Foreskin development in 10 421 Chinese boys aged 0–18 years
Few studies on foreskin development and the practice of circumcision have been done in Chinese boys. This study aimed to determine the natural development process of foreskin in children.
A total of 10 421 boys aged 0 to 18 years were studied. The condition of foreskin was classified into type I (phimosis), type II (partial phimosis), type III (adhesion of prepuce), type IV (normal), and type V (circumcised). Other abnormalities of the genitalia were also determined.
The incidence of a completely retractile foreskin increased from 0% at birth to 42.26% in adolescence; however, the phimosis rate decreased with age from 99.7% to 6.81%. Other abnormalities included web penis, concealed penis, cryptorchidism, hydrocele, micropenis, inguinal hernia, and hypospadias.
Incomplete separation of foreskin is common in children. Since it is a natural phenomenon to approach the adult condition until puberty, circumcision should be performed with cautions in children.
Key wordsabnormalities circumcision external genitalia foreskin
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 2.Elder JS. Congenital anomalies of the genitalia. In: Walsh PC, Vaughan ED, Retik AB, et al (eds). Campbell’s urology, 7th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1998: 2120–2143.Google Scholar
- 3.Rajfer JS. Congenital anomalies of the testis and scrotum. In: Walsh PC, Vaughan ED, Retik AB, et al (eds). Campbell’s urology, 7th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1998: 2172–2192.Google Scholar
- 10.Hirji H, Charlton R, Sarmah S. Male circumcision: a review of the evidence. JMHG 2005;2:21–30.Google Scholar
- 14.State Council AIDS working Committee Office and UN Theme Group on HIV/AIDS in China. A joint assessment of HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in China. http://www.chinaids.org.cn/n1971/n2151/n32590.files/n32591.pdf (accessed February 2009)
- 15.World Health Organization, 2008. Report on the global AIDS epidemic. http://www.unaids.org/en/KnowledgeCentre/HIVData/GlobalReport/2008/2008_Global_report.asp (accessed August 20, 2008).
- 19.John Radcliffe Hospital Cryptorchidism Study Group. Cryptorchidism: a prospective study of 7500 consecutive male births, 1984–8. John Radcliffe Hospital Cryptorchidism Study Group. Arch Dis Child 1992;67:892–899.Google Scholar