World Journal of Pediatrics

, Volume 9, Issue 4, pp 307–311

Effects of supervised exercise program on metabolic function in overweight adolescents

  • Marco Meucci
  • Carol Cook
  • Chelsea Diane Curry
  • Laura Guidetti
  • Carlo Baldari
  • Scott Robert Collier
Original article

Abstract

Background

Inactivity is a primary factor related to childhood obesity, yet aerobic exercise has been shown to prevent weight gain and improve fitness in adolescents. Moreover, children become less active during their summer break from school. This study compared the effects of 4 and 8 weeks of supervised summer activity versus an unsupervised summer break on metabolic function and fitness in adolescents.

Methods

Twenty-two adolescents were divided into 4-week (n=6, weight 48.1±14.9 kg, body fat 27.4±8.4%) and 8-week exercise groups (n=6, weight 43.4±10.9 kg, body fat 28.5±12.8%), that performed supervised, play-based physical activity, versus an age-matched 8 week control group that maintained their typical summer break (n=10, weight 41.7±10.0 kg, body fat 23.7±8.0%). Anthropometrics, resting energy expenditure (REE), resting heart rate (RHR) and peak aerobic capacity (VO2peak) were evaluated before and after the intervention (4 or 8 weeks).

Results

REE showed group differences in posttraining conditions (the 4-week group vs. the control group, 1220±169 vs. 1067±144 kcal/die, and the 8-week group vs. the control group, 1202±151 vs. 1067±144 kcal/die, P=0.047), but RHR decreased (pre-program vs. post program: 97±22 vs. 80±8 beat/min, P=0.001) and VO2peak significantly increased (pre-program vs. post program: 27.8±7.8 vs. 34.8±6.5 mL/kg/min, P=0.001) in the 8-week group compared to the control group.

Conclusions

Eight weeks of supervised play-based activity increased REE and VO2peak in adolescents with concomitant decreases in RHR. These data suggest that this novel model of exercise prescription could be considered world-wide by clinicians to improve fitness base in adolescents and help to combat the growing epidemic of childhood obesity.

Key words

cardiorespiratory fitness functional physiology overweight adolescents supervised exercise 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Field AE, Cook NR, Gillman MW. Weight status in childhood as a predictor of becoming overweight or hypertensive in early adulthood. Obes Res 2005;13:163–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Maffeis C, Zaffanello M, Schutz Y. Relationship between physical inactivity and adiposity in prepubertal boys. J Pediatr 1997;131:288–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nagel G, Wabitsch M, Galm C, Berg S, Brandstetter S, Fritz M, et al. Determinants of obesity in the Ulm Research on Metabolism, Exercise and Lifestyle in Children (URMEL-ICE). Eur J Pediatr 2009;168:1259–1267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dowda M, Ainsworth BE, Addy CL, Saunders R, Riner W. Environmental influences, physical activity, and weight status in 8- to 16-year-olds. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2001;155:711–717.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ludwig DS, Ebbeling CB, Pawlak DB. Childhood obesity: public-health crisis, common sense cure. Lancet 2002;360:473–482.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bellisle F, Rolland-Cachera MF. Three consecutive (1993, 1995, 1997) surveys of food intake, nutritional attitudes and knowledge, and lifestyle in 1000 French children, aged 9–11 years. J Hum Nutr Diet 2007;20:241–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    von Hippel PT, Powell B, Downey DB, Rowland NJ. The effect of school on overweight in childhood: gain in body mass index during the school year and during summer vacation. American J Public Health 2007;97:696–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Carrel AL, Clark RR, Peterson S, Eickhoff J, Allen DB. Schoolbased fitness changes are lost during the summer vacation. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2007;161:561–564.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    McCurdy LE, Winterbottom KE, Mehta SS, Roberts JR. Using nature and outdoor activity to improve children’s health. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care 2010;40:102–117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Colin-Ramirez E, Castillo-Martinez L, Orea-Tejeda A, Villa Romero AR, Vergara Castaneda A, Asensio Lafuente E. Waist circumference and fat intake are associated with high blood pressure in Mexican children aged 8 to 10 years. J Am Diet Assoc 2009;109:996–1003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Schack-Nielsen L, Molgaard C, Larsen D, Martyn C, Michaelsen KF. Arterial stiffness in 10-year-old children: current and early determinants. Br J Nutr 2005;94:1004–1011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Freedman DS, Dietz WH, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS. The relation of overweight to cardiovascular risk factors among children and adolescents: The Bogalusa heart study. Pediatrics 1999;103:1175–1182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lobelo F, Pate RR, Dowda M, Liese AD, Daniels SR. Cardiorespiratory fitness and clustered cardiovascular disease risk in U.S. adolescents. J Adolesc Health 2010;47:352–359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Andersen LB, Harro M, Sardinha LB, Froberg K, Ekelund U, Brage S, et al. Physical activity and clustered cardiovascular risk in children: a cross-sectional study (The European Youth Heart Study). Lancet 2006;368:299–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Anderssen SA, Cooper AR, Riddoch C, Sardinha LB, Harro M, Brage S, et al. Low cardiorespiratory fitness is a strong predictor for clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children independent of country, age and sex. Eur J Cardiovas Prev Rehabil 2007;14:526–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Andersen LB, Sardinha LB, Froberg K, Riddoch CJ, Page AS, Andersen SA. Fitness, fatness and clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in children from Denmark, Estonia and Portugal: The European Youth Heart Study. Int J Pediatr Obes 2008;3:58–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kolsgaard MLP, Joner G, Brunborg C, Anderssen SA, Tonstad S, Andersen LF. Reduction in BMI z-score and improvement in cardiometabolic risk factors in obese children and adolescents. The Oslo Adiposity Intervention Study — a hospital/public health nurse combined treatment. Bmc Pediatr 2011;11:47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Redinger RN. Is enhanced energy utilization the answer to prevention of excessive adiposity? J Ky Med Assoc 2009;107:211–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gately PJ, Cooke CB, Barth JH, Bewick BM, Radley D, Hill AJ. Children’s residential weight-loss programs can work: A prospective cohort study of short-term outcomes for overweight and obese children. Pediatrics 2005;116:73–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Torrance B, McGuire KA, Lewanczuk R, McGavock J. Overweight, physical activity and high blood pressure in children: a review of the literature. Vasc Health Risk Manag 2007;3:139–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Christodoulos AD, Flouris AD, Tokmakidis SP. Obesity and physical fitness of pre-adolescent children during the academic year and the summer period: effects of organized physical activity. Journal Child Health Care 2006;10:199–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rink JE, Hall TJ, Williams LH. Schoolwide physical activity: a comprehensive guide to designing and conducting programs. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2010.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Busscher I, Kingma I, de Bruin R, Wapstra FH, Verkerke GJ, Veldhuizen AG. Predicting the peak growth velocity in the individual child: validation of a new growth model. Euro Spine J 2012;21:71–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Robertson RJ, Goss FL, Aaron DJ, Utter AC, Nagle E. Omni scale rating of perceived exertion at ventilatory breakpoint by direct observation of children’s kinematics. Percept Mot Skills 2007;104:975–984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fernhall B, Figueroa A, Collier S, Goulopoulou S, Giannopoulou I, Baynard T. Resting metabolic rate is not reduced in obese adults with Down syndrome. Ment Ret 2005;43:391–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gately PJ, Cooke CB, Butterly RJ, Mackreth P, Carroll S. The effects of a children’s summer camp programme on weight loss, with a 10 month follow-up. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2000;24:1445–1452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Matvienko O, Ahrabi-Fard I. The effects of a 4-week afterschool program on motor skills and fitness of kindergarten and first-grade students. Am J Health Promot 2010;24:299–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Molnar D, Schutz Y. The effect of obesity, age, puberty and gender on resting metabolic rate in children and adolescents. Eur J Pediatr 1997;156:376–381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Leibel RL, Rosenbaum M, Hirsch J. Changes in energy expenditure resulting from altered body weight. N Engl J Med 1995;332:621–628.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    DeStefano RA, Caprio S, Fahey JT, Tamborlane WV, Goldberg B. Changes in body composition after a 12-wk aerobic exercise program in obese boys. Pediatr Diabetes 2000;1:61–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marco Meucci
    • 1
  • Carol Cook
    • 2
  • Chelsea Diane Curry
    • 2
  • Laura Guidetti
    • 1
  • Carlo Baldari
    • 1
  • Scott Robert Collier
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Health Science DepartmentUniversity of Rome “Foro Italico”BooneUSA
  2. 2.Health Leisure and Exercise Science DepartmentAppalachian State UniversityBooneUSA
  3. 3.051 Holmes Convocation CenterBooneUSA

Personalised recommendations