/oa.2610 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Maresh MM (1970) Measurements from roentgenograms. In: McCammon RW (ed) Human growth and development. C.C. Thomas, Springfield, pp 157–200Google Scholar
  49. Märkle T, Rösch M (2008) Experiments on the effects of carbonization on some cultivated plant seeds. Veg Hist Archaeobotany 17:S257–S263.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00334-008-0165-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Montanari M (1979) L’alimentazione contadina nell’Alto Medioevo. Liguori Editore, NapoliGoogle Scholar
  51. Morales DC (1992) Pig husbandry in Visigothic Iberia: fact and theory. Archaeofauna 1:147–155Google Scholar
  52. Moreno-Larrazabal A, Teira-Brión A, Sopelana I, Arranz-Otaegui A, Zapata L (2015) Ethnobotany of millet cultivation in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. Veg Hist Archaeobotany 24:541–554.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00334-015-0518-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Murphy C (2016) Finding millet in the Roman world. Archaeol Anthropol Sci 8:65–78.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12520-015-0237-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. O’Connell TC, Kneale CJ, Tasevska N, Kuhnle GGC (2012) The diet-body offset in human nitrogen isotopic values: a controlled dietary study. Am J Phys Anthropol 149:426–434.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.22140 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Peña-Chocarro L, Pérez-Jordà G, Alonso N, Antolín F, Teira-Brión A, Tereso JP, Montes EM, López Reyes D (2017) Roman and medieval crops in the Iberian Peninsula: a first overview of seeds and fruits from archaeological sites. Quat Int.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2017.09.037
  56. Phenice TW (1969) A newly developed visual method of sexing the Os Pubis. Am J Phys Anthropol 30:297–301.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.1330300214 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Pickard C, Girdwood LK, Kranioti E, Márquez-Grant N, Richards MP, Fuller BT (2017) Isotopic evidence for dietary diversity at the mediaeval Islamic necropolis of Can Fonoll (10th to 13th centuries CE), Ibiza, Spain. J Archaeol Sci Rep 13:1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2017.03.027 Google Scholar
  58. Pinar J (2013) A crossroad of cultures on a mosaic of regions? The early Visigothic regnum from the small finds perspective. Archaeologia Baltica 18:109–123Google Scholar
  59. Quirós JA (2009) Medieval archaeology in Spain. In: Gilchrist R, Reynolds A (eds) 50 years of medieval archaeology in Britain and beyond. Society for Medieval Archaeology Monograph 30, London, pp 173–189Google Scholar
  60. Quirós JA (2013a) Archaeology of power and hierarchies in early medieval villages in northern of Spain. In: Klapste J (ed) Hierarchies in rural settlements. Ruralia IX. Brepols, Turnhout, pp 199–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Quirós JA (2013b) ¿El fin de la Arqueología? La Arqueología a inicios del siglo XXI. In: Quirós JA (ed) La materialidad de la Historia. La Arqueología en los inicios del siglo XXI. Akal, Madrid, pp 9–34Google Scholar
  62. Quirós JA (ed) (2013c) El poblamiento rural de época visigoda en Hispania. Arqueología del campesinado en el interior peninsular (Documentos de Arqueología Medieval 6). Universidad del País Vasco, BilbaoGoogle Scholar
  63. Quirós JA (2016) Desigualdad y complejidad social. De la Antropología Física a la osteoarqueología humana en el Noroeste de la Península Ibérica. In: Quirós JA (ed) Demografía, paleopatologías y desigualdad social en el noroeste peninsular en época medieval (Documentos de Arqueología Medieval 10). Universidad del País Vasco, Bilbao, pp 23–42Google Scholar
  64. Quirós JA, Vigil-Escalera A (2006) Networks of peasant villages between Toledo and Uelegia Alabense, northwestern Spain (5th-10th centuries). Archeologia Medievale 33:79–128Google Scholar
  65. Rascón J, Cambra-Moo Ó, Pimentel G, González Martín A, Campo M (2011) Influencia del estado de preservación de los restos óseos en el diagnóstico paleopatológico. In: González Martín A, Cambra-Moo O, Rascón J, Campo M, Robledo M, Labajo E, Sánchez Sánchez JA (eds) Paleopatología: ciencia multidisciplinar (X Congreso Nacional de Paleopatología). Sociedad Española de Paleopatología. Univesidad Autónoma de Madrid. Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, pp 45–59Google Scholar
  66. Rissech C, Black S (2007) Scapular development from the neonatal period to skeletal maturity: a preliminary study. Int J Osteoarchaeol 17:451–464.  https://doi.org/10.1002/oa.890 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Roig J (2015) Necrópolis de época visigoda, ajuares funerarios y depósitos humanos anómalos de los s. V-VIII en la Tarraconense oriental (Cataluña): ¿indicadores de “etnicidad” y/o nivel económico? e indicios arqueológicos de desigualdad y exclusión social inhumaciones. In: Quirós JA, Castellanos S (eds) Identidad y etnicidad en Hispania. Propuestas teóricas y cultura material en los siglos V-VIII (Documentos de Arqueología Medieval 8). Universidad del País Vasco, Bilbao, pp 333–393Google Scholar
  68. Ruiz J, Villar V, Subirà ME (2007) La població visigoda de Can Gambús (Sabadell). In: III Congrés d’Arqueologia Medieval i Moderna a Catalunya. Sabadell, del 18 al 21 de maig de 2006. Ajuntament de Sabadell. Associació Catalana per a la Recerca en Arqueologia Medieval. Departament de Cultura, Generalitat de Catalunya, Sabadell, pp 799–806Google Scholar
  69. Samworth R, Gowland RL (2007) Estimation of adult skeletal age-at-death: statistical assumptions and applications. Int J Osteoarchaeol 17:174–188.  https://doi.org/10.1002/oa.890 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Schaefer MC, Black S, Scheuer L (2009) Juvenile osteology. A laboratory and field manual. Elsevier, LondonGoogle Scholar
  71. Scheuer L, Black S (2000) Developmental juvenile osteology. Elsevier, LondonGoogle Scholar
  72. Scheuer L, MacLaughlin-Black S (1994) Age estimation from the pars basilaris of the fetal and juvenile occipital bone. Int J Osteoarchaeol 4:377–380.  https://doi.org/10.1002/oa.1390040412 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Schoeninger MJ (2010) Diet reconstruction and ecology using stable isotope ratios. In: Larsen CS (ed) A companion to biological anthropology. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, pp 445–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Schoeninger MJ, DeNiro MJ (1984) Nitrogen and carbon isotopic composition of bone collagen from marine and terrestrial animals. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 48:625–639.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(84)90091-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Schoeninger MJ, DeNiro MJ, Tauber H (1983) Stable nitrogen isotope ratios of bone collagen reflect marine and terrestrial components of prehistoric human diet. Science 220:1381–1383.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.6344217 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Sealy JC, Johnson M, Richards MP, Nehlich O (2014) Comparison of two methods of extracting bone collagen for stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis: comparing whole bone demineralization with gelatinization and ultrafiltration. J Archaeol Sci 47:64–69.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2014.04.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sirignano C, Grau-Sologestoa I, Ricci P, García-Collado MI, Altieri S, Quirós JA, Lubritto C (2014) Animal husbandry during Early and High Middle Ages in the Basque Country (Spain). Quat Int 346:138–148.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2014.05.042 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Smith BH (1991) Standards of human tooth formation and dental age assessment. In: Kelley MA, Larsen CS (eds) Advances in dental anthropology. Wiley-Liss, New York, pp 143–168Google Scholar
  79. Smith BN, Epstein S (1971) Two categories of 13C/12C ratios for higher plants. Plant Physiol 47:380–384.  https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.47.3.380 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Tejerizo C (2011) Ethnicity in early middle age cemeteries. The case of the “visigothic” burials. Arqueología y Territorio Medieval 18:29–43Google Scholar
  81. Tejerizo C (2012) Identidad nacional y arqueología en el primer Franquismo: Julio Martínez Santa-Olalla y la arqueología de época visigoda. In: Aldea JM, Ortega P, Pérez Miranda I, de Soto M de los R (eds) Historia, identidad y alteridad. Actas del III Congreso Interdisciplinar de Jóvenes Historiadores. AJHIS, SalamancaGoogle Scholar
  82. Tejerizo C (2014) Estructuras de fondo rehundido altomedievales en la Península Ibérica. Munibe 65:215–238Google Scholar
  83. Ubelaker DH (1989) Human skeletal remains. Excavation, analysis, interpretation. Taraxacum, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  84. Valentin J (2002) Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection: reference values. Ann ICRP 32:1–277.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0146-6453(03)00002-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. van der Merwe NJ, Vogel JC (1978) 13C content of human collagen as a measure of prehistoric diet in woodland North America. Nature 276:815–816.  https://doi.org/10.1038/276815a0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Van Klinken GJ (1999) Bone collagen quality indicators for palaeodietary and radiocarbon measurements. J Archaeol Sci 26:687–695.  https://doi.org/10.1006/jasc.1998.0385 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Varela TA (1975) Estudio antropológico de los restos óseos procedentes de necrópolis visigodas de la Península Ibérica. Trabajos de Antropología XVII:7–157Google Scholar
  88. Vigil-Escalera A (2007) Granjas y aldeas altomedievales al Norte de Toledo (450–800 d.C.). Arch Esp Arqueol 80:239–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Vigil-Escalera A (2013) Prácticas y ritos funerarios. In: Quirós JA (ed) El poblamiento rural de época visigoda en Hispania. Arqueología del campesinado en el interior peninsular (Documentos de Arqueología Medieval 6). Universidad del País Vasco, Bilbao, pp 259–288Google Scholar
  90. Vigil-Escalera A, Moreno-García M, Peña-Chocarro L, Morales A, Llorente L, Sabato D, Ucchesu M (2014) Productive strategies and consumption patterns in the Early Medieval village of Gózquez (Madrid, Spain). Quat Int 346:7–19.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2013.10.031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Woolgar CM (2006) Group diets in Late Medieval England. In: Woolgar CM, Serjeantson D, Waldron T (eds) Food in medieval England. Diet and nutrition. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 191–200Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Group in Heritage and Cultural Landscapes (GIPYPAC), Micaela Portilla Research CentreUniversity of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU)Vitoria-GasteizSpain
  2. 2.Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and TechnologiesUniversity of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”CasertaItaly
  3. 3.Department of Geography, Prehistory and ArchaeologyUniversity of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU)Vitoria-GasteizSpain

Personalised recommendations