Patient-specific three-dimensional printed heart models benefit preoperative planning for complex congenital heart disease
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Preoperative planning for children with congenital heart diseases remains crucial and challenging. This study aimed to investigate the roles of three-dimensional printed patient-specific heart models in the presurgical planning for complex congenital heart disease.
From May 2017 to January 2018, 15 children diagnosed with complex congenital heart disease were included in this study. Heart models were printed based on computed tomography (CT) imaging reconstruction by a 3D printer with photosensitive resin using the stereolithography apparatus technology. Surgery options were first evaluated by a sophisticated cardiac surgery group using CT images only, and then surgical plans were also set up based on heart models.
Fifteen 3D printed heart models were successfully generated. According to the decisions based on CT, 13 cases were consistent with real options, while the other 2 were not. According to 3D printed heart models, all the 15 cases were consistent with real options. Unfortunately, one child diagnosed with complete transposition of great arteries combined with interruption of aortic arch (type A) died 5 days after operation due to postoperative low cardiac output syndrome. The cardiologists, especially the younger ones, considered that these 3D printed heart models with tangible, physical and comprehensive illustrations were beneficial for preoperative planning of complex congenital heart diseases.
3D printed heart models are beneficial and promising in preoperative planning for complex congenital heart diseases, and are able to help conform or even improve the surgery options.
KeywordsComputed tomography Congenital heart disease Surgery Three-dimensional printing
JJX contributed to the conception and design, collection and assembly of data, and data analysis and interpretation. YJL contributed to the conception and design. JHW contributed to the conception and design, and provision of study materials or patients. WZX and ZS contributed to provision of study materials or patients. JZF and QS contributed to the administrative support. All the authors contributed to the writing of the manuscript, and approved the final version to be published.
This study was funded by Science Technology Department of Zhejiang Province of China (Grant number: 2016C54006).
Compliance with ethical standards
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed consent was obtained from all of the families of individual participants included in the study.
Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.
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