Effect of gluten free diet on gastrointestinal and behavioral indices for children with autism spectrum disorders: a randomized clinical trial
- 1.3k Downloads
Genetic and environmental factors are both responsible for the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Although epidemiological studies have been conducted to clarify the association between restriction diets and ASD, the conclusion remains unclear. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of gluten free diet (GFD) on gastrointestinal symptoms and behavioral indices in children with ASD.
In this randomized clinical trial, 80 children diagnosed with ASD by the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) were assigned into GFD (n=40) and regular diet (RD) (n=40) groups for 6 weeks. At the beginning and end of the intervention, the ROME Ш questionnaire for evaluating gastrointestinal symptoms and Gilliam Autism Rating Scale 2 questionnaire (GARS-2) for assessing psychometric properties were completed.
Of the 80 children, 53.9% had gastrointestinal abnormalities. In the GFD group, the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms decreased significantly (P<0.05) after intake of GFD (40.57% vs. 17.10%) but increased insignificantly in the RD group (42.45% vs. 44.05%). GFD intervention resulted in a significant decrease in behavioral disorders (80.03±14.07 vs. 75.82±15.37, P<0.05) but an insignificant increase in the RD group (79.92±15.49 vs. 80.92±16.24).
This study suggested that GFD may be effective in controlling gastrointestinal symptoms and ASD behaviors.
Keywordsautism behavior disorders/problems gastrointestinal system gluten free diet
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM5), 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, 2013.Google Scholar
- 2.CDC. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders. MMWR Surveill Summ 2012;61:1–18. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ ss6103a1.htm (accessed September 11, 2013).Google Scholar
- 15.Reichelt K, Knivsberg A, Lind G, Nødland M. Probable etiology and possible treatment of childhood autism. Brain Dysfunction 1991;4:308–319.Google Scholar
- 18.Mulloy A, Lang R, O’Reilly M, Sigafoos J, et al. Gluten-free and casein-free diets in the treatment of autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review. Res Autism Spect Dis 2009;217:2–12.Google Scholar
- 27.Samadi A, McConkey R. Indicators of Autism in Iranian Children. Intech 2013;1:29–48.Google Scholar
- 28.Sasanfar R, Toloie A. Standardizing and normalizing the autism diagnostic interview-Revised on Iranian Population. The Iranian Special Education Organisation, Tehran, Iran, 2006.Google Scholar
- 34.Prince Y. The association between children with Autism and gastrointestinal symptoms. McNair Scholars Research Journal 2013;6;88–104.Google Scholar
- 36.Millward C, Ferriter M, Calver S, Connell-Jones G. Glutenand casein-free diets for autistic spectrum disorder. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;2:1–12.Google Scholar
- 37.Millward C, FerriterM, Calver S, Connell-Jones G. Glutenand casein-free diets for autistic spectrum disorder. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008;2:1–24.Google Scholar
- 38.Seung H, Rogalski Y, Shankar M, Elder J. The Gluten-and Casein-free diet and Autism: communication outcomes from a preliminary double-blind clinical trial. J MED SPEECH-LANG PA 2007;15:337–345.Google Scholar