Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences

, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 985–1011 | Cite as

Neanderthal selective hunting of reindeer? The case study of Abri du Maras (south-eastern France)

  • C. DaujeardEmail author
  • D. Vettese
  • K. Britton
  • P. Béarez
  • N. Boulbes
  • E. Crégut-Bonnoure
  • E. Desclaux
  • N. Lateur
  • A. Pike-Tay
  • F. Rivals
  • E. Allué
  • M. G. Chacón
  • S. Puaud
  • M. Richard
  • M.-A. Courty
  • R. Gallotti
  • B. Hardy
  • J. J. Bahain
  • C. Falguères
  • E. Pons-Branchu
  • H. Valladas
  • M.-H. Moncel
Original Paper


Monospecific exploitation of reindeer by Neanderthals is a common behaviour in the Upper Pleistocene of Western Europe. However, reindeer-dominated assemblages have largely been reported from regions of northern Germany and south-western France, with few examples noted in south-eastern France, where faunal assemblages yield most of the time a variety of other large ungulates such as red deer, horse and diverse bovids. Here, we present multi-strand (bio- and eco-) archaeological datasets from the site of Abri du Maras (level 4.1), situated at the mouth of the Ardèche and Rhône rivers, a new example of a reindeer-dominated Neanderthal site in south-eastern France. Dated to the beginning of the MIS 3, the zooarchaeological assemblage is dominated by reindeer (88% of the NISP, representing 16 individuals) but also includes horse, bison, giant deer (Megaloceros giganteus), red deer, ibex and lagomorphs. The combination of zooarchaeological, cementochronological and tooth microwear analyses evidence a single species-dominated spectrum, with catastrophic mortality and repeated autumnal deaths. This integrated approach provides an extensive picture of human subsistence behaviour, pointing to short-term hunting episodes of reindeer herds in an exceptional context of a quasi-exclusive Neanderthal accumulation. The high number of individuals and selective butchery may correspond with a cooperative and planned mass hunting strategy. The multidisciplinary approach undertaken here also incorporating paleontological, charcoal, ecological and isotopic analyses places the archaeological and zooarchaeological data within a broader regional palaeoenvironmental framework, providing valuable landscape-contextual information. The zooarchaeological data suggest a subsistence behaviour different from other Neanderthal reindeer-dominated assemblages often connected with specialised butchery or hunting sites.


Neanderthal Subsistence Seasonality Monospecific faunal assemblages Reindeer predation Mass procurement 



Fieldwork was supported by the Regional Office of Archaeology Rhône-Alpes, the French Ministry of Culture and Communication and the Ardèche Department through several scientific programs. M.G.Chacon, F. Rivals and E. Allué research are funded by ‘CERCA Programme/Generalitat de Catalunya’. Thanks to Jean-Jacques Hublin, Annabell Reiner and Steven Steinbrenner from the Max Planck Institute (MPI-EVA) for analytical support (isotope analysis). We are grateful to the two anonymous reviewers for their constructive remarks on this manuscript. The English manuscript was edited by L. Byrne, an official translator and native English speaker.

Supplementary material

12520_2017_580_MOESM1_ESM.docx (12.6 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 12885 kb)


  1. Airvaux J (ed) (2004) Le Site Paléolithique de Chez-Pinaud à Jonzac, Charente-Maritime. Premiers Résultats : Etudes sur la Coupe Gauche. Préhistoire du Sud-Ouest, Supplément, vol. 8. Association Préhistoire du Sud-Ouest, CressensacGoogle Scholar
  2. Antoine P (2002) Les loess en France et dans le Nord-Ouest européen. Rev Fr Géotech 99:3–21Google Scholar
  3. Barone R (1999) Anatomie comparée des mammifères domestiques – Tome 1 : Ostéologie. Vigot Frères EdsGoogle Scholar
  4. Behrensmeyer AK (1978) Taphonomic and ecologic information from bone weathering. Palaeobiology 4:150–162Google Scholar
  5. Behrensmeyer AK, Gordon KD, Yanagi GT (1986) Trampling as a cause of bone surface damage and pseudo-cutmarks. Nature 319:768–771Google Scholar
  6. Ben-David M, Shochat E, Adams LG (2001) Utility of stable isotope analysis in studying foraging ecology of herbivores: examples from moose and caribou. Alces 37(2):421–434Google Scholar
  7. Bignon O (2003) Diversité et exploitation des équidés au Tardiglaciaire en Europe occidentale. Implications pour les stratégies de subsistance et les modes de vie au Magdalénien et à l’Azilien ancien du Bassin parisien. Dissertation, University of Paris X, NanterreGoogle Scholar
  8. Binford LR (1978) Nunamiut Ethnoarchaeology. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Binford LR (1981) Bones: ancient men and modern myths. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Binford LR (1984) Faunal remains from Klasies River mouth. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Binford LR (1988) Etude taphonomique des restes fauniques de la Grotte Vaufrey, couche VIII. In: Rigaud J-P (ed) La Grotte Vaufrey: paléoenvironnement, chronologie, activités humaines, Mémoires de la Société Préhistorique Française, vol 19, pp 535–564Google Scholar
  12. Blasco R, Rosell J, Peris JF, Caceres I, Vergès JM (2008) A new element of trampling: an experimental application on the Level XII faunal record of Bolomor Cave (Valencia, Spain). J Archaeol Sci 35:1605–1618Google Scholar
  13. Blasco R, Rosell J, Domínguez-Rodrigo M, Lozano S, Pastó I, Riba D, Vaquero M, Peris JF, Arsuaga JL, del Castro JMB, Carbonell E (2013) Learning by heart: cultural patterns in the faunal processing sequence during the Middle Pleistocene. PLoS One 8(2):e55863Google Scholar
  14. Blumenschine RJ, Marean CW, Capaldo SD (1996) Blind tests of inter-analyst correspondence and accuracy in the identification of cut marks, percussion marks, and carnivore tooth marks on bone surfaces. J Archaeol Sci 23:493–507Google Scholar
  15. Bocherens H (2003) Isotopic biogeochemistry and the palaeoecology of the mammoth steppe fauna. DEINSEA 9:57–76Google Scholar
  16. Bouchud J (1966) Essai sur le renne et la climatologie du Paléolithique supérieur et moyen. Imprimerie Magne, PérigueuxGoogle Scholar
  17. Boëda E, Griggo C, Noël-Soriano S (2001) Différents modes d'occupation du site d'Umm el Tlel au cours du Paléolithique moyen (El Kowm, Syrie centrale). Paléorient 27(2):13–28Google Scholar
  18. Boulbes N (2009) Etude comparée de la denture d’Equus hydruntinus (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) dans le Sud-Est de la France. Implic biogéographiques biostratigraphiques. Quaternaire 20(4):449–465Google Scholar
  19. Bratlund B (2000) Taubach revisited. Jahrb Römisch-Gennanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz 46:61–174Google Scholar
  20. Britton K, Grimes V, Niven L, Steele T, McPherron S, Soressi M, Kelly TE, Jaubert J, Hublin JJ, Richards MP (2011) Strontium isotope evidence for migration in late Pleistocene Rangifer: implications for Neanderthal hunting strategies at the Middle Palaeolithic site of Jonzac, France. J Hum Evol 61:176–185Google Scholar
  21. Britton K, Gaudzinski-Windheuser S, Roebroeks W, Kindler L, Richards MP (2012) Stable isotope analysis of well-preserved 120,000-year-old herbivore bone collagen from the Middle Palaeolithic site of Neumark-Nord 2, Germany reveals niche separation between bovids and equids. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 333-334:168–177Google Scholar
  22. Brochier JL (1976) Les cailloux à perforations de lichens. Leur rapport à l’étude sédimentologiques d’un remplissage. Bull Assoc fr Étude quat 13:53–54Google Scholar
  23. Brown TA, Nelson DE, Vogel JS, Southon JR (1988) Improved collagen extraction by modified Longin method. Radiocarbon 30(2):171–177Google Scholar
  24. Brugal JP, David F (1993) Usure dentaire, courbe de mortalité et « saisonnalité » : les gisements du Paléolithique moyen à grands bovidés. In: Desse J, Audoin-Rouzeau F (eds) Exploitation des animaux sauvages à travers le temps, XIIIème Rencontres Internationales d’Archéologie et d’Histoire d’Antibes, IVème Colloque international de l’Homme et de l’Animal, Société de Recherche Interdisciplinaire. APDCA, Sophia Antipolis, pp 63–77Google Scholar
  25. Burke A (1993) Observation of incremental growth structures in dental cementum using the scanning electron microscope. Archaeozoologia 5(2):41–54Google Scholar
  26. Burke A (2000) The view from Starosele: faunal exploitation at a Middle Palaeolithic site in Western Crimea. Int J Osteoarchaeol 10:325–335Google Scholar
  27. Burke A (2006) Neanderthal settlement patterns in Crimea: a landscape approach. J Anthropol Archaeol 25:510–523Google Scholar
  28. Campmas E, Beauval C (2008) Consommation osseuse des carnivores : résultats de l’étude de l’exploitation de carcasses de boeufs (Bos taurus) par des loups captifs. l'Anthropologie 94:167–186Google Scholar
  29. Canti M (1998) Origin of calcium carbonate granules found in buried soils and Quaternary deposits. Boreas 27:275–288Google Scholar
  30. Capaldo SD, Blumenschine RJ (1994) A quantitative diagnosis of notches made by Hammerstone percussion and carnivore gnawing on bovid long bones. Am Antiq 59(4):724–748Google Scholar
  31. Caparrós M, Barroso Ruiz C, Moigne AM, Monclova Bohorquez A (2012) Did Neanderthals and carnivores compete for animal nutritional resources in the surroundings of the cave of Zafarraya? J Taphonomy 10(3–4):395–415Google Scholar
  32. Castel JC, Discamps E, Soulier MC, Sandgathe D, Dibble HL, McPherron SP, Goldberg P, Turq A (2017) Neandertal subsistence strategies during the Quina Mousterian at Roc de Marsal (France). Quatern Int 43(3(B)):140–156Google Scholar
  33. Cerling TE, Hart JA, Hart TB (2004) Stable isotope ecology in the Ituri Forest. Oecologia 138:5–12Google Scholar
  34. Chabal L, Fabre L, Terral JF, Théry-Parisot I (1999) L'Anthracologie. In: Bourquin-Mignot C, Brochier JE, Chabal L, Crozat S, Fabre L, Guibal F, Marinval P, Richard H, Terral JF, Rhéry I (eds) La Botanique. Errance Eds, Paris, pp 43–104Google Scholar
  35. Chase PG (1986) The hunters of Combe-Grenal: approaches to Middle Paleolithic subsistence in Europe. BAR International Series S286Google Scholar
  36. Chritz KL, Dyke GJ, Zazzo A, Lister AM, Monaghan NT, Sigwart JD (2009) Palaeobiology of an extinct Ice Age mammal: stable isotope and cementum analysis of giant deer teeth. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 282(1–4):133–144Google Scholar
  37. Collins MJ, Galley P (1998) Towards an optimal method of archaeological collagen extraction: the influence of pH and grinding. Anc Biomol 2:209–222Google Scholar
  38. Combier J (1967) Le Paléolithique de l'Ardèche dans son cadre bioclimatique. Delmas, BordeauxGoogle Scholar
  39. Costamagno S (2013) Bone grease rendering in Mousterian contexts: the case of Noisetier Cave (Fréchet-Aure, Hautes-Pyrénées, France). In: Speth JD, Clark J (eds) Zooarchaeology and Modern Human Origins. Springer, Amsterdam, pp 209–225Google Scholar
  40. Costamagno S, David F (2009) Comparaison des pratiques bouchères et culinaires de différents groupes sibériens vivant de la renniculture. Archaeofauna 19:9–25Google Scholar
  41. Costamagno S, Rigaud JP (2014) L’exploitation de la graisse au Paléolithique. In: Costamagno S (ed) Histoire de l’alimentation humaine: Entre choix et contraintes. Editions du CTHS, Paris, pp 134–152Google Scholar
  42. Costamagno S, Meignen L, Beauval C, Vandermeersch B, Maureille B (2006) Les Pradelles (Marillac-le-Franc, France): a mousterian reindeer hunting camp? J Anthropol Archaeol 25:466–484Google Scholar
  43. Costamagno S, Théry-Parisot I, Castel JC, Brugal JP (2009) Combustible ou non ? Analyse multifactorielle et modèles explicatifs sur des ossements brûlés paléolithiques. In: Théry-Parisot I, Costamagno S, Henry A (eds) Fuel management during the Paleolithic and Mesolithic periods, New tools, new interpretations, BAR International Series 1914, pp 65–84Google Scholar
  44. Cruz-Uribe K (1991) Distinguishing hyena from hominid bone accumulations. J Field Archaeol 18:467–486Google Scholar
  45. Daujeard C (2007) Exploitation intensive des carcasses de cerf dans le gisement paléolithique moyen de la grotte de Saint-Marcel (Ardèche). XXVIème Congrès de la Société Préhistorique française, Avignon, 21-25 septembre 2004, vol 3, pp 481-497Google Scholar
  46. Daujeard C (2008) Exploitation du milieu animal par les Néanderthaliens dans le Sud-Est de la France. BAR International Series, vol S1867. Archaeopress, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  47. Daujeard C, Moncel MH (2010) On Neanderthal subsistence strategies and land use: A regional focus on the Rhone Valley area in southeastern France. J Anthropol Archaeol 29 (3):368–391Google Scholar
  48. Daujeard C, Moncel MH, Rivals F, Fernandez P, Aureli D, Auguste P, Bocherens H, Crégut-Bonnoure E, Debard E, Liouville M (2011) What Occupation type in the Unit F at Payre (Ardèche, France)? A Specialised Hunting Stop or a Short-term Camp? An example of a Multidisciplinary Approach. In: Bon F, Costamagno S, Valdeyron N (eds), Hunting Camps in Prehistory. Current Archaeological Approaches, Proceedings of the International Symposium, May 13-15 2009, University Toulouse II - Le Mirail, Palethnology 3:77–101Google Scholar
  49. Daujeard C, Fernandes P, Guadelli JL, Moncel MH, Santagata C, Raynal JP (2012) Neanderthal subsistence strategies in Southeastern France between the plains of the Rhône Valley and the mid-mountains of the Massif Central (MIS 7 to MIS 3). Quatern Int 252:32–47Google Scholar
  50. Daujeard C, Abrams G, Germonpré M, Le Pape JM, Wampach A, Di Modica K, Moncel MH (2016) Neanderthal and animal karstic occupations from southern Belgium and south-eastern France: regional or common features? Quatern Int 411:179–197Google Scholar
  51. David F, Enloe JG (1993) L’exploitation des animaux sauvages de la fin du Paléolithique moyen au Magdalénien. In: Desse J, Audoin-Rouzeau F (eds) Exploitation des Animaux Sauvages à travers le Temps, vol 13e. Rencontres Internationales d’Archéologie et d’Histoire d’Antibes, APDCA-CNRS, Sophia Antipolis, pp 29–47Google Scholar
  52. Debard E (1988) Le Quaternaire du Bas-Vivarais d'après l'étude des remplissages d'avens, de grottes et d'abris sous roche. Dynamique sédimentaire, paléoclimatologie et chronologie. Doc Lab Géologie Lyon 103Google Scholar
  53. Defleur A, Bez JF, Crégut-Bonnoure E, Desclaux E, Fontugne M, Jeannet M, Magnon F, Talon B, Thinon M, Combier J (1994) Industries, biostratigraphie, restes humains et datation du gisement moustérien de la Baume Néron (Soyons, Ardèche). CR Acad Sci Paris 318(II):1409–1414Google Scholar
  54. Defleur A, Crégut-Bonnoure E, Desclaux E, Thinon M (2001) Présentation paléoenvironnementale du remplissage de la Baume Moula-Guercy à Soyons (Ardèche) : implications paléoclimatiques et chronologiques. l'Anthropologie 105(3):369–408Google Scholar
  55. Delagnes A, Rendu W (2011) Shifts in Neandertal mobility, technology and subsistence strategies in western France. J Archaeol Sci 38:1771–1783Google Scholar
  56. Delpech F (1983) Les faunes du Paléolithique supérieur dans le Sud-Ouest de la France. Cahiers du Quaternaire 6 CNRS, ParisGoogle Scholar
  57. Discamps E (2013) Ungulate biomass fluctuations endured by Middle and Early Upper Paleolithic societies (SW France, MIS 5-3): the contributions of modern analogs and cave hyena paleodemography. Quatern Int 337:64–79Google Scholar
  58. Discamps E, Costamagno S (2015) Improving mortality profile analysis in zooarchaeology: a revised zoning for ternary diagrams. J Archaeol Sci 58:62–76Google Scholar
  59. Discamps E, Royer A (2017) Reconstructing palaeoenvironmental conditions faced by Mousterian hunters during MIS 5 to 3 in southwestern France: a multi-scale approach using data from large and small mammal communities. Quatern Int 433:64–87Google Scholar
  60. Discamps E, Faivre JP (2017) Substantial biases affecting Combe-Grenal faunal record cast doubts on previous models of Neanderthal subsistence and environmental context. J Archaeol Sci 36:128–132Google Scholar
  61. Dobberstein RC, Collins MJ, Craig OE, Taylor G, Penkman KEH, Ritz-Timme S (2009) Archaeological collagen: why worry about collagen diagenesis? Archaeol Anthropol Sci 1(1):31–42Google Scholar
  62. Domínguez-Rodrigo M, de Juana S, Galan AB, Rodriguez M (2009) A new protocol to differentiate trampling marks from butchery cut marks. J Archaeol Sci 36:2643–2654Google Scholar
  63. Drucker D, Bocherens H, Pike-Tay A, Mariotti A (2001) Isotopic tracking of seasonal dietary change in dentine collagen: preliminary data from modern caribou. Earth Planet Sci Lett 333:303–309Google Scholar
  64. Drucker DG, Bridault A, Hobson KA, Szuma E, Bocherens H (2008) Can carbon-13 in large herbivores reflect the canopy effect in temperate and boreal ecosystems? Evidence from modern and ancient ungulates. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 266(1–2):69–82Google Scholar
  65. Drucker DG, Hobson KA, Münzel SC, Pike-Tay A (2012) Intra-individual variation in stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes in mandibles of modern caribou of Qamanirjuaq (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) and Banks Island (Rangifer tarandus pearyi): implications for tracing seasonal and temporal changes in diet. Int J Osteoarchaeol 22(4):494–504Google Scholar
  66. Ecker M, Bocherens H, Julien MA, Rivals F, Raynal JP, Moncel MH (2013) Middle Pleistocene ecology and Neanderthal subsistence: insights from stable isotope analyses in Payre (Ardèche, France). J Hum Evol 65:363–373Google Scholar
  67. Farizy C, David E, Jaubert J (1994) Hommes et bison du Paléolithique moyen à Mauran (Haute Garonne). CNRS (ed) ParisGoogle Scholar
  68. Feranec RS (2007) Stable carbon isotope values reveal evidence of resource partitioning among ungulates from modem C-3-dominated ecosystems in North America. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 252(3–4):575–585Google Scholar
  69. Fisher JW (1995) Bone surface modifications in zooarchaeology. J Archaeol Method Theory 2:7–68Google Scholar
  70. Forsten A, Moigne AM (1998) The horse from the middle pleistocene of Orgnac 3 (Ardèche, France). Quaternaire 9(4):315–323Google Scholar
  71. Fu QM, Hajdinjak MS, Constantin S, Mallick P, Skoglund N, Patterson N et al (2015) An early modern human from Romania with a recent Neanderthal ancestor. Nature 524(7564):216–219Google Scholar
  72. Gaudzinski S (1995) Wallertheim revisited: a re-analysis of the fauna from the Middle Palaeolithic site of Wallertheim (Rheinhessen, Germany). J Archaeol Sci 22:51–66Google Scholar
  73. Gaudzinski S (1996) On bovid assemblages and their consequences for the knowledge of subsistence patterns in the Middle Palaeolithic. Proc Prehist Soc 62:19–39Google Scholar
  74. Gaudzinski-Windheuser S (2006) Monospecific or species-dominated faunal assemblages during the Middle Paleolithic in Europe. In: Hovers E, Kuhn SL (eds) Transitions before the transition. Springer, New York, pp 137–147Google Scholar
  75. Gaudzinski S, Roebroeks W (2000) Adults only. Reindeer hunting at the Middle Palaeolithic site Salzgitter-Lebenstedt, Northern Germany. J Hum Evol 38:497–521Google Scholar
  76. Gaudzinski-Windheuser S, Niven L (2009) Hominin subsistence patterns during the Middle and Late Paleolithic in Northwestern Europe. In: Hublin JJ, Richards MP (eds) The evolution of hominid diets: integrating approaches to the study of palaeolithic subsistence. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 97–109Google Scholar
  77. Gaudzinski-Windheuser S, Kindler L (2012) Research perspectives for the study of Neandertal subsistence strategies based on the analysis of archaeozoological assemblages. Quatern Int 247:59–68Google Scholar
  78. Gautier A (1989) Preliminary notes on the fauna of the middle Palaeolithic site at Zwolen (Poland). Liège. In: Otte M (ed) L’Homme de Néandertal. La Subsistance, vol 6. ERAUL 33:69–73Google Scholar
  79. Genty D, Combourieu-Nebout N, Peyron O, Blamart D, Wainer K, Mansuri F, Ghaleb B, Isabello L, Dormoy I, von Grafenstein U, Bonelli S, Landais A, Brauer A (2010) Isotopic characterization of rapid climatic events during OIS3 and OIS4 in Villars Cave stalagmites (SW-France) and correlation with Atlantic and Mediterranean pollen records. Quat Sci Rev 29:2799–2820Google Scholar
  80. Gerbe M (2010) L’action des agents atmosphériques (weathering) sur des ossements brûlés : approche expérimentale. In: Théry-Parisot I, Chabal L, Costamagno S (eds)Taphononomie des résidus organiques brûlés et des structures de combustion en milieu archéologique. Palethnologie 2:182–201Google Scholar
  81. Gilles R (1950) Présentation des silex taillés d’un abri-sous-roche du département de l’Ardèche. Bull Soc Préhist Fr 47:202Google Scholar
  82. Grant A (1982) The use of tooth wear as a guide to the age of domestic ungulates. In: Wilson B, Grigson C, Payne S (eds) Ageing and sexing animal bones from archaeological sites, BAR International Series, 109, pp 91–108Google Scholar
  83. Grayson DK, Delpech F (2002) Specialized early upper Palaeolithic hunters in Southwestern France? J Archaeol Sci 29:1439–1449Google Scholar
  84. Grayson DK, Delpech F (2003) Ungulates and the Middle-to-Upper Paleolithic transition at Grotte XVI (Dordogne, France). J Archaeol Sci 30:1633–1648Google Scholar
  85. Green RE, Krause J, Briggs AW, Maricic T, Stenzel E, Pääbo S et al (2010) A draft sequence of the Neandertal genome. Science 328:710–722Google Scholar
  86. Guadelli JL (1987) Contribution à l’étude des zoocénoses préhistoriques en Aquitaine (Würm ancien et interstade würmien). Dissertation, University of Bordeaux IGoogle Scholar
  87. Guadelli JL (1998) Détermination de l’âge des chevaux fossiles et établissement des classes d’âge. Paleo 10:87–93Google Scholar
  88. Guadelli JL (2008) La gélifraction des restes fauniques. Expérimentation et transfert au fossile. Annls Paléont (Vert) 94(3):121–165Google Scholar
  89. Guérin C, Patou-Mathis M (1996) Les grands mammifères plio-pléistocènes d'Europe. Paris, Masson EdsGuérin C, Patou-Mathis M (1996) Les grands mammifères plio-pléistocènes d'Europe. Paris, Masson EdsGoogle Scholar
  90. Guérin G, Discamps E, Lahaye C, Mercier N, Guibert P, Turq A, Dibble H, McPherron S, Sandgathe S, Goldberg P, Jain M, Thomsen K, Patou-Mathis M, Castel JC, Soulier MC (2012) Multi-method (TL and OSL), multi-material (quartz and flint) dating of the Mousterian site of the Roc de Marsal (Dordogne, France): correlating Neanderthals occupations with the climatic variability of MIS 5-3. J Archaeol Sci 39:3071–3084Google Scholar
  91. Guérin G, Frouin M, Tuquoi J, Thomsen KJ, Goldberg P, Aldeias V, Lahaye C, Mercier N, Guibert P, Jain M, Sandgathe D, McPherron SJP, Turq A, Dibble HL (2017) The complementarity of luminescence dating methods illustrated on the Mousterian sequence of the Roc de Marsal: a series of reindeer-dominated, Quina Mousterian layers dated to MIS 3. Quatern Int 433(B):102–115Google Scholar
  92. Hardy BL, Moncel MH, Daujeard C, Fernandes P, Béarez P, Desclaux E, Chacon Navarro MG, Puaud S, Gallotti R (2013) Impossible Neanderthals? Making string, throwing projectiles and catching small game during Marine Isotope Stage 4 (Abri du Maras, France). Quat Sci Rev 82:23–40Google Scholar
  93. Haynes G (1983) A guide for differentiating mammalian carnivore taxa responsible for gnaw damage to herbivore limb bones. Palaeobiology 9(2):164–172Google Scholar
  94. Heaton THE, Vogel JC, von la Chevallerie G, Collett G (1986) Climatic influence on the isotopic composition of bone nitrogen. Nature 322:822–823Google Scholar
  95. Hoffecker JF, Baryshnikov G, Potapova O (1991) Vertebrate remains from the mousterian site of II’skaja I (Northern Caucasus USSR): new analysis and interpretation. J Archaeol Sci 18:113–147Google Scholar
  96. Immel A, Drucker D, Bonazzi M, Jahnke TK, Münzel SC, Schuenemann VJ, Herbig A, Kind CJ, Krause J (2015) Mitochondrial genomes of giant deers suggest their late survival in Central Europe. Sci Rep 5:10853Google Scholar
  97. Jaillard B, Guyon A, Maurin AF (1991) Structure and composition of calcified roots, and their identification in calcareous soils. Geoderma 50:197–210Google Scholar
  98. Jaubert J, Lorblanchet M, Laville H, Slot-Moller R, Turc A, Brugal JP (1990) Les Chasseurs d'Aurochs de La Borde. La Maison des Sciences de l'Homme (ed), ParisGoogle Scholar
  99. Jones KT, Metcalfe D (1988) Bare bones archaeology: bone marrow indices and efficiency. J Archaeol Sci 15:415–423Google Scholar
  100. Jones AM, O'Connell TC, Young ED, Scott K, Buckingham CM, Lacumin P, Brasier MD (2001) Biogeochemical data from well preserved 200 ky collagen and skeletal remains. Earth Planet Sci Lett 193(1–2):143–149Google Scholar
  101. Julien MA, Bocherens H, Burke A, Drucker D, Patou-Mathis M, Krotova O, Péan S (2012) Were European steppe bison migratory? 18O, 13C and Sr intra-tooth isotopic variations applied to a palaeoethological reconstruction. Quatern Int 271(0):106–119Google Scholar
  102. Julien MA, Rivals F, Serangeli J, Bocherens H, Conard NJ (2015) A new approach for deciphering between single and multiple accumulation events using intra-tooth isotopic variations: application to the Middle Pleistocene bone bed of Schöningen 13 II-4. J Hum Evol 89:114–128Google Scholar
  103. King T, Andrews P, Boz B (1999) Effect of taphonomic processes on dental microwear. Am J Phys Anthropol 108:359–373Google Scholar
  104. Kitagawa K, Kronneck P, Conard NJ, Münzel SC (2012) Exploring cave use and exploitation among cave bears, carnivores and hominins in the Swabian Jura, Germany. Journal of Taphonomy 10(3–4):439–461Google Scholar
  105. Klein RG, Cruz-Uribe C (1984) The analysis of animal bones from archaeological sites. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  106. Kooistra MJ, Pulleman MM (2010) Features related to faunal activity. In: Stoops G, Marcelino V, Mees F (eds) Interpretation of micromorphological features of soils and regoliths. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 397–418Google Scholar
  107. Kuitems M, van der Plicht J, Drucker DG, van Kolfschoten T, Palstra SWL, Bocherens H (2015) Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes of well-preserved Middle Pleistocene bone collagen from Schöningen (Germany) and their palaeoecological implications. J Hum Evol 89:105–113Google Scholar
  108. Kuntz D (2011) Ostéométrie et migration(s) du Renne (Rangifer tarandus) dans le sud-ouest de la France au cours du dernier Pléniglaciaire et du Tardiglaciaire (21 500-13 000 cal. B.P.). Dissertation, University of Toulouse II – Le MirailGoogle Scholar
  109. Lam YM, Chen X, Pearson OM (1999) Intertaxonomic variability in patterns of bone density and the differential representation of bovid, cervid, and equid elements in the archaeological record. Am Antiq 64:343–362Google Scholar
  110. Lieberman D, Deacon T, Meadow R (1990) Computer image enhancement and analysis of cementum increments as applied to the teeth of Gazella gazella. J Archaeol Sci 17:519–533Google Scholar
  111. Lister AM (1994) The evolution of the giant deer, Megaloceros giganteus (Blumenbach). Zool J Linnean Soc 112:65–100Google Scholar
  112. Longin R (1971) New method of collagen extraction for radiocarbon dating. Nature 230:241–242Google Scholar
  113. Lubinski PM (2013) What is adequate evidence for mass procurement of ungulates in zooarchaeology? Quatern Int 297:167–175Google Scholar
  114. Lyman RL (1984) Bone density and differential survivorship of fossil classes. J Anthropol Archaeol 3(4):259–299Google Scholar
  115. Lyman RL (1987) On the analysis of vertebrate mortality profiles: sample size, mortality profile, and hunting pressure. Am Antiq 52:125–142Google Scholar
  116. Lyman RL (1994) Vertebrate taphonomy. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  117. Lyman RL (2004) The concept of equifinality in taphonomy. J Taphon 2(1):15–26Google Scholar
  118. Magniez P, Boulbes N (2014) Environment during the Middle to Late Palaeolithic transition in southern France: the archaeological sequence of Tournal Cave (Bize-Minervois, France). Quatern Int 337:43–63Google Scholar
  119. Magniez P, Boulbes N, Brugal JP (2017) Variations de la taille corporelle chez les ongulés pléistocènes : implications paléoécologiques et taphonomiques. In: Brugal JP (ed) TaphonomieS. Éditions des archives contemporaines, ParisGoogle Scholar
  120. Magurran AE (1988) Ecological diversity and its measurement. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  121. Marean CW (1998) A critique of the evidence for scavenging by Neandertals and early modern humans: new data from Kobeh Cave (Zagros Mountains, Iran) and Die Kelders Cave 1 Layer 10 (South Africa). J Hum Evol 35:111–136Google Scholar
  122. Mellars P (1996) The Neandertal legacy: an archaeological perspective from Western Europe. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  123. Metcalfe D, Jones KT (1988) A reconsideration of animal body-part utility indices. Am Antiq 53:486–504Google Scholar
  124. Miller FL (1974) Biology of the Kaminuriak population of barren-ground caribou. Part 2: dentition as indicator of age and sex; composition and socialization of the population. Can Wildl Serv Rep Ser 31:1–88Google Scholar
  125. Moncel MH, Michel V (2000) Première tentative de datation par U-Th du site paléolithique moyen de l’abri du Maras. Bull Soc Préhist Fr 93(3):371–375Google Scholar
  126. Moncel MH, Daujeard C (2012) The variability of the Middle Palaeolithic on the right bank of the Middle Rhône Valley (southeast France): technical traditions or functional choices? Quatern Int 247:103–124Google Scholar
  127. Moncel MH, Gaillard C, Patou-Mathis M (1994) L’Abri du Maras (Ardèche) : une nouvelle campagne de fouilles dans un site paléolithique moyen. Bull Soc Préhist Fr 91(6):363–368Google Scholar
  128. Moncel MH, Daujeard C, Cregut-Bonnoure E, Boulbes N, Puaud S, Debard E, Bailon S, Desclaux E, Escude E, Roger T, Dubar M (2010) Nouvelles données sur les occupations humaines du début du Pléistocène supérieur de la moyenne vallée du Rhône (France). Les sites de l’Abri des Pêcheurs, de la Baume Flandin, de l’Abri du Maras et de la Grotte du Figuier (Ardèche). Quaternaire 21(4):389–415Google Scholar
  129. Moncel MH, Moigne AM, Combier J (2012) Towards the Middle Palaeolithic in Western Europe: the case of Orgnac 3 (southeastern France). J Hum Evol 63:653–666Google Scholar
  130. Moncel MH, Chacon Navarro MG, La Porta A, Fernandes P, Hardy B, Gallotti R (2014) Fragmented reduction processes: Middle Palaeolithic technical behaviour in the Abri du Maras shelter, southeastern France. Quatern Int 350:180–204Google Scholar
  131. Moncel MH, Allué E, Bailon S, Barshay-Szmidt C, Béarez P, Crégut-Bonnoure E, Daujeard C, Desclaux E, Debard E, Lartigot-Campin AS, Puaud S, Roger T (2015) Evaluating the integrity of palaeoenvironmental and archaeological records in MIS 5 to 3 karst sequences from southeastern France. Quatern Int 378:22–39Google Scholar
  132. Morin E, Soulier MC (2017) New criteria for the archaeological identification of bone grease processing. Am Antiq 82(1):96–122Google Scholar
  133. Nilssen PJ (2000) An actualistic butchery study in South Africa and its implications for reconstructing hominid strategies of carcass acquisition and butchery in the Upper Pleistocene and Plio-Pleistocene. Dissertation, University of Cape TownGoogle Scholar
  134. Niven L, Steele TE, Rendu W, Mallye JB, McPherron SP, Soressi M, Jaubert J, Hublin JJ (2012) Neandertal mobility and large-game hunting: the exploitation of reindeer during the Quina Mousterian at Chez-Pinaud Jonzac (Charente-Maritime, France). J Hum Evol 63:624–635Google Scholar
  135. Niven L (2013) A diachronic evaluation of Neanderthal cervid exploitation and site use at Pech de l’Azé IV, France. In: Clark J, Speth JD (eds) Zooarchaeology and modern human origins: human hunting behavior during the later Pleistocene. Springer Verlag, Dordrecht, pp 151–161Google Scholar
  136. Noe-Nygaard N, Price TD, Hede SU (2005) Diet of aurochs and early cattle in southern Scandinavia: evidence from 15N and 13C stable isotopes. J Archaeol Sci 32:855–871Google Scholar
  137. Nowak M (2013) Identification de téphras dans le remplissage sédimentaire du site préhistorique de l’Abri du Maras (Saint-Martin-d’Ardèche, Ardèche) : essai de caractérisation –physico-chimie, origine et chronologie). Dissertation, Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, ParisGoogle Scholar
  138. Olsen SL, Shipman P (1988) Surface modification on bone: trampling versus butchery. J Archaeol Sci 15:535–553Google Scholar
  139. Patou-Mathis M (1997) Apport de l’archéozoologie à la connaissance des comportements de subsistance des hommes du Paléolithique. In: Patou-Mathis M, Otte M (eds) L’alimentation des hommes du Paléolithique : approche pluridisciplinaire, Liège, ERAUL 83:277–292Google Scholar
  140. Patou-Mathis M (1998) Les espèces chassées et consommées par l'homme en couche 5. In: Otte M, Patou-Mathis M, Bonjean D (eds) Recherches aux grottes de Sclayn, L'Archéologie, vol 2. Université de Liège, Liège, pp 297–310Google Scholar
  141. Patou-Mathis M (1999) Zooarchaeology analysis of the middle Paleolithic fauna from selected levels of Kabazi II. In: Chabaï VP, Monigal K (eds) The Middle Paleolithic of Western Crimea, vol 2, Liège, ERAUL 87:41–74Google Scholar
  142. Patou-Mathis M (2000) Neanderthal subsistence behaviours in Europe. Int J Osteoarchaeol 10:379–385Google Scholar
  143. Patou-Mathis M, Schwab C (2002) Fiche générale. In: Patou-Mathis M (ed) Industrie de l’os préhistorique: compresseurs, percuteurs, retouchoirs, Cahier X. Paris, Société préhistorique française, pp 11-20Google Scholar
  144. Pickering TR (2002) Reconsideration of criteria for differentiating faunal assemblages accumulated by hyenas and hominids. Int J Osteoarchaeol 12:127–141Google Scholar
  145. Pike-Tay A (1991) Red deer hunting in the upper Paleolithic of Southwest France: a study in seasonality. British archaeological reports international series S569. Tempus Reparatum, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  146. Pike-Tay A (1995) Variability and synchrony of seasonal indicators in dental cementum microstructure of the Kaminuriak Rangifer population. Archaeofauna 4:273–284Google Scholar
  147. Pike-Tay A, Cosgrove R (2002) From reindeer to wallaby: recovering patterns of seasonality, mobility, and prey selection in the Paleolithic Old World. J Archaeol Method Th 9:101–146Google Scholar
  148. Pobiner BL, Rogers MJ, Monahan CM, JWK H (2008) New evidence for hominin carcass processing strategies at 1.5 ma, Koobi Fora, Kenya. J Hum Evol 55:103–130Google Scholar
  149. Prat F (1968) Sur des vestiges de Mégacéros découverts dans quelques gisements paléolithiques du Sud-Ouest de la France. Dissertation, University of Bordeaux IGoogle Scholar
  150. Puaud S, Nowak M, Pont S, Moncel MH (2015) Minéraux volcaniques et alpins à l’abri du Maras (Ardèche, France) : témoins de vents catabatiques dans la vallée du Rhône au Pléistocène supérieur. C R Palevol 14:331–341Google Scholar
  151. Rendu W (2010) Hunting behavior and Neanderthal adaptability in the late Pleistocene site of Pech-de-l’Azé I. J Archaeol Sci 37:1798–1810Google Scholar
  152. Rendu W, Costamagno S, Meignen L, Soulier MC (2012) Monospecific faunal spectra in Mousterian contexts: implications for social behavior. Quatern Int 247:50–58Google Scholar
  153. Richard M, Falguères C, Pons-Branchu E, Bahain JJ, Voinchet P, Lebon M, Valladas H, Dolo JM, Puaud S, Rué M, Daujeard C, Moncel MH, Raynal JP (2015) Contribution of ESR/U-series dating to the chronology of late Middle Palaeolithic sites in the middle Rhône valley, southeastern France. Quat Geochronol 30(B):529–534Google Scholar
  154. Richards MP, Hedges REM (2003) Variations in bone collagen delta C-13 and delta N-15 values of fauna from Northwest Europe over the last 40 000 years. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 193(2):261–267Google Scholar
  155. Richards MP, Taylor G, Steele T, SP MP, Soressi M, Jaubert J, Orschiedt J, Mallye JB, Rendu W, Hublin JJ (2008) Isotopic dietary analysis of a Neanderthal and associated fauna from the site of Jonzac (Charente-Maritime), France. J Hum Evol 55(1):179–185Google Scholar
  156. Riglet PH (1977) Contribution à l’étude de l’âge du cerf élaphe (Cervus elaphus L.). Dissertation, National Veterinary School of AlfortGoogle Scholar
  157. Rivals F, Mihlbachler MC, Solounias N (2007) Effect of ontogenetic-age distribution in fossil samples on the interpretation of ungulate paleodiets using the mesowear method. J Vertebr Paleontol 27:763–767Google Scholar
  158. Rivals F, Prignano L, Semprebon GM, Lozano S (2015a) A tool for determining duration of mortality events in archaeological assemblages using extant ungulate microwear. Sci Rep 5:17330Google Scholar
  159. Rivals F, Julien MA, Kuitems M, Van Kolfschoten T, Serangeli J, Drucker DG, Bocherens H, Conard NJ (2015b) Investigation of equid paleodiet from Schöningen 13 II-4 through dental wear and isotopic analyses: archaeological implications. J Hum Evol 89:129–137Google Scholar
  160. Rivals F, Lister AM (2016) Dietary flexibility and niche partitioning of large herbivores through the Pleistocene of Britain. Quat Sci Rev 146:116–133Google Scholar
  161. Rogers AR (2000) On equifinality in faunal analysis. Am Antiq 65:709–723Google Scholar
  162. Schoch WH, Bigga G, Böhner U, Richter P, Terberger T (2015) New insights on the wooden weapons from the Paleolithic site of Schöningen. J Hum Evol 89:214–225Google Scholar
  163. Schwarcz HP, Dupras TL, Fairgrieve SI (1999) 15N enrichment in the Sahara: in search of a global relationship. J Archaeol Sci 26(6):629–636Google Scholar
  164. Schweingruber FH (1990) Anatomie europäischer Hölzer ein Atlas zur Bestimmung europäischer Baum-, Strauch- und Zwergstrauchhölzer Anatomy of European woods an atlas for the identification of European trees shrubs and dwarf shrubs. Verlag Paul Haupt, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  165. Semprebon GM, Godfrey LR, Solounias N, Sutherland MR, Jungers WL (2004) Can low-magnification stereomicroscopy reveal diet? J Hum Evol 47:115–144Google Scholar
  166. Semprebon GM, Rivals F (2007) Was grass more prevalent in the pronghorn past? An assessment of the dietary adaptations of Miocene to recent Antilocapridae (Mammalia: Artiodactyla). Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 253:332–347Google Scholar
  167. Shipman P, Rose JJ (1983) Early hominid hunting, butchering, and carcass processing behaviors: approaches to the fossil record. J Anthropol Archaeol 2:57–98Google Scholar
  168. Shipman P, Rose JJ (1984) Cutmark mimics on modern and fossil bovid bones. Curr Anthropol 25(1):116–117Google Scholar
  169. Simpson EH (1949) Measurement of diversity. Nature 163(4148):688–688Google Scholar
  170. Solounias N, Semprebon G (2002) Advances in the reconstruction of ungulate ecomorphology with application to early fossil equids. Am Mus Novit 3366:1–49Google Scholar
  171. Speth JD (2015) When did humans learn to boil? PaleoAnthropology 2015:54–67Google Scholar
  172. Stevens RE, Hedges REM (2004) Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis of northwest European horse bone and tooth collagen, 40,000 BP-present: palaeoclimatic interpretations. Quat Sci Rev 23(7–8):977–991Google Scholar
  173. Stevens RE, Jacobi R, Street M, Germonpre M, Conard NJ, Munzel SC, REM H (2008) Nitrogen isotope analyses of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), 45,000 BP to 900 BP: palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 262(1–2):32–45Google Scholar
  174. Stiner MC (1990) The use of mortality patterns in archaeological studies of hominid predatory adaptations. J Anthropol Archaeol 9:305–351Google Scholar
  175. Stiner MC (1994) Honor among thieves—a zooarchaeological study of Neandertal ecology. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  176. Stiner MC, Kuhn SL, Weiner S, Bar-Yosef O (1995) Differential burning, recrystallization, and fragmentation of archaeological bones. J Archaeol Sci 22:223–237Google Scholar
  177. Straus LG (1981) On the habitat and diet of Cervus elaphus. Munibe 33:175–182Google Scholar
  178. Sundset MA, Kohn A, Mathiesen SD, Præsteng KE (2008) Eubacterium rangiferina, a novel usnic acid-resistant bacterium from the reindeer rumen. Naturwissenschaften 95(8):741–749Google Scholar
  179. Szpak P (2014) Complexities of nitrogen isotope biogeochemistry in plant-soil systems: implications for the study of ancient agricultural and animal management practices. Front Plant Sci 5:288Google Scholar
  180. Théry-Parisot I, Meignen L (2000) Économie des combustibles (bois et lignite) dans l'abri moustérien des Canalettes. Gallia Préhistoire 42:45–55Google Scholar
  181. Théry-Parisot I, Texier PJ (2006) La collecte du bois de feu dans le site moustérien de la Combette (Bonnieux, Vaucluse, France): implications paléo-économiques et paléo-écologiques. Approche morphométrique des charbons de bois. Bull Soc Préhist Fr 103(3):453–463Google Scholar
  182. Thieme H (1997) Lower Palaeolithic hunting spears from Germany. Nature 385:805–810Google Scholar
  183. Tode A, Preul F, Richter K, Selle W, Pfaffenberg K, Kleinschmidt A, Guenther EW, Müller A, Schwartz W (1953) Die Untersuchung der paläolithischen Freilandstation von Salzgitter-Lebenstedt. Quaternary Sci J 03(1)(A14):144–220Google Scholar
  184. Uzquiano P, Arbizu Senosiain MA, Arsuaga JL, Adán Álvarez GE, Aranburu Artano A, Iriarte Avilés E (2008) Datos paleoflorísticos en la Cuenca media del Nalón entre 40-32 Ka. BP: antracoanálisis de la Cueva del Conde (Santo Adriano, Asturias). Cuat Geomorfol 22:121–133Google Scholar
  185. Uzquiano P (2008) Domestic fires and vegetation cover among Neanderthalians and anatomically modern human groups (>53 to 30 Kyrs BP) in the Cantabrian region (Cantabria, Northern Spain). Charcoal from the Past: Cultural and Palaeoenvironmental implications, BAR International Series 1807, pp 273–285Google Scholar
  186. Uzquiano P, Yravedra J, Zapata BR, MJG G, Sesé C, Baena J (2012) Human behaviour and adaptations to MIS 3 environmental trends (>53–30 ky BP) at Esquilleu cave (Cantabria, northern Spain). Quatern Int 252:82–89Google Scholar
  187. Valensi P, Michel V, El Guennouni K, Liouville M (2013) New data on human behavior from a 160,000 year old Acheulean occupation level at Lazaret cave, south-east France: an archaeozoological approach. Quatern Int 316:123–139Google Scholar
  188. van Klinken GJ (1999) Bone collagen quality indicators for palaeodietary and radiocarbon measurements. J Archaeol Sci 26:687–695Google Scholar
  189. van Klinken GJ, Richards MP, REM H (2000) An overview of causes for stable isotopic variations in past European human populations: environmental, ecophysiological, and cultural effects. In: Ambrose S, Katzenberg A (eds) Biogeochemical approaches to palaeodietary analysis. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp 39–63Google Scholar
  190. Vettese D (2014) Le traitement boucher des carcasses d'ongulés chez les Néanderthaliens de l'Abri du Maras (Ardèche, MIS4) : individualisme ou poids des traditions ? Dissertation, Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, ParisGoogle Scholar
  191. Vettese D, Daujeard C, Blasco R, Borel A, Caceres I, Moncel MH (2017) Neandertal long bone breakage process: standardized or random patterns? The example of Abri du Maras (Southeastern France, MIS 3). J Archaeol Sci Rep 13:151–163Google Scholar
  192. Villa P, Mahieu E (1991) Breakage patterns of human long bones. J Hum Evol 21:27–48Google Scholar
  193. Vislobokova IA (2012) Giant deer: origin, evolution, role in the biosphere. Palaeontol J 46(7):643–775Google Scholar
  194. Weinstock J (2000) Late Pleistocene reindeer populations in Middle and Western Europe, an osteometrical study of Rangifer tarandus. BioArchaeologica, Tubingen 3:308Google Scholar
  195. Wilson B (1989) Fresh and old table refuse. The recognition and location of domestic activity at archaeological sites in the Upper Thames Valley, England. Archaeozoologia 3:237–260Google Scholar
  196. Yravedra J, Cobo-Sánchez L (2015) Neanderthal exploitation of ibex and chamois in southwestern Europe. J Hum Evol 78:12–32Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Daujeard
    • 1
    Email author
  • D. Vettese
    • 1
  • K. Britton
    • 2
    • 3
  • P. Béarez
    • 4
  • N. Boulbes
    • 1
  • E. Crégut-Bonnoure
    • 5
  • E. Desclaux
    • 6
  • N. Lateur
    • 7
  • A. Pike-Tay
    • 8
  • F. Rivals
    • 9
    • 10
    • 11
  • E. Allué
    • 9
    • 10
  • M. G. Chacón
    • 1
    • 9
    • 10
  • S. Puaud
    • 1
  • M. Richard
    • 12
  • M.-A. Courty
    • 13
  • R. Gallotti
    • 14
  • B. Hardy
    • 15
  • J. J. Bahain
    • 1
  • C. Falguères
    • 1
  • E. Pons-Branchu
    • 16
  • H. Valladas
    • 16
  • M.-H. Moncel
    • 1
  1. 1.Histoire Naturelle de l’Homme Préhistorique (HNHP, UMR 7194), Sorbonne Universités, Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (MNHN), CNRS, Université de Perpignan Via DomitiaInstitut de Paléontologie HumaineParisFrance
  2. 2.Department of Human EvolutionMax Planck Institute for Evolutionary AnthropologyLeipzigGermany
  3. 3.Department of ArchaeologyUniversity of AberdeenAberdeenUK
  4. 4.Archéozoologie, archéobotanique : sociétés, pratiques et environnements (UMR 7209)Sorbonne Universités, MNHN, CNRSParisFrance
  5. 5.Museum RequienAvignonFrance
  6. 6.Laboratoire départemental de Préhistoire du Lazaret (UMR 7194-USM 204)NiceFrance
  7. 7.Laboratoire Méditerranéen de Préhistoire Europe Afrique (LAMPEA, UMR 7269), Maison Méditerranéenne des Sciences de l’HommeAix-en-Provence cedex 02France
  8. 8.Department of AnthropologyPoughkeepsieUSA
  9. 9.Institut Català de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolució Social (IPHES)TarragonaSpain
  10. 10.Àrea de PrehistòriaUniversitat Rovira i Virgili (URV)TarragonaSpain
  11. 11.Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA)BarcelonaSpain
  12. 12.Institut de recherche sur les Archéomatériaux – Centre de recherche en Physique appliquée à l’Archéologie (IRAMAT-CRP2A - UMR 5060)Université Bordeaux MontaignePessacFrance
  13. 13.Laboratoire PROMES – Procédés Matériaux et Energie Solaires (CNRS-UPR 8521)PerpignanFrance
  14. 14.Dipartimento di Scienze dell’AntichitàUniversità di Roma La SapienzaRomeItaly
  15. 15.Department of AnthropologyKenyon CollegeGambierUSA
  16. 16.Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement (LSCE) (UMR 8212)Gif-sur-YvetteFrance

Personalised recommendations