Community-acquired serious bacterial infections in the first 90 days of life: a revisit in the era of multi-drug-resistant organisms
Infants in the first 90 days of life are more prone to develop serious bacterial infections (SBIs). Multi-drug-resistant organisms (MDROs) are emerging as important pathogens causing SBIs. We reviewed the epidemiology of SBIs in infants 0–90 days old and compared the clinical features, laboratory values and final outcome for SBIs due to MDROs vs. non-MDROs.
Episodes of culture-proven SBIs (bacteremia, urinary tract infections, or meningitis) with age at onset of 0–90 days during a 7-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Health care-associated infections were excluded. We collected demographics, clinical features, and laboratory and microbiology data. We compared clinical characteristics, laboratory data, microbiologic results and final outcome for SBIs due to MDROs vs. non-MDROs.
Ninety-four episodes (88 patients) including bacteremia (42.6%), urinary tract infections (54.3%) and meningitis (3.1%) were caused by Gram-negative bacteria (67%), and Gram-positive bacteria (33%). Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and GBS were the most common causes. MDROs caused SBIs in 39 patients (44.3%). SBIs due to MDROs were associated with more delay in providing targeted antimicrobial therapy compared to non-MDROs (74.4% vs. 0%, P ≤ 0.001), but no difference in case-fatality rate (12.8% vs. 12.2%, P = 1.0). Clinical features or basic laboratory values were not statistically different between the two groups.
The bacteriology of SBIs in the first 90 days of life is changing to include more MDROs, which causes more delay in providing targeted antimicrobial therapy. Awareness of the local epidemiology is crucial to ensure appropriate antibiotics are provided in a timely manner.
KeywordsMulti-drug-resistance organisms Neonates Serious bacterial infections Young infants
All authors have seen and approved the manuscript and contributed significantly to the study. DY contributed to the study design and primary idea, data collection, data analysis, drafting and final edit of the manuscript. TJ, SK, and RA each contributed to the primary idea and study design, data collection and editing the manuscript. WK and MA each contributed to the study design, data analysis and editing the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
This research has been approved by the IRB committee at Jordan University of Science and Technology (Project approval number 20170116).
Conflict of interest
No financial or nonfinancial benefits have been received or will be received from any party related directly or indirectly to the subject of this article.
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