Applied Geomatics

, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp 115–139 | Cite as

Methods, formalisms and tools for the semantic-based surveying and representation of architectural heritage

  • Livio De LucaEmail author
Original Paper


A synthesis is presented of several research works carried out at the MAP-Gamsau Laboratory (CNRS/MCC) within the last 10 years concerning the acquisition, the geometric modeling and the semantic enrichment of spatial data related to historic buildings through the design and the development of methods, formalisms and tools. Following the definition of a hybrid approach (combining photogrammetry and laser scanning) for the 3D reconstruction of building morphology, our research focuses on the definition of spatial information systems at the architectural scale (NUBES). These research works, carried out within the framework of the digitization plan of the French Ministry of Culture and Communication, aim to identify the potential of structuring heterogeneous information within semantically enriched 3D models of heritage buildings according to multiple contexts: the documentation of the state of conservation, the indexation and retrieval of iconographic sources, the analysis and representation of spatiotemporal changes.


Architectural heritage 3D reconstruction Semantics Information systems 


  1. Attene M, Robbiano F, Spagnuolo M, Falcidieno B (2009) Characterization of 3D shape parts for semantic annotation. Computer Aided Des 41(10):756–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bases de données Architecture et Patrimoine (2001) Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication. Last accessed December 2011
  3. Blaise JY, Dudek I (2008) Beyond graphics: information—an overview of Infovis practices in the field of the architectural heritage. Proc. of GRAPP 2008, Funchal, Madeira, Portugal, January 2008, pp 147–150Google Scholar
  4. Boehler W, Marbs A (2002) 3D scanning instruments. Proc. of the CIPA WG 6th Int. Workshop on Scanning for Cultural Heritage, Corfu, Greece, September 2002, recordingGoogle Scholar
  5. Brunetaud X, De Luca L, Badosa S, Beck K, Al-Mukhtar M (2010) A database gathering the mapping of degradations and the stonework dating in a 3D realistic model for the completion of a health record of monument. In: Proceedings of the 8th Int. Symp. on The Conservation of Monuments in the Mediterranean Basin. Patras, Greece, 31 May–2 June 2010Google Scholar
  6. Busarayat C, De Luca L, Véron P, Florenzano M (2008) An on-line system to upload and retrieve architectural documents based on spatial referencing. In: Proc. of the IDMME—virtual Concept 2008, 10–13 October 2008, Beijing, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  7. Corsini M, Dellepiane M, Poncho F, Scopigno R (2009) Image-to-geometry registration: a mutual information method exploiting illumination-related geometric properties. Computer Graphics Forum 28(7):1755–1764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Debevec P, Taylor C, Malik J (1996) Modeling and rendering architecture from photographs: a hybrid geometry and image-based approach. Proc. of SIGGRAPH, New Orleans, LA, August 1996, pp 11–20Google Scholar
  9. Dudek I, Blaise J-Y, Beninstant P (2003) Exploiting the architectural heritage’s documentation: a case study on data analysis and visualisation. In: Proc. of I-KNOW‘03. Graz, Austria, July 2003Google Scholar
  10. De Luca L (2006) Relevé et multi-représentations du patrimoine architectural. Définition d’une approche hybride de reconstruction 3D d’édifices. PhD Thesis, Arts et Métiers Paris Tech (CER d’Aix-en-Provence), ParisGoogle Scholar
  11. De Luca L, Deveau M. OMEGA: System and method for locating a photographics image. International Patent (WO/2010/146289), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, ParisGoogle Scholar
  12. De Luca L, Véron P, Florenzano M (2007) A generic formalism for the semantic modeling and representation of architectural éléments. Visual Computer 23(3):181–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. De Luca L, Driscu T, Peyrolles E, Labrosse D, Berthelot M (2008) Digital Anastylosis of the cloister of Saint-Guilhem-le-Désert. Research in Interactive Design, vol 3. Proceedings of IDMME-Virtual Concept. 10–13 October 2008, Beijing, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  14. De Luca L, Busarayat C, Stefani C, Renaudin N, Véron P, Florenzano M (2010) An iconography-based modeling approach for the spatio-temporal analysis of architectural heritage. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Int. Conf on Shape Modeling, Aix-en-Provence, France, 21–23 June 2010Google Scholar
  15. De Luca L, Busarayat C, Stefani C, Veron P, Florenzano M (2011) A semantic-based platform for the digital analysis of the architectural heritage. Computers Graphics 35(2):227–241, ElsevierCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Desargues G (1640) Bruillon projet d’exemple d’une manière universelle du S.G.D. touchant la pratique du trait à preuves pour la coupe des pierres en architecture. Bibliothèque Nationale de France (BNF), ParisGoogle Scholar
  17. El Hakim SF, Beraldin A, Picard M, Vettore A (2003) Effective 3D modeling of héritage sites. In: Proc. of the 4th Int. Conf. on 3D digital Imaging and Modeling, Banff, AB, Canada, October 2003, pp 302–309Google Scholar
  18. Falcidieno B, Spagnuolo MA (1998) Shape-abstraction paradigm for modelling geometry and semantics. Proc. of the Int. Conf. on Computer Graphics. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CAGoogle Scholar
  19. Fangi G, Fiori F, Gagliardini G, Malinverni E-S (2001) Fast and accurate close range 3D modelling by laser scanning system. Proceedings of the CIPA Int. Symp., Potsdam, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  20. Forssman E (1978) Palladio e le colonne. Bollettino del Centro Internazionale di Studi di Architettura Andrea Palladio, Vicenza, Italy, No. XXGoogle Scholar
  21. Guidi G, Remondino F, Russo M, Menna F, Rizzi A, Ercoli S (2009) A multi-resolution methodology for the 3D modeling of large and complex archaeological areas. Int J Architect Computing 7(1):40–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hartley R, Zisserman A (2004) Multiple view geometry in computer vision. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  23. Herbig U, Waldhusl P (1997) APIS: architectural photogrammetry information system. International Archives of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, vol XXXII, part 5C1B, Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands, pp 23–27Google Scholar
  24. Havemann S, Settgast V, Berndt R, Eide Ø, Fellner D (2008) The Arrigo showcase reloaded: towards a sustainable link between 3D and semantics. In: Proceedings of VAST, Columbus, OH, October 2008, pp 125–132)Google Scholar
  25. Horn B-K-P (1990) Relative orientation. Int J Computer Vision 4(1):59–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Knuyts K, Kruth J-P, Lauwers B, Neuckermans H, Pollefeys M, Li Q (2001) Vision on conservation: VIRTERF. Proc. of the Int. Symp. on Virtual and Augmented Architecture. Springer, Dublin, pp 125–132Google Scholar
  27. Lingua A, Piumati P, Rinaudo F (2003) Digital photogrammetry: a standard approach to cultural heritage survey. In: Proc. of the ISPRS Int. Workshop, Ancona, Italy, July 2003Google Scholar
  28. Manferdini AM, Remondino F, Baldissini S, Gaiani M, Benedetti B (2008) 3D modeling and semantic classification of archaeological finds for management and visualization in 3D archaeological databases. In: Proc. of the 14th Int. Conf on Virtual Systems and MultiMedia (VSMM), Cyprus, October 2008, pp 221–228Google Scholar
  29. Marbs A, Heinz G, Boehler W (2001) The potential of non-contact close range laser scanners for cultural heritage recording. In: Proc. of the CIPA Int. Symp., Potsdam, Germany, October 2001Google Scholar
  30. Martin D (2002) The CIDOC CRM: an ontological approach to semantic interoperability of metadata. AI Magazine, Special Issue, 24(3):75–92Google Scholar
  31. Migliari R, Docci L (2000) Geometria e architettura. Gangemi, RomeGoogle Scholar
  32. Monge G (1799) Géométrie descriptive. Bibliothèque Nationale de France (BNF), ParisGoogle Scholar
  33. Moscati A, Lombardo J, Valentino Losciale L, De Luca L (2011) Visual browsing of semantic descriptions of heritage buildings morphology. Proceedings of DMACH 2011, Digital Media and its Applications in Cultural Heritage. Amman, Jordan 13–15 March 2011Google Scholar
  34. Palladio A (1750) The four books of architecture (1965) Dover, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. Perouse de Montclos JM (1972) Architecture vocabulaire: principes d’analyse scientifique. Imprimerie Nationale, ParisGoogle Scholar
  36. Renolen A (1997) Modeling spatiotemporal information: the spatiotemporal object model. Norwegian University of of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway, pp 1–22Google Scholar
  37. Salemi G, Achilli V, Cervato C (2005) Data acquisition for cultural heritage navigation: integration of panoramic imaging, terrestrial laser scanning and anaglyphs. In: Proc. of the ISPRS working group V/5. Panoramic Photogrammetry Workshop, Berlin, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  38. Salonia P, Negri A (2000) ARKIS: an information system as a tool for analysis and representation of heterogeneous data on an architectural scale. In: Proc. of the WSCG 2000. Plzen, Czech Republic, February 2000Google Scholar
  39. Stefani C, De Luca L, Véron P, Florenzano M (2010) Time indeterminacy and spatiotemporal building transformations: an approach for architectural heritage understanding. Int J Interactive Design Manu 4(1):61–74Google Scholar
  40. “3D-Monuments” Project (2003) National 3D digitization plan of the French Architectural Heritage. Last accessed December 2011
  41. Thompson DW (1942) On Growth and Form. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  42. Tsai R (1986) An efficient and accurate camera calibration technique for 3D machine vision. Proc. of the IEEE Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, Austin, TX, 1986Google Scholar
  43. Vallée L (1853) Spécimen de coupe de pierres, contenant les principes généraux du trait et leur application aux murs, aux plate-bande, aux berceaux, aux voûtes sphériques, aux voûtes de révolution, aux voûtes à base polygonale. Bibliothèque Nationale de France (BNF), ParisGoogle Scholar
  44. Vallet J-M, De Luca L, Feillou M, Guillon O, Pierrot-Deseilligny M, Baudry O (2010) An interactive 3-dimensional database applied to the conservation of a painted chapel. In: Proc. of the 7th Int. Conf. on Science and Technology in Archaeology and Conservation, Petra, Jordan, 7–12 December 2010Google Scholar
  45. The NUBES Project Web Site (2005) Last accessed December 2011
  46. Wang A, Jepson A-D (1994) A new closed-form solution for absolute orientation. Proceedings of CVPR, Seattle, WA, June 1994, pp 129–134Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Società Italiana di Fotogrammetria e Topografia (SIFET) 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.MAP-Gamsau Laboratory (CNRS/MCC)Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’ArchitectureMarseille cedex 09France

Personalised recommendations