Effect of vitamin D treatment in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

  • Nadia Dehbokri
  • Gholamreza Noorazar
  • Aida Ghaffari
  • Gita Mehdizadeh
  • Parvin Sarbakhsh
  • Saba GhaffaryEmail author
Original Article



In this research the symptom improvement of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) of children was assessed by oral vitamin D administration in Tabriz, Iran.


In this double-blind, randomized clinical trials, 96 children (2–18 years) were enrolled to placebo and vitamin D groups. Children took vitamin D pearl (50,000 IU/week) or placebo for 6 weeks. Children, who had the change in methylphenidate dosage and received any anticonvulsants and corticosteroids were excluded from the research. ADHD symptoms were diagnosed by Conners parent rating scale (CPRS) test at baseline and after intervention. ADHD Conners divided into inattention (IA), hyperactivity/impulsivity (H/I) and combination type (C) subscales. Vitamin D serum level was assessed at baseline and after 8 weeks in both groups.


The differences between CPRS and its subscales were not significant at baseline (P > 0.05). The Conners IA score was decreased in vitamin D group (P < 0.05; adjusted with age and baseline values). ADHD Conners and all subscale scores reduced remarkably after intervention in patients with insufficient level of vitamin D compared to placebo (P < 0.05).


Oral vitamin D improved ADHD symptoms with a particular effect on inattention symptoms. In addition, symptoms related to all subscales were improved remarkably in patients with insufficient level of vitamin D. Vitamin D treatment in children with ADHD could be considered due to the expand benefit of vitamin D in body.


Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder Children Conners parent rating scale Vitamin D 



The authors would like to thank the Dana pharmaceutical company for providing pearl of vitamin D and its placebo for this research. We are sincerely grateful for the constructive comments and valuable suggestions of the anonymous reviewers.

Author contributions

ND contributed to the conception, data collation and manuscript preparation. GN conducted the study design and data collation. AG conducted the statistical analysis and manuscript preparation. GM contributed in the conception and data collation. PS conducted the statistical analysis. SG contributed in the design of the study, gave revisions of the manuscript and supervised the study. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript.


This study was funded by Tabriz University of Medical Sciences as a PharmD thesis. No financial or non-financial benefits have been received or will be received from any party related directly or indirectly to the subject of this article.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical approval

The research protocol of this study was approved by the local Ethics Committee of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran, on February 2016. This clinical trial was attributed in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT2017012826998N2). All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nadia Dehbokri
    • 1
    • 5
  • Gholamreza Noorazar
    • 2
  • Aida Ghaffari
    • 3
  • Gita Mehdizadeh
    • 1
    • 5
  • Parvin Sarbakhsh
    • 4
  • Saba Ghaffary
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Faculty of PharmacyTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  2. 2.Research Center of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  3. 3.Pediatrics Health Research CenterTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  4. 4.Road Traffic Injury Research CenterTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  5. 5.Department of Pharmacotherapy, Drug Applied Research CenterTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran

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