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Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences

, Volume 10, Issue 6, pp 1329–1346 | Cite as

The chert from the Castelltallat Formation (south-central Pyrenees): archaeometric characterisation and archaeological implications

  • David Ortega
  • Carles Roqué
  • Jordi Ibáñez
  • Elisabet Beamud
  • Juan C. Larrasoaña
  • Alberto Sáez
  • Xavier Terradas
Original Paper

Abstract

Chert from the limestones and marly limestones of Castelltallat Formation (Ebro Basin) was widely used throughout prehistoric times in north-eastern Iberia to produce stone tools due to its properties and accessibility. A rough estimate indicates that this rock—either as raw material or as lithic products—was distributed mainly to the north of the outcrops, over an area of 6000–8000 km2. However, other rocks in the area have similar characteristics which can lead to confusion in the interpretation of its prehistoric use and distribution. In order to establish useful archaeometric criteria for differentiating this chert from other similar, the Castelltallat chert is characterised in petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical terms. The chert nodules are found to be homogenous at the macroscopic and microscopic level, with a significant presence of bioclasts, thus indicating they might be formed in a freshwater lake environment by the early diagenetic replacement of carbonates in shallow waters. The mineralogical composition is homogeneously uniform and of a flint type, characterised by an almost exclusive predominance of quartz, without any opaline phases, and a variable proportion of moganite. The iron oxide content is very low, whereas its chemical composition is unusually high in uranium which correlates positively with carbonate content and negatively with silica. Archaeometrical parameters are provided to reach a proper identification of tools knapped with this chert. This way, chert from Castelltallat Formation turns out to be a valuable lithological marker to evaluate the range of mobility of the human groups who lived in the north-eastern Iberia and their contacts with neighbouring areas.

Keywords

Chert Archaeometry Ebro Basin Castelltallat formation Prehistory Human mobility 

Notes

Funding sources and acknowledgements

The fieldwork to obtain rock samples and the analysis of the samples was cofunded by the Direcció General del Patrimoni Cultural de la Generalitat de Catalunya and IMF-CSIC, within the framework of an interinstitutional collaboration agreement for the development of the Catalan Lithotheque of siliceous rocks (LITOcat project). Specific studies on the petrological characterisation of Castelltallat chert and its prehistoric use were carried out within the research project ‘Aprofitament prehistòric i històric del sílex a Catalunya: contextos extractius i de primera transformació’, funded by the Department of Culture of the Government of Catalonia (ref. núm. 2014/100778). The significance of human use and scope of distribution of Castelltallat chert are being approached within the project ‘Productions, technical variability and technological innovation in the Neolithic’, funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (Grant HAR2016–76534-C2–2-R).

The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers of the paper for the corrections and suggestions that have contributed to improving it.

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CSIC – Institució Milà i Fontanals, Archaeology of Social DynamicsBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Department de Environmental SciencesUniversitat de GironaGironaSpain
  3. 3.Laboratory of X-Ray DiffractionCSIC – Institut de Ciències de la Terra Jaume AlmeraBarcelonaSpain
  4. 4.Laboratory of PaleomagnetismCCiTUB and CSIC—Institut de Ciències de la Terra Jaume AlmeraBarcelonaSpain
  5. 5.Instituto Geológico y Minero de España—Unidad de ZaragozaZaragozaSpain
  6. 6.Department of Earth and Ocean DynamicsUniversitat de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain

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