Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences

, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp 297–317 | Cite as

Enzootic diseases and extinction of mammoths as a reflection of deep geochemical changes in ecosystems of Northern Eurasia

  • Sergey LeshchinskiyEmail author
Original Paper


The results of investigations performed on more than 23,500 mammoth bones and teeth in Northern Eurasia from 2003 to 2013 with the aim of revealing traces of enzootic diseases are presented here. The study focused on the Late Pleistocene “beast solonetz” sites (i.e. mineral licks/oases) of Western Siberia: Shestakovo-Kochegur (25.9–17.8 ka BP) in the Kemerovo region, Volchia Griva (17.8–11 ka BP) in the Novosibirsk region and Lugovskoye (16.5–10 ka BP) nearby Khanty-Mansiysk. Additional sites studies included sites (30–10 ka BP) from other regions of Northern Eurasia also with mass mammoth remains (Gari, Berelyokh, Krasnoyarskaya Kurya, Kraków Spadzista Street, Předmostí, Dolní Věstonice, Milovice and others). The results suggest that just at the end of the Pleistocene, large herbivorous mammals experienced a powerful geochemical stress which would manifest as mass destructive changes of bones due to enzootic diseases caused by mineral deficiency. Remains characterized by destructive changes are common and prevalent in all collections. Maximum damage was discovered in the bones and teeth of Mammuthus primigenius Blum. The most typical signs of osteodystrophy were osteoporosis, osteofibrosis, osteomalacia, osteolysis, cartilage atrophy, exostoses and fractures, resulting in the formation of false joints, ulcers and friction grooves on articular surfaces. The results of the paleoecological analysis suggest that the larger part of Northern Eurasia at the end of Pleistocene was extremely unfavourable for the existence of megafauna. The disruption of the abiotic relationships caused by the cardinal transformation of geochemical landscapes could have become the main reason for the wide-spread enzootia and, finally, the extinction of the mammoth.


Mammoth extinction Enzootic diseases Geochemical landscapes Paleoecological analysis Northern Eurasia 



I am grateful to A.P. Derevyanko, V.N. Zenin, A. Nadachowski, P. Wojtal, G.F. Baryshnikov, A.N. Tikhonov, E.M. Burkanova, L.V. Stepanova, Yu.B. Serikov, P.A. Kosintsev, E.N. Maschenko, A.K. Agadzhanian, K. Stefaniak, P. Socha, A. Krzemińska, M. Oliva, M. Roblíčková, O.V. Bukharova and L.L. Petrova for providing me with the opportunity to analyze the collections and for their assistance.

The study was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Projects 09-04-00663, 11-04-10105 and 12-04-00377), Grant of the President of Russian Federation (MK-3291.2004.5), Tomsk State University Innovative Education Program (2006, 2011), Tomsk State University Competitiveness Improvement Program (2014), Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Polish Academy of Sciences (2006–2007), Museum of Nature and Man (Khanty-Mansiysk) and my private assets.


  1. Arkhipov SA, Volkova VS (1994) Geological history, Pleistocene landscapes and climate in West Siberia. Trans Inst Geol Geoph Mineral no. 823. Sib Branch Russ Acad Sci, NovosibirskGoogle Scholar
  2. Arslanov KA, Lyadov VV, Filonov BA, Chernov SB (1982) Ob absolyutnom vozraste Yuribeiskogo mamonta. In: Sokolov VE (ed) Yuribeiskiy mamont. Nauka, Moscow, pp 35–36Google Scholar
  3. Averianov АО (1994) Kutomanov Mammoth. In: Kuzmina IE, Baryshnikov GF (eds) Quaternary fauna of Northern Eurasia. Proc Zool Inst Russ Acad Sci St Petersburg 256:111–135Google Scholar
  4. Baranоva YP, Вiske SF (1967) Late Pliocene-Quarter stage of relief origin in North-East of USSR. Geol Geophys 3:3–10Google Scholar
  5. Basilyan AE, Anisimov MA, Nikolskiy PA, Pitulko VV (2011) Wooly mammoth mass accumulation next to the Paleolithic Yana RHS site, Arctic Siberia: its geology, age, and relation to past human activity. J Archaeol Sci 38:2461–2474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Behrensmeyer AK (1978) Taphonomic and ecologic information from bone weathering. Paleobiology 4(2):150–162Google Scholar
  7. Bgatov VI (1993) Podhody k ekogeologii. Zhyzn’ i geologicheskaya sreda, NSU, NovosibirskGoogle Scholar
  8. Bgatov VI (2007) Sostav, stroenie i rudonosnost’ osadochnyh tolshch Sibiri. Ekologicheskie problemy, SNIIGGMS, NovosibirskGoogle Scholar
  9. Bgatov VI, Lazarev PA, Speshilova MA (1989) Litofagia i mamontovaya fauna. Yakutskii Nauchnyi centr Sib Branch Acad Sci USSR, YakutskGoogle Scholar
  10. Blyakharchuk TA, Sulerzhitsky LD (1999) Holocene vegetation and climate changes in the forest zone of Western Siberia according to pollen records from the extrazonal palsa bog "Bugristoe". The Holocene 9(5):621–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boeskorov GG, Tikhonov AN, Suzuki N (eds) (2007) The Yukagir mammoth. Saint-Petersburg University Publishing House, Saint-PetersburgGoogle Scholar
  12. Boiko PV, Maschenko EN, Sylerzhitskii LD (2005) A new large Late Pleistocene mammoth’s locality in Western Siberia. In: Agenbroad LD, Symington BL (eds) The world of elephants. Abstr 2 Int Congr. The Mammoth Site of Hot Springs, Hot Springs 4:22–26Google Scholar
  13. Borisova OK, Novenko EY, Zelikson EM, Kremenetski KV (2011) Lateglacial and Holocene vegetational and climatic changes in the southern taiga zone of West Siberia according to pollen records from Zhukovskoye peat mire. Quat Int 237:65–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brugère A, Fontana L (2009) Mammoth origin and exploitation patterns at Milovice (area G excepted). In: Oliva M (ed) Milovice: site of the mammoth people below the Pavlov Hills. The question of Mammoth bone structures. Studies in Anthropology, Palaeoethnology, Palaeontology and Quaternary Geology. Moravské Zemské Muzeum Brno 27(19):53–105Google Scholar
  15. Chepurov KP, Cherkasova AV, Akulov NM, Ostrovskiy II, Martynyuk DF (1955) Urovskaya bolezn'. Amur kn izd, BlagoveschenskGoogle Scholar
  16. Cherkasova AV (1954) Urovskaya bolezn selskohoziaystvennyh zhivotnyh. Amur kn izd, BlagoveshchenskGoogle Scholar
  17. Chernov YI (1980) Zhizn’ tundry. Mysl’, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  18. Chubur AA (2007) Paleontology, archeozoology and taphonomy of mammoth fauna of the Chotylevo 2 site (excavations of 1994–2003) In: Boeskorov GG (ed) Abstr 4 Int Mammoth conf. Yakutsk, pp 192–193Google Scholar
  19. Cyrek K, Socha P, Stefaniak K, Madeyska T, Mirosław-Grabowska J, Sudoł M, Czyżewski Ł (2010) Palaeolithic of Bisnik Cave (Southern Poland) within the environmental background. Quat Int 220:5–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Damperov NI (1939) Urovskaya Kashin-Beka bolezn. Medgiz, Moscow LeningradGoogle Scholar
  21. Derevianko AP, Molodin VI, Zenin VN, Leshchinskiy SV, Mashchenko EN (2003) Pozdnepaleoliticheskoe mestonakhozhdenie Shestakovo (The Late Paleolithic site Shestakovo). Inst Archaeol Ethnogr Sib Branch Russ Acad Sci NovosibirskGoogle Scholar
  22. Derevianko AP, Zenin VN, Leshchinskiy SV, Mashchenko EN (2000) Peculiarities of mammoth accumulation at Shestakovo site in West Siberia. Archaeol Ethnol Anthropol Eurasia 3(3):42–55Google Scholar
  23. Dravert PL (1922) O litifagii. Sibirskaya priroda 1:3–6Google Scholar
  24. Efremov IA (1950) Tafonomia i geologocheskaya letopis'. Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta, T. XXIV. Izd AN SSSR, Moscow, LeningradGoogle Scholar
  25. Efremov JA (1940) Taphonomy a new branch of paleontology. Bull AN SSSR (Ser Biol) 3:405–413Google Scholar
  26. Egorenkov VV (2010) Pogranichnye i dobrokachestvennye opuholi kostei. Prakticheskaya onkologia 11(1):37–44Google Scholar
  27. Epstein S (2005) The roles of bone mineral density, bone turnover, and other properties in reducing fracture risk during antiresorptive therapy. Mayo Clin Proc 80(3):379–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ermakov VV, Tyutikov SF (2008) Geochemical ecology of animals. Nauka, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  29. Evseev VP, Dubrovo IA, Rengarten NV, Stremyakov AYa (1982) Mestonahozhdenie Yuribeiskogo mamonta: geologia, tafonomia, paleogeografiya. In: Sokolov VE (ed) Yuribeiskiy mamont. Nauka, Moscow, pp 5–19Google Scholar
  30. Fabiš M (2004) Palaeopathology of findings among archaeofaunal remains of Small Seminar site in Nitra. Acta Vet 73:55–58Google Scholar
  31. Faith JT, Surovell TA (2009) Synchronous extinction of North America’s Pleistocene mammals. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106(49):20641–20645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fin’ko EA (1973) Morfostrukturnyi analis pri izuchenii sovremennyh tektonicheskih dvizheniy (na primere Vostochnogo i Yuzhnogo Kazahstana). Nauka, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  33. Firestone RB, West A, Kennett JP, Becker L, Bunch TE, Revay ZS, Schultz PH, Belgya T, Kennett DJ, Erlandson JM, Dickenson OJ, Goodyear AC, Harris RS, Howard GA, Kloosterman JB, Lechler P, Mayewski PA, Montgomery J, Poreda R, Darrah T, Que Hee SS, Smith AR, Stich A, Topping W, Wittke JH, Wolbach WS (2007) Evidence for an extraterrestrial impact 12,900 years ago that contributed to the megafaunal extinctions and the Younger Dryas cooling. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(41):16016–16021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Flueck WT, Smith-Flueck JAM (2006) Why the Patagonian huemul deer in Argentina fails to recover: An ecological hypotheses. In: Bartoš L, Dušek A, Kotrba R, Bartošová-Víchová J (eds) Advances in deer biology: deer in a changing world—Proc 4th Int Deer Biol Congr. Inst Anim Prod, Prague, pp 181–185Google Scholar
  35. Flueck WT, Smith-Flueck JAM (2008) Age-independent osteopathology in skeletons of a South American cervid, the Patagonian huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus). J Wildl Dis 44(3):636–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Germonpre M (1993) Taphonomy of Pleistocene mammal assemblages of the Flemish Valley, Belgium. BullInstit Royal Sci nat Belgique. Sci de la Terre (63):271–309Google Scholar
  37. Germonpre M, Sablin M, Khlopachev GA, Grigorieva GV (2008) Possible evidence of mammoth hunting during the Epigravettian at Yudinovo, Russian Plain. J Anthropol Archaeol 27:475–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gladkov АS, Lunina OV (2010) Seismites of the Southern East Siberia: research problems and perspectives. Geodyn Tectonophys 1(3):249–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gorbarenko SA, Tsoi IB, Astakhov AS, Artemova AV, Gvozdeva IG, Annin VK (2007) Paleoenvironmental Changes in the Northern Shelf of the Sea of Okhotsk during the Holocene. Stratigr Geol Correl 15(6):656–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gorlova RN (1982) Rastitelnye makroostatki, obnaruzhennye v zheludochno-kishechnom trakte Yuribeiskogo mamonta. In: Sokolov VE (ed) Yuribeiskiy mamont. Nauka, Moscow, pp 37–43Google Scholar
  41. Graham RW (2001) Late Quaternary biogeography and extinction of Proboscideans in North America. In: Cavarretta G, Gioia P, Mussi M, Palombo MR (eds) The world of elephants. Proc I Int Cong. CNR, Rome, pp 707–709Google Scholar
  42. Grayson DK (1987) An analysis of the chronology of Late Pleistocene mammalian extinctions in North America. Quat Res 28:281–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Greer M, Greer JK, Gillingham J (1977) Osteoarthritis in selected wild mammals. Proc Okla Acad Sci 57:39–43Google Scholar
  44. Guthrie RD (2003) Rapid body size decline in Alaskan Pleistocene horses before extinction. Nature 426:169–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Haynes CV, Boerner JJ, Domanik K, Lauretta D, Ballenger J, Goreva J (2010) The Murray Springs Clovis site, Pleistocene extinction, and the question of extraterrestrial impact. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(9):4010–4015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Haynes G (2001) Elephant landscapes: human foragers in the world of mammoths, mastodonts, and elephants. In: Cavarretta G, Gioia P, Mussi M, Palombo MR (eds) The World of elephants. Proc I Int Cong. CNR, Rome, pp 571–576Google Scholar
  47. Haynes G (2012) Elephants (and extinct relatives) as earth-movers and ecosystem engineers. Geomorphology 157–158:99–107Google Scholar
  48. Hindelang M, Peterson RO (1996) Osteoporotic skull lesions in moose at Isle Royale National Park. J Wildl Dis 32(1):105–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hoffecker JF, Kuz’mina IE, Syromyatnikova EV, Anikovich MV, Sinitsyn AA, Popov VV, Holliday VT (2010) Evidence for kill-butchery events of early Upper Paleolithic age at Kostenki, Russia. J Archaeol Sci 37:1073–1089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hoppe KA (2004) Late Pleistocene mammoth herd structure, migration patterns, and Clovis hunting strategies inferred from isotopic analyses of multiple death assemblages. Paleobiology 30(1):129–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hoppe KA, Koch PL (2007) Reconstructing the migration patterns of late Pleistocene mammals from northern Florida, USA. Quat Res 68:347–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hoppe KA, Koch PL, Carlson RW, Webb SD (1999) Tracking mammoths and mastodons: Reconstruction of migratory behavior using strontium isotope ratios. Geologija 27(5):439–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hubberten HW, Andreev A, Astakhov VI, Demidov I, Dowdeswell JA, Henriksen M, Hjort C, Houmark-Nielsen M, Jakobsson M, Kuzmina S, Larsen E, Lunkka JP, Lyså A, Mangerud J, Möller P, Saarnisto M, Schirrmeister L, Sher AV, Siegert C, Siegert MJ, Svendsen JI (2004) The periglacial climate and environment in northern Eurasia during the Last Glaciation. Quat Sci Rev 23:1333–1357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Johnson HE, Bleich VC, Krausman PR (2007) Mineral deficiencies in tule elk, Owens Valley, California. J Wildl Dis 43(1):61–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kalicki T, Kozłowski JK, Krzemińska A, Sobczyk K, Wojtal P (2007) The formation of mammoth bone accumulation at the Gravettian site Kraków-Spadzista B + B1. Folia Q 77:5–30Google Scholar
  56. Kashchenko NF (1901) Skelet mamonta so sledami upotreblenia nekotoryh chastei tela etogo zhivotnago v pishchu sovremennym emu chelovekom. Mémoires de l’académie impériale des sciences de St.-Pétersbourg. VIII série. Classe physico-mathématique. XI (7)Google Scholar
  57. Kiselev SV, Druk AYa, Krivolutskiy DA (1982) O faune zhukov i pantsyrnyh kleshchei iz zahoroneniy mamontov. In: Sokolov VE (ed) Yuribeiskiy mamont. Nauka, Moscow, pp 44–53Google Scholar
  58. Klíma B (1963) Dolní Věstonice. Výzkum tábořiště lovců mamutů v letech 1947–1952. Nakladatelství Československé Akademie Věd, PragueGoogle Scholar
  59. Koch PL, Hoppe KA (1996) Isotopes and elephants. Am Paleontol 4(4):2–3Google Scholar
  60. Korin SS (2005) Miocene salt-bearing Vorotyshcha Beds in the Starunia area, fore-Carpathian region, Ukraine. In: Kotarba MJ (ed) Polish and Ukrainian geological studies (2004–2005) at Starunia—the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Państwowy Inst Geol, Warszawa-Krakow, pp 79–86Google Scholar
  61. Korobko YA, Ivanova EI (1982) Sravnitelno-morfologicheskiy analis sohrannosti i dinamiki izmeneniy gistostruktury iskopaemyh tkanei Yuribeiskogo mamonta, Kirgilyahskogo mamontenka i Selerikanskoy loshadi. In: Sokolov VE (ed) Yuribeiskiy mamont. Nauka, Moscow, pp 120–148Google Scholar
  62. Kosintsev PA, Lapteva EG, Trofimova SS, Zanina OG, Tikhonov AN, van der Plicht J (2010) The intestinal contents of a baby woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius Blumenbach, 1799) from the Yuribey River (Yamal peninsula). Dokl Biol Sci 432:209–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kovalskiy VV (1974) Geokhimicheskaya ekologiya. Nauka, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  64. Kozlovski JK (2004) Le site gravettien de Crakovie. Rue Spadzista (Pologne méridionale) et ses amas d’ossements de mammouth. Les mammouths Dossiers d’Archeologie 291:60–63Google Scholar
  65. Krishnamani R, Mahaney WC (2000) Geophagy among primates: adaptive significance and ecological consequences. Anim Behav 59(5):899–915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Krzemińska A (2008) Preliminary characteristics of pathologies found in the skeletons of mammoths at the Kraków Spadzista Street (B) site. Veterinarija ir zootechnika 43(65):52–57Google Scholar
  67. Krzemińska A (2009) Pathologies of mammoth bones from Milovice Site. In: Oliva M. (ed) Milovice: site of the mammoth people below the Pavlov Hills. The question of Mammoth bone structures. Studies in anthropology, palaeoethnology, palaeontology and quaternary geology. Moravské Zemské Muzeum, Brno 27(19):118–125Google Scholar
  68. Kuzhelnyi NM, Lizalek NA, Bgatov VI, Zolotarev AL (2000) Geologia i veshchestvennyi sostav fagialnyh zemel’ yuga Sibiri. In: Komarov AV (ed) Tri veka gorno-geologicheskoi sluzhby Rossii. Gala Press, Tomsk, 2:215–218Google Scholar
  69. Kuzmin YV (2010) Extinction of the woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) and woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis) in Eurasia: Review of chronological and environmental issues. Boreas 39:247–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kuzmina IE, Praslov ND (1992) Anomalies in the structure of teeth and leg bones of mammoths in the Late Palaeolithic site Kostenki 1. In: Kuzmina IE, Baryshnikov GF (eds) History of large mammals and birds of the Northern Eurasia. Proc Zool Inst Russ Acad Sci St Petersburg 246:68–71Google Scholar
  71. Leshchinskiy SV (1998) Geologia i paleogeografia pozdnepaleoliticheskoy stoyanki Shestakovo. In: Derevianko AP (ed) Paleoecologia pleistocena I kultury kamennogo veka Severnoy Azii i sopredel’nyh territoriy. Proc Int Conf Inst Archaeol Ethnogr Sib Branch Russ Acad Sci Novosibirsk 1:209–220Google Scholar
  72. Leshchinskiy SV (2001a) a) Late Pleistocene beast solonetz of Western Siberia: "mineral oases" in mammoth migration paths, foci of the Palaeolithic man's activity. In: Cavarretta G, Gioia P, Mussi M, Palombo MR (eds) The world of elephants. Proc 1st Int Cong. CNR, Rome, pp 293–298Google Scholar
  73. Leshchinskiy SV (2001 b) Novye dannye o geologii i genezise mestonakhozhdeniya Volchiya Griva. In: Derevianko AP, Medvedev GI (eds) Sovremennye problemy Evraziiskogo paleolitovedeniya. Materialy mezhdunarodnogo simpos. Novosibirsk, pp 244–251Google Scholar
  74. Leshchinskiy SV (2006) Lugovskoye: environment, taphonomy, and origin of a paleofaunal site. Archaeol Ethnol Anthropol Eurasia 1(25):33–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Leshchinskiy SV (2009) Mineral deficiency, enzootic diseases and extinction of mammoth of Northern Eurasia. Dokl Biol Sci 424:72–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Leshchinskiy SV (2012) Paleoecological investigation of mammoth remains from the Kraków Spadzista Street (B) site. Quat Int 276–277:155–169Google Scholar
  77. Leshchinskiy SV, Burkanova EM (2003) Kochegur, a new locality for mammoth remains in the Shestakovo beast solonetz district (Western Siberia). In: Storer JE (ed) 3rd Int Mammoth conf. Occasional Papers in Earth Science. Whitehorse, pp 63–67Google Scholar
  78. Leshchinskiy SV, Burkanova EM (2005) The dynamics of mammoths size during Sartan Age on the south of West Siberian plain and its paleoecological basis. In: Matishov GG, Kalmykov NP, Titov VV (eds) Problems of Paleontology and Archeology of Southern Russia and Neighboring Regions. Proc Int Conf, Rostov-on-Don, pp 54–56Google Scholar
  79. Leshchinskiy SV, Burkanova EM, Luneova DE, Ivantsov SV, Zenin IV, Akhteryakova АВ (2005) Preliminary results of investigation of the mammoth fauna locality and Paleolith “Krasnoyarskaya kuria” (West Siberian Plain). In: Podobina VM (ed) Evolution of life on the earth. Proc 3rd Int Conf. Tomsk State University, Tomsk, pp 352–356Google Scholar
  80. Leshchinskiy SV, Maschenko EN, Ponomareva EA, Orlova LA, Burkanova EM, Konovalova VA, Teterina II, Gevlya KM (2006) Multidisciplinary paleontological and stratigraphic studies at Lugovskoe (2002–2004). Archaeol Ethnol Anthropol Eurasia 1(25):54–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Leshchinskiy SV, Kuzmin YV, Zenin VN, Jull AJT (2008) Radiocarbon Chronology of the “Mammoth Cemetery” and Paleolithic Site of Volchia Griva (Western Siberia). Curr Res Pleistocene 25:53–56Google Scholar
  82. Leshchinskiy SV, Krzemińska A, Wojtal P (2010a) Paleoecological analysis of mammoth remains from the Kraków Spadzista Street (B) site. Quatern Hors série 3:103–105Google Scholar
  83. Leshchinskiy SV, Zenin VN, Orlova LA, Burkanova EM (2010b) Beast solonetz of Chulym-Yenisei plain – mineral (geochemical) oases and centres of mammoth fauna and Palaeolithic man's activity. Tomsk State Univ Bull 333:181–186Google Scholar
  84. Leshchinskiy SV, Blyakharchuk TA, Vvedenskaya IA, Orlova LA (2011) The first terrace above the Ob’ floodplain near Kolpashevo: the age and formation conditions. Russ Geol Geophys 52:641–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lister AM (2009) Late-glacial mammoth skeletons (Mammuthus primigenius) from Condover (Shropshire, UK): anatomy, pathology, taphonomy and chronological significance. Geol J 44:447–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Logginov A (1890) K voprosu ob osteoporoze, kak samostoyatelnoi bolezni u loshadei. Veterinary PhD dissertation. Tipografia Lakmana G, DerptGoogle Scholar
  87. Lorenzen ED, Nogués-Bravo D, Orlando L, Weinstock J, Binladen J, Marske KA, Ugan A, Borregaard MK, Gilbert MTP, Nielsen R, Ho SYW, Goebel T, Graf KE, Byers D, Stenderup JT, Rasmussen M, Campos PF, Leonard JA, Koepfli K-P, Froese D, Zazula G, Stafford TW Jr, Aaris-Sørensen K, Batra P, Haywood AM, Singarayer JS, Valdes PJ, Boeskorov G, Burns JA, Davydov SP, Haile J, Jenkins DL, Kosintsev P, Kuznetsova T, Lai X, Martin LD, McDonald HG, Mol D, Meldgaard M, Munch K, Stephan E, Sablin M, Sommer RS, Sipko T, Scott E, Suchard MA, Tikhonov A, Willerslev R, Wayne RK, Cooper A, Hofreiter M, Sher A, Shapiro B, Rahbek C, Willerslev E (2011) Species-specific responses of Late Quaternary megafauna to climate and humans. Nature 479:359–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Lyman RL (1996) Vertebrate taphonomy. University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  89. MacKinnon J (1985) In search of the Red Ape. Mysl’, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  90. Markova AK, van Kolfschoten T, Bohncke S, Kosintsev PA, Mol J, Puzachenko AY, Simakova AN, Smirnov NG, Verpoorte A, Golovachev IB (2008) Evolution of the European Ecosystems during Pleistocene – Holocene transition (24–8 kyr BP). KMK Scientific Press, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  91. Markova AK, Simakova AN, Puzachenko AY (2009) Ecosystems of Eastern Europe at the time of maximum cooling of the Valdai glaciation (24–18 kyr BP) inferred from data on plant communities and mammal assemblages. Quat Int 201:53–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Martin PS (2005) Twilight of the mammoths (ice age extinctions and the rewilding of America. University of California Press, Berkeley Los Angeles, LondonGoogle Scholar
  93. Maschenko EN (1992) Structure and formation herd from the Sevsk Late Pleistocene locality (Russia, Bryansk Region). In: Kuzmina IE, Baryshnikov GF (eds) History of large mammals and birds of the Northern Eurasia. Proc Zool Inst Russ Acad Sci St Petersburg 246:41–59Google Scholar
  94. Maschenko EN (2002) Individual development, biology and evolution of the woolly mammoth. Cranium 19(1):4–120Google Scholar
  95. Maschenko EN (2010) Age profile and morphology of mammoth from the Chulym River (Teguldet locality, Tomsk region, Russia). In: Boeskorov GG, Maschenko EN (eds) Lazarev PA. Proc 4th Int Mammoth Conf. Yakutsk, pp 41–53Google Scholar
  96. Maschenko EN, Leshchinskiy SV (2001) Composition and morphology of mammoth remains from Volchya Griva site. In: Podobina VM (ed) Evolution of life on the earth. Proc 2nd Int Symp. Tomsk State University, Tomsk, pp 507–511Google Scholar
  97. Maschenko EN, Gablina SS, Tesakov AS, Simakova AN (2006) The Sevsk woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) site in Russia: Taphonomic, biological and behavioral interpretations. Quat Int 142–143:147–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. McDonald HG, Pelikan S (2006) Mammoths and mylodonts: Exotic species from two different continents in North American Pleistocene faunas. Quat Int 142–143:229–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Mead JI, Agenbroad LD, Davis OK, Martin PS (1986) Dung of Mammuthus in the Arid Southwest, North America. Quat Res 25:121–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Melott AL, Thomas BC, Dreschhoff G, Johnson CK (2010) Cometary airbursts and atmospheric chemistry: Tunguska and a candidate Younger Dryas event. Geologija 38:355–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Münzel SC (2001) Seasonal hunting of mammoth in the Ach-Vally of the Swabian Jura. In: Cavarretta G, Gioia P, Mussi M, Palombo MR (eds) The world of elephants. Proc 1st Int Cong. CNR, Rome, pp 318–322Google Scholar
  102. Muzolf B, Stefaniak K, Tomek T, Wertz K, Socha P, Cyrek K, Mirosław-Grabowska J, Madeyska T, Nadachowski A (2009) Multiculturate sites on Mt. Birów in Podzamcze. In: Stefaniak K, Tyc A, Socha P (eds) Karst of the Częstochowa Upland and of the Eastern Sudetes (palaeoenvironments and protection). University of Silesia, University of Wrocław, Sosnowiec–Wrocław, pp 283–294Google Scholar
  103. Nadachowski A, Lipecki G, Wojtal P, Miękina B (2011) Radiocarbon chronology of woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) from Poland. Quat Int 245:186–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Nasimovich AA (1975) The African elephant. Nauka, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  105. Nikolaev VI, Kuznetsova TV, Alekseev AO, Matteo AD, Mashenko EN, Palombo MR, Iacumin P (2011) Preliminary results of isotope and geochemical studies of Late Pleistocene mammoth of North Yakutia. Izvestiya RAN (seriya geograficheskaya) 2:78–88Google Scholar
  106. Nikolskiy PA, Basilyan AE, Sulerzhitsky LD, Pitulko VV (2010) Prelude to the extinction: Revision of the Achchagyi-Allaikha and Berelyokh mass accumulations of mammoth. Quat Int 219:16–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Nikolskiy PA, Sulerzhitsky LD, Pitulko VV (2011) Last straw versus Blitzkrieg overkill: Climate-driven changes in the Arctic Siberian mammoth population and the Late Pleistocene extinction problem. Quat Sci Rev 30:2309–2328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Norton CJ, Kondo Y, Ono A, Zhang Y, Diab MC (2010) The nature of megafaunal extinctions during the MIS 3–2 transition in Japan. Quat Int 211:113–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Oliva M (2009) Geography, stratigraphy and dating. In: Oliva M (ed) Milovice: site of the mammoth people below the Pavlov Hills. The question of Mammoth bone structures. Studies in anthropology, palaeoethnology, palaeontology and quaternary Geology. Moravské Zemské Muzeum, Brno 27(19):22–24Google Scholar
  110. Ossowski GO (1886) Opyt hronologicheskoj klassifikacii nahodok kamennogo veka v Rossii, po nahodkam, dobytym iz peshcher Keletskoj gubernii i okrestnostej Krakówa. Trudy VI arheologicheskogo syezda v Odesse (1884). Tipografiya A. Shultse, Odessa I:47–71Google Scholar
  111. Ossowski G (1895) Sur le caractère geologique et paléo-ethnologique des cavernes du sud-est de la Russie et des pays contigues de la Gallicie (Discours tenu dans la séance de la Société des Naturalistes et des Médecins de l’ Université de Tomsk, le 28 avril 1893). Parovaya Tipo-Litografiya P.I, Makushina, TomskGoogle Scholar
  112. Panichev AM (1987) Zverovye solontsy Sihote-Alinya (biologo-geologicheskiy aspect). DVNC AN SSSR, VladivostokGoogle Scholar
  113. Panichev AM (1990) Lithofagy in the life of animals and human being. Nauka, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  114. Péan S (2001) Mammoth and subsistence practices during the Mid Upper Palaeolithic of Central Europe (Moravia, Czech Republic). In: Cavarretta G, Gioia P, Mussi M, Palombo MR (eds) The world of elephants. Proc 1st Int Cong. CNR, Rome, pp 331–336Google Scholar
  115. Perelman AI (1975) Geohimiya landshafta.Vysshaya skola, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  116. Pitulko VV (2008) Zagadki Berelyokha. Trans Inst Hist Mater Cult Russ Acad Sci St Petersburg 3:98–117Google Scholar
  117. Pitulko VV (2011) The Berelekh quest: a review of forty years of research in the mammoth graveyard in Northeast Siberia. Geoarchaeol Int J 26(1):5–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Pitulko VV, Pavlova EY (2010) Geoarchaeology and radiocarbon chronology of the Stone Age of the North-East Asia. Nauka, St-PetersburgGoogle Scholar
  119. Plotnikov KI (1962) Etiologiya, patogenez, terapiya i profilaktika letnikh gastroenteritov i pnevmonii yagnyat v Kulundinskoi stepi. Veterinary PhD dissertation. MoscowGoogle Scholar
  120. Rastvorova VA (1980) Molodye dvizhenia Predaltayskoy ravniny. Byulleten MOIP otdel geologicheskiy 55(3):17–29Google Scholar
  121. Rokhlin DG, Rubasheva AE, Sergievsky FP (1934) The “Urov” or “Kashin-Bekov” disease in the light of clinico-roentgenological and paleo-pathological data. Věstn Rentgenol i Radiol 13(1/2):115–130Google Scholar
  122. Romanovskii NN, Hubberten H-W, Gavrilov AV, Tumskoy VE, Kholodov AL (2004) Permafrost of the east Siberian Arctic shelf and coastal lowlands. Quat Sci Rev 23:1359–1369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Rothschild BM, Laub R (2006) Hyperdisease in the late Pleistocene: validation of an early 20th century hypothesis. Naturwissenschaften 93:557–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Rothschild BM, Laub R (2008) Pedal stress fractures in mastodons. J Paleopath 20(1–3):43–51Google Scholar
  125. Rothschild BM, Martin LD (2003) Frequency of pathology in a large natural sample from Natural Trap Cave with special remarks on erosive disease in the Pleistocene. Reumatismo 55(1):58–65Google Scholar
  126. Rothschild BM, Martin LD (2006) Did ice-age bovids spread tuberculosis? Naturwissenschaften 93:565–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Rothschild BM, Rothschild C (1994) No laughing matter: spondyloarthropathy and osteoarthritis in Hyaenidae. J Zool Wildl Med 25(2):259–263Google Scholar
  128. Rothschild BM, Wang X, Shoshani J (1994) Spondyloarthropathy in Proboscideans. J Zool Wildl Med 25(3):360–366Google Scholar
  129. Savvinov GN, Pesterev AP (2007) Pleistocene paleosoils of tundra zone of Yakutia on the Yukagir mammoth site. In: Boeskorov GG, Tikhonov AN, Suzuki N (eds) The Yukagir mammoth. St-Petersburg Univ Publishing House, St-Petersburg, pp 34–54Google Scholar
  130. Savvinova GM (2007) Palinological description of the Upper Pleistocene sediments in the region of the burial site of the Yukagir mammoth. In: Boeskorov GG, Tikhonov AN, Suzuki N (eds) The Yukagir mammoth. St-Petersburg Univ Publishing House, St-Petersburg, pp 70–88Google Scholar
  131. Schreve DC (2006) The taphonomy of a Middle Devensian (MIS 3) vertebrate assemblage from Lynford, Norfolk, UK, and its implications for Middle Palaeolithic subsistence strategies. J Quat Sci 21(5):543–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Schultz M, Teschler-Nicola M (1987) Krankhafte Veränderungen an den Skeletten aus dem Karner der St. Martins-Kirche in Klosterneuburg, Niederösterreich, Teil 1–4. Ann Naturhist Mus Wien 89(A):225–311Google Scholar
  133. Serikov JB (2007) Garinskaya paleoliticheskaya stoyanka i nekotorye voprosy ural’skogo paleolitovedenya. NGSPA, Nizhniy TagilGoogle Scholar
  134. Sher AV (1997a) Prirodnaya perestroika v Vostochno-Sibirskoy Arktike na rubezhe pleistocena i golocena i yeyo rol’ v vymiranii mlekopitayushchih, i stanovlenii sovremennyh ecosistem (Soobshchenie 1). Kriosfera Zemli 1(1):21–29Google Scholar
  135. Sher AV (1997b) Prirodnaya perestroika v Vostochno-Sibirskoy Arktike na rubezhe pleistocena i golocena i yeyo rol’ v vymiranii mlekopitayushchih, i stanovlenii sovremennyh ecosistem (Soobshchenie 2). Kriosfera Zemli 1(2):3–11Google Scholar
  136. Shilo NA, Lozhkin AV, Titov EE, Shumilov YV (1983) Kirgilyakhskii mamont (paleogeograficheskii aspect). Nauka, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  137. Shvartsev SL (1998) Gidrogeohimya zony gipergeneza. Nauka, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  138. Siegert MJ, Dowdeswell JA (2004) Numerical reconstructions of the Eurasian Ice Sheet and climate during the Late Weichselian. Quat Sci Rev 23:1273–1283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Slovtsov IJa (1885) O nahodkah predmetov kamennogo perioda bliz g. Tyumeni v 1883. Zapiski Zapadno-Sibirskogo otdela Imperatorskogo Russkogo geograficheskogo Obshchestva, knizhka VII (vypusk I). Tipografiya Okruzhnogo Shtaba, Omsk, pp 1–59Google Scholar
  140. Soffer OA (1993) Verhniy paleolit Sredney i Vostochnoy Evropy: lyudi i mamonty. In: Leonova NB, Nesmeyanov SA. Problemy paleoekologii drevnih obshchestv. Rossiiskiy otkrytyi universitet, Moskva А-1(1):99–118Google Scholar
  141. Stanishcheva ON (1982) Prirodnaya obstanovka rayona gibeli Yuribeiskogo mamonta na osnovanii paleokarpologicheskih dannyh. In: Sokolov VE (ed) Yuribeiskiy mamont. Nauka, Moscow, pp 30–35Google Scholar
  142. Stuart AJ, Lister AM (2001) The Late Quaternary extinction of woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius), straight-tusket elephant (Palaeoloxodon antiquus) and other megafauna in Europe. In: Cavarretta G, Gioia P, Mussi M, Palombo MR (eds) The world of elephants. Proc 1st Int Cong. CNR, Rome, pp 722–723Google Scholar
  143. Stuart AJ, Lister AM (2011) Extinction chronology of the cave lion Panthera spelaea. Quat Sci Rev 30:2329–2340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Stuart AJ, Sulerzhitsky LD, Orlova LA, Kuzmin YV, Lister AM (2002) The latest woolly mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius Blumenbach) in Europe and Asia: a review of the current evidence. Quat Sci Rev 21:1559–1569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Sukachev VN (1914) Issledovania rastitelnyh ostatkov iz pishchi mamonta, naydennogo na reke Berezovke Yakutskoy oblasti. In: Nauchnye rezultaty expedicii, snaryazhennoi Imperatorskoy Akademiei Nauk dlya raskopki mamonta, naidennogo na reke Berezovke v 1901 godu (tom 3). Tipografia Imperatorskoy Akademii Nauk, St-Petersburg, pp 1–17Google Scholar
  146. Svoboda J (2001) Gravettian mammoth bone deposits in Moravia. In: Cavarretta G, Gioia P, Mussi M, Palombo MR (eds) The world of elephants. Proc 1st Int Cong. CNR, Rome, pp 359–362Google Scholar
  147. Svoboda JA (2008) The Upper Paleolithic burial area at Předmostí: ritual and taphonomy. J Hum Evol 54:15–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Svoboda JA, Péan S, Wojtal P (2005) Mammoth bone deposits and subsistence practices during Mid-Upper Palaeolithic in Central Europe: three cases from Moravia and Poland. Quat Int 126–128:209–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Trifonov VG (1999) Neotectonics of Eurasia. Nauchnyi mir, MoskvaGoogle Scholar
  150. Trueman CNG, Behrensmeyer AK, Tuross N, Weiner S (2004) Mineralogical and compositional changes in bones exposed on soil surfaces in Amboseli National Park, Kenya: diagenetic mechanisms and the role of sediment pore fluids. J Archaeol Sci 31:721–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Turner-Walker G (2008) The chemical and microbial degradation of bones and teeth. Advances in human palaeopathology. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, pp 3–29Google Scholar
  152. Ukraintseva VV (1982) Prirodnaya sreda i usloviya gibeli mamonta v verhnem techenii r. Yuribei (Gydanskiy poluostrov). In: Sokolov VE (ed) Yuribeiskiy mamont. Nauka, Moscow, pp 19–29Google Scholar
  153. Ukraintseva VV (1991) The causes of extinction of the mammoth and some of its “associates”. In: Baryshnikov GF, Kuzmina IE (eds) Paleotheriological investigations of the fauna of USSR. Proc Zool Inst Acad Sci USSR St Petersburg 238:167–186Google Scholar
  154. Ukraintseva VV (2002) Vegetation and climate of Siberia in the mammoth epoch. East Siberian Branch of the International Institute of Forest, KrasnoyarskGoogle Scholar
  155. Urazaev NA (1978) Biogeotsenoz i bolezni zhivotnykh. Kolos, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  156. van der Plicht J (1997) The radiocarbon dating. In: Klíma B et al. (eds) Pavlov I-Northwest. The upper Paleolithic burial and its settlement context. The Dolní Věstonice Studies 4:427–436Google Scholar
  157. Velichko AA (ed) (2002) Dynamics of terrestrial landscape components and inner marine basins of Northern Eurasia during the last 130000 years. Atlas-monograph “Evolution of landscapes and climates of Northern Eurasia. Late Pleistocene–Holocene—elements of prognosis. II: General paleogeography”. GEOS, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  158. Velichko AA, Kononov YM, Faustova MA (2000) Geochronology, distribution and ice volume on the Earth during the Last Glacial Maximum: inferences from new data. Stratigr Geol Correl 8(1):3–16Google Scholar
  159. Velichko AA, Timireva SN, Kremenetski KV, MacDonald GM, Smith LC (2011) West Siberian Plain as a late glacial desert. Quat Int 237:45–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Vereshchagin NK (1977) Berelehskoe “kladbishche” mamontov. In: Vereshchagin NK (ed) Mamontovaya fauna Russkoy ravniny i Vostochnoy Sibiri. Proc Zool Inst Acad Sci USSR Leningrad 72:5–50Google Scholar
  161. Vereshchagin NK, Kuzmina IE (1977) Ostatki mlekopitayushchih iz paleoliticheskih stoyanok na Donu i verhnei Desne. In: Vereshchagin NK (ed) Mamontovaya fauna Russkoy ravniny i Vostochnoy Sibiri. Proc Zool Inst Acad Sci USSR Leningrad 72:77–110Google Scholar
  162. Vereshchagin NK, Ukraintseva VV (1985) The origin and stratigraphy of Berelyokh mammoth “burial ground”. Proc Zool Inst Acad Sci USSR Leningrad 131:104–112Google Scholar
  163. Waldron T (2009) Palaeopathology. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  164. Walker DA, Bockheim JG, Chapin FS III, Eugster W, Nelson FE, Ping CL (2001) Calcium-rich tundra, wildlife, and the “Mammoth Steppe”. Quat Sci Rev 20:149–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Willis KJ, van Andel TH (2004) Trees or no trees? The environments of central and eastern Europe during the Last Glaciation. Quat Sci Rev 23:2369–2387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Wojtal P (2001) The woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) remains from the Upper Palaeolithic site Kraków Spadzista Street (B). In: Cavarretta G, Gioia P, Mussi M, Palombo MR (eds) The world of elephants. Proc 1st Int Cong. CNR, Rome, pp 367–372Google Scholar
  167. Wojtal P (2007) Zooarchaeological studies of the Late Pleistocene sites in Poland. Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals of the Polish Academy of Science, KrakowGoogle Scholar
  168. Wojtal P, Sobczyk K (2005) Man and wooly mammoth at the Kraków Spadzista Street (B)—taphonomy of the site. J Archaeol Sci 32:193–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Wroe S, Field J, Grayson DK (2006) Megafaunal extinction: climate, humans and assumptions. Trends Ecol Evol 21(2):61–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Ytrehus B, Skagemo H, Stuve G, Sivertsen T, Handeland K, Vikoren T (1999) Osteoporosis, bone mineralization, and status of selected trace elements in two populations of Moose calves in Norway. J Wildl Dis 35(2):204–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Zatsepin ST (2001) Kostnaya patologia vzroslyh. Meditsyna, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  172. Zaytsev A (1893) Geologicheskiye issledovaniya vdol linii Sibirskoy zheleznoy dorogi v oblasti rek Yai i Kii. Gorny zhurnal, St. Petersburg 1:451–457Google Scholar
  173. Zenin VN, Leshchinskiy SV, Zolotarev KV, Grootes PM, Nadeau M-J (2006) Lugovskoe: geoarchaeology and culture of a Paleolithic site. Archaeol Ethnol Anthropol Eurasia 1(25):41–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Zhegallo VI, Kalandadze NN, Kuznetsova TV, Rautian AS (2001) Sudba megafauny Golarktiki v pozdnem antropogene. In: Rozanov AY (ed) Mamont i ego okruzhenie: 200 let izuchenia. GEOS, Moscow, pp 287–30Google Scholar
  175. Zuchiewicz W (1995) Selected aspects of neotectonics of the Polish Carpathians. Folia Quatern 66:145–204Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Mesozoic and Cenozoic Continental EcosystemsTomsk State UniversityTomskRussia

Personalised recommendations