Advertisement

Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences

, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 1421–1429 | Cite as

The effects of cellulose nitrate treatment and organic solvent removal on δ13C, δ15N, and δ18O values of collagen and bioapatite in modern mammal bone

  • Christine A. M. FranceEmail author
  • Anastasia Epitropou
  • Gwénaëlle M. Kavich
Original Paper

Abstract

This study examines the effects of cellulose nitrate application and subsequent removal on stable isotope values in modern mammal bone which may be altered by addition of the consolidant in older museum archaeological and paleontological collections. Cellulose nitrate in the form of Duco cement was applied to modern whale and seal bones. Both treated bone and untreated controls were soaked in 100% acetone to remove cellulose nitrate and test effects of acetone on stable isotope values. Stable isotope values were measured in bone collagen (δ13Ccollagen, δ15Ncollagen) and bioapatite (δ13Cstructural carbonate, δ18Ostructural carbonate, δ18Ophosphate). The δ13Ccollagen, δ15Ncollagen, δ13Cstructural carbonate, and δ18Ophosphate values were unaltered by application of cellulose nitrate or exposure to acetone. The δ18Ostructural carbonate values were altered by exposure to cellulose nitrate in an unpredictable manner, most likely due to exchange of hydroxyl groups with differing isotope values. Care should be taken when using δ18Ostructural carbonate values from cellulose nitrate-treated bones as they may not represent an original isotope signature. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy detected cellulose nitrate in all samples treated with the consolidant, including traces in bones soaked in 100% acetone (48 h) to remove it. This indicates that our procedure was not entirely adequate to fully remove cellulose nitrate. Although remnants of cellulose nitrate in treated bones apparently did not alter the isotope values, it is hereby suggested that future attempts to remove cellulose nitrate from bone include additional soaks or possibly sonication.

Keywords

Cellulose nitrate Duco cement Bone Collagen Bioapatite Stable isotopes 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to acknowledge MCI Stable Isotope Mass Spectrometry Laboratory and MCI Organic Laboratory for analytical support; R. Kaczkowski and O. Madden for consultation and project advice; and two anonymous reviewers for their comments and assistance with improving this manuscript.

References

  1. Ambrose, SH (1993) Isotopic analysis of paleodiets: methodological and interpretive considerations. In: Sanford, MK (ed). Investigations of ancient human tissue: chemical analysis in anthropology Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, pp 59–130Google Scholar
  2. Brock F, Dee M, Hughes A, Snoeck C, Staff R, Ramsey CB (2017) Testing the effectiveness of protocols for removal of common conservation treatments for radiocarbon dating. Radiocarbon:1–16Google Scholar
  3. Bryant JD, Koch PL, Froelich PN, Showers WJ, Genna BJ (1996) Oxygen isotope partitioning between phosphate and carbonate in mammalian apatite. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 60:5145–5148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Coplen, TB, Hopple, JA, Böhlke, JK, Peiser, HS, Rieder, SE, Krouse, HR, Rosman, KJR, Ding, T, Vocke, RD, Revesz, K, Lamberty, A, Taylor, PDP, De Bièvre, P (2002) Compilation of minimum and maximum isotope ratios of selected elements in naturally occurring terrestrial materials and reagents. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 01-4222Google Scholar
  5. DeNiro MJ, Epstein S (1978) Influence of diet on the distribution of carbon isotopes in animals. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 42:495–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. DeNiro MJ, Epstein S (1981) Influence of diet on the distribution of nitrogen isotopes in animals. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 45:341–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dettman DL, Kohn MJ, Quade J, Ryerson FJ, Ojha TP, Hamidullah S (2001) Seasonal stable isotope evidence for a strong Asian monsoon throughout the past 10.7 m.y. Geology 29:31–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Elliot, JC (2002) Calcium phosphate biominerals. In: Kohn, MJ, Rakovan, J, and Hughes, JM (eds). Phosphates: geochemical, geobiological, and materials importance. Mineralogical Society of America, pp 427–454Google Scholar
  9. Fogel ML, Tuross N, Johnson BJ, Miller GH (1997) Biogeochemical record of ancient humans. Org Geochem 27:275–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. France CAM, Giaccai JA, Cano N (2011) The effects of PVAc treatment and organic solvent removal on δ13C, δ15N, and δ18O values of collagen and hydroxyapatite in a modern bone. J Archaeol Sci 38:3387–3393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. France CAM, Giaccai JA, Doney CR (2015) The effects of Paraloid B-72 and Butvar B-98 treatment and organic solvent removal on δ13C, δ15N, and δ18O values of collagen and hydroxyapatite in a modern bone. Am J Phys Anthropol 157:330–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gao Y, Crowley S, Conrad R, Dettman DL (2015) Effects of organic solvents on stable isotopic composition of otolith and abiogenic aragonite. Palaeogeogr Palaeocl Palaeoecol 440:487–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Garvie-Lok SJ, Varney TL, Katzenberg MA (2004) Preparation of bone carbonate for stable isotope analysis: the effects of treatment time and acid concentration. J Archaeol Sci 31:763–776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Horie V (2010) Materials for conservation–organic consolidants, adhesives, and coatings. Elsevier Ltd., AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  15. Johnson J (1994) Consolidation of archaeological bone: a conservation perspective. J Field Archaeol 21:221–233Google Scholar
  16. Kelly JF (2000) Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen in the study of avian and mammalian trophic ecology. Can J Zool 78:1–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Koch PL (1998) Isotopic reconstruction of past continental environments. Annu Rev Earth Pl Sc 26:573–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Koch PL, Fogel ML, Tuross N (1994) Tracing the diets of fossil animals using stable isotopes. In: Lajtha K, Michener RH (eds) Stable isotopes in ecology and environmental science. Blackwell Scientific Publications, London, pp 63–92Google Scholar
  19. Koob SP (1982) The instability of cellulose nitrate adhesives. Conservator 6:31–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Longin R (1971) New method of collagen extraction for radiocarbon dating. Nature 230:241–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Makarewicz CA, Sealy J (2015) Dietary reconstruction, mobility, and the analysis of ancient skeletal tissues: expanding the prospects of stable isotope research in archaeology. J Archaeol Sci 56:146–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Moore KM, Murray ML, Schoeninger MJ (1989) Dietary reconstruction from bones treated with preservatives. J Archaeol Sci 16:437–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Noake E, Lau D, Nel P (2017) Identification of cellulose nitrate based adhesive repairs in archeological pottery of the University of Melbourne’s Middle Eastern archaeological pottery collection using portable FTIR-ATR spectroscopy and PCA. Heritage Sc 5:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pellegrini M, Snoeck C (2016) Comparing bioapatite carbonate pre-treatments for isotopic measurements: Part 2—impact on carbon and oxygen isotope compositions. Chem Geol 420:88–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pestle WJ, Crowley BE, Weirauch MT (2014) Quantifying inter-laboratory variability in stable isotope analysis of ancient skeletal remains. PLoS One 9:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Peterson BJ, Fry B (1987) Stable isotopes in ecosystem studies. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 18:293–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Quye A, Littlejohn D, Pethrick RA, Stewart RA (2011) Investigation of inherent degradation in cellulose nitrate museum artifacts. Polym Degrad Stabil 96:1369–1376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Schimmelmann A, Albertino A, Sauer PE, Qi H, Molinie R, and Mesnard F (2009) Nicotine, acetanilide and urea multi-level 2H, 13C, and 15N-abundance reference materials for continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 23:3513–3521Google Scholar
  29. Selwitz C (1988) Cellulose nitrate in conservation. Resour Conserv 2:1–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Shashoua Y, Bradley SM, Daniels VD (1992) Degradation of cellulose nitrate adhesive. Stud Conserv 37:113–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Stephan E (2000) Oxygen isotope analysis of animal bone phosphate: method refinement, influence of consolidants, and reconstruction of palaeotemperatures for Holocene sites. J Archaeol Sci 27:523–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Takahashi CM, Nelson DE, Southon JS (2002) Radiocarbon and stable isotope analyses of archaeological bone consolidated with hide glue. Radiocarbon 44:59–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tuross N, Fogel ML (1992) Exceptional molecular preservation in the fossil record: the archaeological, conservation, and scientific challenges. In: Scott DA, Meyers P (eds) Archaeometry of Pre-Columbian Sites and Artifacts. The Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, pp 367–380Google Scholar

Copyright information

© This is a U.S. Government work and not under copyright protection in the US; foreign copyright protection may apply 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christine A. M. France
    • 1
    Email author
  • Anastasia Epitropou
    • 1
  • Gwénaëlle M. Kavich
    • 1
  1. 1.Smithonian Museum Conservation InstituteSuitlandUSA

Personalised recommendations