World Journal of Pediatrics

, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 101–107 | Cite as

Aluminum exposure and toxicity in neonates: a practical guide to halt aluminum overload in the prenatal and perinatal periods

  • Daniela Fanni
  • Rossano Ambu
  • Clara Gerosa
  • Sonia Nemolato
  • Nicoletta Iacovidou
  • Peter Van Eyken
  • Vassilios Fanos
  • Marco Zaffanello
  • Gavino Faa
Review Article



During the last years, human newborns have been overexposed to biologically reactive aluminum, with possible relevant consequences on their future health and on their susceptibility to a variety of diseases. Children, newborns and particularly preterm neonates are at an increased risk of aluminum toxicity because of their relative immaturity.

Data sources

Based on recent original publications and classical data of the literatures, we reviewed the aluminum content in mother’s food during the intrauterine life as well as in breast milk and infant formula during lactation. We also determined the possible role of aluminum in parenteral nutrition solutions, in adjuvants of vaccines and in pharmaceutical products. A special focus is placed on the relationship between aluminum overexposure and the insurgence of bone diseases.


Practical points of management and prevention are suggested. Aluminum sources that infants may receive during the first 6 months of life are presented. In the context of prevention of possible adverse effects of aluminum overload in fetal tissues during development, simple suggestions to pregnant women are described. Finally, practical points of management and prevention are suggested.


Pediatricians and neonatologists must be more concerned about aluminum content in all products our newborns are exposed to, starting from monitoring aluminum concentrations in milk- and soybased formulas in which, on the basis of recent studies, there is still too much aluminum.

Key words

aluminum fetus newborn toxicity 


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Copyright information

© Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniela Fanni
    • 1
  • Rossano Ambu
    • 1
  • Clara Gerosa
    • 1
  • Sonia Nemolato
    • 1
  • Nicoletta Iacovidou
    • 2
  • Peter Van Eyken
    • 3
  • Vassilios Fanos
    • 4
    • 6
  • Marco Zaffanello
    • 5
  • Gavino Faa
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PathologyUniversity Hospital San Giovanni di Dio, AOU Cagliari and University of CagliariCagliariItaly
  2. 2.Medical SchoolNational and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensGreece
  3. 3.Department of PathologyK.U. LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  4. 4.Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Puericulture Institute and Neonatal SectionAOU Cagliari and University of CagliariCagliariItaly
  5. 5.Department of PediatricsUniversity of VeronaVeronaItaly
  6. 6.Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Puericulture Institute and Neonatal SectionAOU Cagliari and University of CagliariMonserrato (CA)Italy

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